Summary of “Chicago’s Awful Divide”

The disconnect is why Andrew Diamond, the author of Chicago on the Make, has called Chicago “a combination of Manhattan smashed against Detroit.”
There were 11,646 retail jobs in the Back of the Yards neighborhood on Chicago’s near South Side in 1970, according to a report by the Great Cities Institute at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Around 40 percent of black 20-to-24-year-olds in Chicago are out of work and out of school today, compared with 7 percent of white 20-to-24 year-olds in Chicago.
Murders in Chicago increased by 58 percent between 2015 and 2016, and the number of nonfatal shootings grew by 43 percent, according to the University of Chicago Crime Lab.
In Chicago, unlike many global cities, the neighborhoods that struggled 30 years ago are still the neighborhoods that struggle today.
So while wealth is creeping into some poor neighborhoods in cities like New York or Los Angeles as upper-class people move back to cities, less gentrification has taken place in poor, black neighborhoods in Chicago.
In a study of Chicago published in the American Sociological Review, Sampson found that Chicago neighborhoods that were more than 40 percent black didn’t gentrify.
Dawson told me, “My mother was a big advocate of me getting out of the neighborhood.” Rather than going to his struggling neighborhood school, Dawson attended high school in the wealthy Lincoln Park neighborhood of Chicago.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Those 2-Minute Walk Breaks? They Add Up”

Some of the scientists working on the new exercise guidelines decided that they would need to mount a major new study themselves.
For the new study, which was published this month in the Journal of the American Heart Association, the scientists chose data about 4,840 men and women past the age of 40 who had worn activity trackers.
Using the accelerometer readouts, the scientists determined how many minutes per day, in total, each person had spent in moderate or vigorous physical activity.
If it were shorter than five minutes, it was considered to be sporadic physical activity, such as walking down the hallway or up a brief flight of stairs.
If people walked continuously for five minutes or longer, meaning in exercise bouts, they lowered their risk of dying young.
“The message is that all physical activity counts,” says Dr. William Kraus, a professor at Duke University who conducted the study with researchers from the National Cancer Institute.
“The little things that people do every day,” like walking from their cars to the office or climbing a flight of stairs, “Can and do add up and affect the risk for disease and death,” he says.
“If you can’t go for a long walk,” he says, “a few short walks are likely to be just as good for you.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “This Common Word Makes You Sound More Negative Than You Want To”

Typically, “But” follows a more positive statement and signals a note of disagreement, opposition, or confused thinking that’s just around the corner.
“And” introduces a more collaborative response and positions you as a positive, friendly colleague who’s shifting the conversation in a different direction, not turning it upside down.2.
You might tell your boss, “I can do the creative for this campaign, but I’ll need more time.” You may be right, but using “But” here undercuts the positive message you just delivered: You would be available if not for this one thing.
It’s possible to communicate your caveat much more positively.
Someone at a meeting might say, “We could take that approach with this client, but we could try a different angle, too. What do you all think?” Or a job candidate might tell an interviewer, “I know I have the skills required for this position, but I can see that there will be new challenges, too. I’m confident I can handle them by drawing on my experience, though.” This phrasing makes the speakers sound unnecessarily tentative and confused.
You might tell your coworkers, “Our gross revenues remained solid this quarter, but our profits declined.” Even a straightforward statement like this leaves your listeners to wonder which metric is more important-revenues or profits.
It’s a tiny, completely unavoidable three-letter word that says more about you than you might think.
Pay a little more attention to what you say, and you may find yourself using “But” a lot less-and sounding infinitely more positive as a result.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Research: The Industrial Revolution Left Psychological Scars That Can Still Be Seen Today”

