Summary of “How Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Science”

“The approach is to say, ‘I think I know what the underlying physical laws are that give rise to everything that I see in the system.’ So I have a recipe for star formation, I have a recipe for how dark matter behaves, and so on. I put all of my hypotheses in there, and I let the simulation run. And then I ask: Does that look like reality?” What he’s done with generative modeling, he said, is “In some sense, exactly the opposite of a simulation. We don’t know anything; we don’t want to assume anything. We want the data itself to tell us what might be going on.”
The apparent success of generative modeling in a study like this obviously doesn’t mean that astronomers and graduate students have been made redundant – but it appears to represent a shift in the degree to which learning about astrophysical objects and processes can be achieved by an artificial system that has little more at its electronic fingertips than a vast pool of data.
“I just think we as a community are becoming far more sophisticated about how we use the data. In particular, we are getting much better at comparing data to data. But in my view, my work is still squarely in the observational mode.”
These systems can do all the tedious grunt work, he said, leaving you “To do the cool, interesting science on your own.”
Whether Schawinski is right in claiming that he’s found a “Third way” of doing science, or whether, as Hogg says, it’s merely traditional observation and data analysis “On steroids,” it’s clear AI is changing the flavor of scientific discovery, and it’s certainly accelerating it.
Perhaps most controversial is the question of how much information can be gleaned from data alone – a pressing question in the age of stupendously large piles of it.
In The Book of Why, the computer scientist Judea Pearl and the science writer Dana Mackenzie assert that data are “Profoundly dumb.” Questions about causality “Can never be answered from data alone,” they write.
“Anytime you see a paper or a study that analyzes the data in a model-free way, you can be certain that the output of the study will merely summarize, and perhaps transform, but not interpret the data.” Schawinski sympathizes with Pearl’s position, but he described the idea of working with “Data alone” as “a bit of a straw man.” He’s never claimed to deduce cause and effect that way, he said.

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Summary of “America’s Defining Divide Isn’t Left vs. Right. It’s Old vs. Young.”

Older Americans are more likely to vote than millennials and Gen Xers, particularly.
Older voters have unique characteristics and specific interests that transcend the Democratic-Republican divide.
From their economic circumstances to their demographic makeup, the concerns of older voters are only going to become more prominent as the baby boom generation enters retirement.
Older voters have strikingly different wealth and income profiles than younger voters.
The widening gap between the economic realities of older and younger voters could become an even more prominent feature of American politics.
The largest gap between older and younger voters is on the issue of race.
From the existence of prejudice against whites to the necessity of affirmative action, older voters score higher on measures of racial resentment and are more likely to be persuaded by explicit appeals to whiteness.
“The baby boom generation is the most educated ever to reach old age. They lived through the civil rights movement and put more women into the workforce than any previous generation. If anyone can adjust to changing times, it’s them.”

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Summary of “Ramsey Orta filmed the killing of Eric Garner, so the police punished him”

FEARINGFORHISLIFERamsey Orta filmed the killing of Eric Garner.
The hardest part of her commitment to Orta is her fear of the phone ringing and someone on the other end telling her he is dead. Orta has reported constant abuse and harassment from correctional officers since he’s been locked up.
On August 2nd, 2014 – the day after the New York chief medical examiner officially ruled Eric Garner’s death a homicide – Ramsey Orta was running errands.
For a police department claiming not to be targeting Orta for his filming of Garner’s death, they sure brought it up a lot.
New York City Patrolmen’s Benevolent Association president Patrick J. Lynch released a statement saying: “The arrest of Ramsey Orta for criminal possession of a firearm only underscores the dangers that brought police officers to respond to a chronic crime condition in that community. Sadly, in the effort to keep neighborhoods like Tompkinsville safe, a tragedy occurred. But that doesn’t change the fact that police officers routinely risk their lives for the benefit of the community and that they have earned their support and understanding.”
Deja tells me she worries Orta will continue filming the police after his release.
Paranoia and fear form their own prison, one Orta is likely to live in for the rest of his life In April 2015, while Orta was in Rikers, a white North Charleston police officer, Michael Slager, shot and killed Walter Scott, an unarmed black man.
Having followed the Eric Garner case, Santana knew Orta had been incarcerated.