Today, millions of people live in such regions that once brought together large-scale coal-based industries, for example in the old industrial north of the UK and the so-called Rust Belt in the U.S. Given that these historical industries had dominated the economic and social life of these regions for such a long time, we wanted to explore whether they continue to influence the people currently living there.
Our study, an interdisciplinary collaboration between psychologists, historians, and economic geographers, examined whether people in former industrial regions in the U.K. and the U.S. demonstrated more markers of “Psychological adversity” than people in other regions.
To come to more causal conclusions, we needed to determine that a region’s industrial history is what caused residents to have these personality traits today, rather than regions with a certain personality structure attracting large-scale industries during the Industrial Revolution.
Even among these industrial centers – which are likely to have emerged owing to their proximity to coal, and not to any pre-existing personality trends – we observed lower well-being and more adverse personality traits, consistent with idea that a region’s industrial history affects its personality structure.
There are a couple reasons to think this: First, during the Industrial Revolution there might have been a certain “Genetic founder effect” at play – that is, the massive influx of a specific personality type into the emerging and quickly growing industrial centers.
Such a massive influx might have established an initial level of psychological adversity in these industrial regions during the Industrial Revolution, which would affect and shape the personality structure of subsequent generations in these regions.
When we compared people who grew up and stayed in old coal regions with people who grew up there but later left, we found that those who left scored lower in neuroticism and higher in conscientiousness and in aspects of extraversion.
While massive industrialization brought unprecedented technological and economic progress, it also left a psychological legacy that continues to shape the personality traits and well-being of people currently in these regions.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A Little-Known Hack to Learn a New Skill in a Fraction of the Time”

Deliberate practice refers to the intensely focused practice of a skill, habit, or ability.
To practice deliberately, you have to break down skills into blocks of discrete micro-skills, map out the order in which you need to learn those micro-skills, and closely monitor your progress.
For some skills, it can be easy to find proven curricula to guide your deliberate practice.
Ask yourself, “Where do I anticipate having an opportunity in the course of my actual day-to-day business life, to practice this skill?” Maybe you can practice this new micro-skill during a conversation with an employee, a meeting with your management team, or a phone call with a vendor.
Then consider what it would look like for you to start practicing this new micro-skill.
Namely, what were two, three, or four things that you did well? And what was one specific lesson that you learned from this practice session-something that you’d like to handle differently next time?
If you practice it every day for three or four days a week, you’ll find that you can acquire new skills with incredible rapidity.
These are the five elements that transform “Practice” into “Deliberate practice.” Good luck using them to speed up your development of your staff.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Mary H.K. Choi’s ‘Emergency Contact’ Exalts Digital Love”

Sam texts Penny asking for fashion advice; Penny texts Sam about how much she hates maraschino cherries.
How did you think about what kind of tone you wanted for Penny and Sam’s texts?
If you do lean on text to do the heavy lifting in terms of creating a safe and intimate space for them, it had to not feel like text.
Beck: There’s a super interesting paradox about texting that I’ve been thinking about lately.
Americans text more than they call, and texting is the primary form of communication for most people, especially younger generations.
Choi: Penny is so trusting with such a tiny social circle that she has wallpaper push notifications for her texts.
In the book, every time Penny and Sam have some kind of new communication, moving from texting to phone calls or seeing each other in person, they call it “Escalating.” You wouldn’t have as many levels to escalate up through in the past because it was only phone or in person and that’s it.
You’re like, “Oh I won’t call them because it’s so rude of me to want my friend to carve out 15 minutes to talk to me.” So you text instead. And it’s kind of sad. Choi: It always reminds me of the Looney Tunes [gophers].

The orginal article.

Summary of “Our Favorite Board Games for Adults: Reviews by Wirecutter”

Sheriff of Nottingham: Recommended by several staffers, this bluffing party game is a lot of fun once you get the hang of it, but it takes longer to master than our picks.
It took us far longer to play than the estimated time on the box, and players can “Die” with zero points and then have to wait out the rest of the game.
King of Tokyo: Wirecutter writer Liz Thomas loves this game, which has a host of wacky characters, from zombies to aliens, that battle players to become the King of Tokyo.
Kingdom Builder: We dismissed this tile-laying, settlement-building game because our experts said there were better games in this genre, and it has a weaker Board Game Geek rating-7.0 out of 10, across 15,000 ratings-than similar games like Carcassonne and Catan.
Betrayal at House on the Hill: We think Betrayal at House on the Hill is too complex for beginners, and we’ve seen better advanced cooperative games.
Mysterium is a cooperative deduction game that Wirecutter staffers like, but compared with our party-game picks, it has a drawn-out playing time and low replay value.
We like Qwixx a lot, but dismissed it in favor of party games that could accommodate more players.
Azul typically costs $80, making it one of the most expensive games we found.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What smartphone photography is doing to our memories”

The seams of our edited memories are silently sealed; we often can’t remember what we can’t remember.
I’ve been wondering what happens to our memories when we start to rely on smartphones more and more to document our lives.
At the same time, new research suggests that cameras can also be used to enhance our memories of certain experiences.
How photo taking may mess with our memories The first step to forming a lasting memory is to pay attention.
How much of my life do I want remembered purely by my brain? Another reason taking photos may diminish our memories is an idea called cognitive offloading.
Alixandra Barasch is a cognitive scientist at NYU. In her work, she finds that, yes, incessant smartphone camera use can lead to lapses in memory.
In 2011, Fairfield University psychologist Linda Henkel found in a experiment that when participants were simply told to take photos in a museum exhibit, their memories for the object and the details about them were diminished.
If we want to hold on to certain memories, it’s going to take some mental effort.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Devastating Loophole That Sticks Car Buyers With Interest Rates That Would Be Otherwise Illegal”

Typically, when a car buyer finances a purchase through a dealer, they sign what’s called a retail installment sales contract, or RIC, a transaction in which the consumer agrees to make a fixed number of payments over time, plus interest, for the car.
In recent years, New York lawmakers have toyed with making significant changes but to little avail, leaving car buyers like Guerrero-Roa exposed to auto dealers who set interest rates as they please.
The problem, attorneys and consumer advocates say, is that car dealer operations are so intertwined with financial institutions that would otherwise be subject to the state’s usury law.
New York law says it would be a felony for a bank to directly provide a loan with a 25 percent interest rate, but if it purchases a RIC from a car dealer with a rate that high, it’s perfectly fine.
In a report last year, for example, New York City’s Department of Consumer Affairs recommended applying stronger interest rate caps for RICs “To reduce unscrupulous and overzealous used car dealer behavior.”
There’s no exact figure on how many New York consumers obtained an indirect auto loan that could violate the state’s usury law, but it’s clear that car buyers in the state are susceptible to higher costs due to the lack of a maximum interest rate cap for auto dealers.
A 2014 report by the National Independent Automobile Dealers Association found that New Yorkers made $45.5 billion in automobile purchases that year, and a vast majority of those sales were made through dealers who provided car buyers financing from an indirect lender.
That means nearly one out of every five car buyers in the state could be subjected to an auto dealer that offers financing at seemingly usurious interest rates.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Dear Therapist: My Son’s Career Plan Is Impractical”

A few months ago, on a college tour, our 18-year-old son announced that he had found his purpose and future career: He wants to do stand-up comedy.
The fact is, he’s got some talent in this area.
He’s comfortable onstage, he’s a great physical comedian, he can do accents, he’s charming and funny.
At the same time, at 18, he’s undisciplined, he’s a procrastinator, and he gets debilitating migraine headaches when he is sleep-deprived, dehydrated, malnourished, or stressed.
Thankfully, he’s not saying, “Mom, I’m skipping college and heading to New York City, and I want you to support me financially while I pursue this dream.” He wants to go to a small college, take theater and writing classes, and take advantage of opportunities to be funny onstage during the “Safe” years of college.
He’s passionate about comedy and thoughtful about how much risk he can tolerate.
In the world you both live in, there are people just like your son who have talent and drive and eventually find success doing the very thing they love most.
Even if your son doesn’t become the next Chris Rock or Jerry Seinfeld, he can leverage his charisma and confidence onstage and his ability to write well and make people laugh into a range of professions that seek those skills: public speaker, trial litigator, advertising copywriter, professor, sitcom writer, or entrepreneur, to name just a few.

The orginal article.