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Summary of “The Real Roots of Midlife Crisis”

Part of the answer likely involves what researchers call selection bias: unhappier people tend to die sooner, removing themselves from the sample.
A common hypothesis, and one that seems right to me, is alluded to by Carstensen and her colleagues in their 2011 paper: “As people age and time horizons grow shorter,” they write, “People invest in what is most important, typically meaningful relationships, and derive increasingly greater satisfaction from these investments.” Midlife is, for many people, a time of recalibration, when they begin to evaluate their lives less in terms of social competition and more in terms of social connectedness.
In my 40s, I found I was obsessively comparing my life with other people’s: scoring and judging myself, and counting up the ways in which I had fallen behind in a race.
Carstensen told me, “When the future becomes less distant, more constrained, people focus on the present, and we think that’s better for emotional experience. The goals that are chronically activated in old age are ones about meaning and savoring and living for the moment.” These are exactly the changes that K. and others in my own informal research sample reported.
“As people perceive the future as increasingly constrained, they set goals that are more realistic and easy to pursue.” For me, the expectation of scaling ever greater heights has faded, and with it my sense of disappointment and failure.
He used a German longitudinal survey, with data from 1991 to 2004, that, unusually, asked people about both their current life satisfaction and their expected satisfaction five years hence.
To his own surprise, he found the same result regardless of respondents’ economic status, generation, and even whether they lived in western or eastern Germany: younger people consistently and markedly overestimated how satisfied they would be five years later, while older people underestimated future satisfaction.
What’s more, Schwandt found that in between those two periods, during middle age, people experienced a sort of double whammy: satisfaction with life was declining, but expectations were also by then declining.

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Summary of “The Surprising, Shrimp-less History of Aguachile”

In the last several years, aguachile – defined by the Larousse culinary encyclopedia as “Ceviche of raw shrimp mixed with lime juice, red onion, pepper, cucumber, chile piquín or chopped green chile” – has emerged as one of Mexico’s most popular restaurant dishes.
In Sinaloa, you’ll meet people who define aguachile by the type and size of the shrimp.
For Velázquez, “Confusing aguachile with the shrimp is a way of erasing the indigenous cultures and the whole story of mestizaje that created it.”
No one quite knows when aguachile became a shrimp dish.
Fernando Covarrubias, a close friend of Valle’s and owner of a catering company in Los Mochis, told me that as recently as 20 years ago, the dish we call aguachile went by another name – camarones ahogados, or drowned shrimp.
In the town’s fortified, pastel-colored center, we met Valle’s friend, César Echegaray, for lunch at his restaurant, where we ate giant grilled river shrimp and several variations on aguachile.
If aguachile has become Sinaloa’s most emblematic dish, that’s in large part because shrimp has become its most emblematic export.
The next day I asked Castro if he’d ever heard aguachile called “Ahogados.” I asked if he thought the dish we call aguachile and the word itself had developed separately and then, at some unknowable moment, come together.

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Summary of “Interview: John Mulaney on ‘SNL,’ Broadway, Dave Becky”

We may never know whether or not John Mulaney wrote for Saturday Night Live, but one thing’s for sure: He’s one of the nicest and funniest comedians working today.
John Mulaney February 28, 2019 People are still tweeting at me trying to argue that Mulaney definitely wrote for SNL, but I’m not seeing any new arguments or proof, so I think it’s time to move on.
The headline I used for the post was “Hey SNL, Please Hire This John Mulaney Kid.” And on Facebook, there were comments from a couple guys saying, “Um, he wrote for SNL,” or, “You don’t even know that?” – “Megh, come on, you should know this.” So I just kind of Oh, that’s great.
You know the “John Mulaney as” meme where people post screenshots from your specials related to a certain theme? Or just the general idea of being turned into a reaction GIF? What is it like to experience that happening to you? Is it weird to see yourself meme-ified?It sounds like mummified, which is I’ve never heard it used that way.
In terms of the using quotes thing, I saw one of them that was Shakespeare plays, and I was embarrassed because I didn’t know enough about the plays to get how the quotes of mine matched up.
You know, it’s a wonderful song, but something about the lyrics and the makeup of the audience it was definitely a unique thing.
I’m not sure if you know Natalie Walker, but she’s a very funny comedian who tweeted recently that she wants you and Rachel Bloom to host the Tonys together.
You know, look, I don’t know if anyone’s offering it to us, but We’ll take it, and we only have a small rider.

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Summary of “What Are Dreams? Here Are the Predominant Theories.”

For all the commonalities dreams exhibit, they vary across time-people who grew up watching black-and-white TV are more likely to dream in black and white -and culture.
A 1958 study determined that compared with Japanese people, Americans dreamed more about being locked up, losing a loved one, finding money, being inappropriately dressed or nude, or encountering an insane person.
Japanese people were more likely to dream about school, trying repeatedly to do something, being paralyzed with fear, or “Wild, violent beasts.”
If human dreams sound bleak, bear in mind that even negative ones can have positive effects.
In a study of students taking a French medical-school entrance exam, 60 percent of the dreams they had beforehand involved a problem with the exam, such as being late or leaving an answer blank.
Those who reported dreams about the exam, even bad ones, did better on it than those who didn’t.
So the next time you dream about an education-related sexual experience in which you are both falling and being chased, don’t worry: It’s probably totally meaningless.
This article appears in the April 2019 print edition with the headline “Study of Studies: Bad Dreams Are Good.”.

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Summary of “Women Do Ask for More Money at Work. They Just Don’t Get It.”

Having grown up on go-get-’em-girls magazine articles and legal dramas fronted by high-powered career women, I just assumed that the next step for me was to stride into my boss’ office and ask for more money.
In a 2017 study titled Do Women Ask?, researchers were surprised to find that women actually do ask for raises as often as men – we’re just more likely to be turned down.
In 2003, Babcock co-authored an era-defining book called Women Don’t Ask.
Her book and the studies underpinning it have been cited ever since as evidence of women’s reticence to ask for more in the workplace.
Unlike other studies that have been carried out in this area, the Do Women Ask? researchers had more detailed data that revealed a crucial fact: Women are far more likely than men to work in jobs where salary negotiation isn’t necessarily possible, such as low-skilled hourly wage jobs or part-time roles.
Previous studies that reached the “Women don’t ask” conclusion often failed to account for certain types of jobs being dominated by one gender, focusing instead on the overall number of men or women who’d reported salary negotiations, which – given the number of women who work jobs with “Non-negotiable” salaries – skewed their findings.
The Do Women Ask? study, on the other hand, found that when comparing men and women who do similar jobs, women actually ask for raises at the same rates as men.
Now for the bad news: Both McKinsey’s research and the Do Women Ask? study found that while men and women ask for pay raises at broadly similar rates, women are more likely to be refused or suffer blowback for daring to broach the topic.

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Summary of “Uniqlo Is Gap for Millennials”

Quality isn’t an attribute typically associated with fast fashion, but Uniqlo has also managed to build a reputation for durability.
Uniqlo can’t promise anything approaching that longevity, but in an era of disposable fashion, a Uniqlo garment, made from hearty materials and cut in a timeless style, can feel like an investment piece.
Like a mountain outfitter, Uniqlo touts the use of a number of signature technologies in its clothing.
HEATTECH, marketed as an innovative insulating system, and AIRism, which is promoted as moisture-wicking, are woven into a variety of Uniqlo staples-socks, underwear, camisoles, leggings, pants-supposedly making them more comfortable and resilient than competitors’ products.
More than 800 of the brand’s stores are in Japan-where Uniqlo, by its own estimates, accounts for about 6.5 percent of the total apparel market.
To achieve the kind of dominance in the U.S. that the company enjoys closer to home, Uniqlo will need to grow significantly.
“They have less brand awareness.” Many Americans have never heard of Uniqlo, or don’t know how to pronounce it.
As Uniqlo learned when it arrived on American shores, first impressions can be hard to manage.

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Summary of “Mansa Musa: The richest man who ever lived”

“Contemporary accounts of Musa’s wealth are so breathless that it’s almost impossible to get a sense of just how wealthy and powerful he truly was,” Rudolph Butch Ware, associate professor of history at the University of California, told the BBC. Mansa Musa was “Richer than anyone could describe”, Jacob Davidson wrote about the African king for Money.com in 2015.
The 10 richest men of all time Mansa Musa wealth incomprehensible.
Mansa Musa left such a memorable impression on Cairo that al-Umari, who visited the city 12 years after the Malian king, recounted how highly the people of Cairo were speaking of him.
On his way back home, Mansa Musa passed through Egypt again, and according to some, tried to help the country’s economy by removing some of the gold from circulation by borrowing it back at extortionate interest rates from Egyptian lenders.
There is no doubt that Mansa Musa spent, or wasted, a lot of gold during his pilgrimage.
Mansa Musa had put Mali and himself on the map, quite literally.
After Mansa Musa died in 1337, aged 57, the empire was inherited by his sons who could not hold the empire together.
“The history of the medieval period is still largely seen only as a Western history,” says Lisa Corrin Graziose, director of the Block Museum of Art, explaining why the story of Mansa Musa is not widely known.

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