Summary of “What Happened to Jim Carrey?”

Last week, Jim Carrey made his first public appearance in many months on Jimmy Kimmel Live.
This felt like a familiar Jim Carrey Moment for an actor who has often served as an activating agent on talk and award shows, disrupting otherwise dull settings with droll, anarchic, or downright subversive shtick.
Don’t get me wrong, Jim Carrey is a great character, and I was lucky to get the part.
Carrey, who is an executive producer on the show, made his name in that scene after working through Canadian comedy clubs as a teenager, and he is sentimental about developing his persona at places like the Comedy Store during that period.
Not every Jim Carrey movie was the same thing, but seeing a new Jim Carrey movie always meant something.
Four years ago for Grantland, Steven Hyden wrote, “Carrey was following the Hollywood playbook: Be a comedian who gets on a TV show, be a TV star that gets his own movie, be a comedy movie star who becomes a movie-movie star, be a movie star who becomes an award-winning movie star. Every step of the way, Carrey was able to locate the next ‘To what?’ destination.” One year later, in the sixth edition of his New Biographical Dictionary of Film, the historian David Thomson wrote this lightly tragic encomium of the actor: “He has U.S. citizenship now, but no Oscars - he also holds a strange place, almost ‘failed genius,’ a phenomenon, but so often disappointed and depressed at what he has done.”
There is something sad about Jim Carrey now, the crow’s feet deepening around that Silly Putty face, the twinkle in his eye slightly dimmed.
Jim Carrey was the first guy to make $20 million for a movie.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How You Define the Problem Determines Whether You Solve It”

How could so many people have missed the solution to the problem for so long? And how in the world did the first person come up with that solution at all?
Most people who come up with creative solutions to problems rely on a relatively straightforward method: finding a solution inside the collective memory of the people working on the problem.
The key to this method is to get the right information out of memory to solve the problem.
When doing creative problem solving, the statement of the problem is the cue to memory.
In order to generate a variety of possible solutions to a problem the problem solver can change the description of the problem in ways that lead new information to be drawn from memory.
This way of describing a vacuum is that it generalizes the problem by removing some of the specific components typically used to solve it.
A radically new solution to a problem requires a new problem statement.
So how do you create the problem statement you need to find a solution to your business problem? Unfortunately, there is no ideal problem statement.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Nature Manages Its Information”

Shouldn’t information in biological systems be handled messily, and wasted? In fact, many biological computations are so perfect that they bump up against the mathematical limits of efficiency; genius is our inheritance.
A developing embryo must self-direct the rapid division, migration, and specialization of its constituent cells based on the information stored in DNA. Cells diverge from one another to grow in different ways, depending on their position in the embryo.
The question is, how quickly and effectively can spatial information be communicated in order for development to unfold properly? Alan Turing, the father of modern computing, was fascinated by the idea that life might be reducible to mathematical laws, and tackled this question in the early 1950s.
His prediction of a chemical system of information management was proven true decades later with the first discovery of a morphogen in fruit flies, called bicoid.
Its body must learn how to sample and integrate both external and internal information.
The BrainThe brain represents the height of biological information processing and transmission.
Neurons code information with binary electrical events called spikes, shocking one another like tiny batteries.
Most recently, a study1 published in Nature in October 2013 showed that activity within dendrites shapes the information processed by that neuron.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Climate Science Meets a Stubborn Obstacle: Students”

Classroom Culture WarsAs more of the nation’s teachers seek to integrate climate science into the curriculum, many of them are reckoning with students for whom suspicion of the subject is deeply rooted.
In rural Wellston, a former coal and manufacturing town seeking its next act, rejecting the key findings of climate science can seem like a matter of loyalty to a way of life already under siege.
Public-school science classrooms are also proving to be a rare place where views on climate change may shift, research has found.
The Alliance for Climate Education, which runs assemblies based on the consensus science for high schools across the country, received new funding from a donor who sees teenagers as the best means of reaching and influencing their parents.
At Wellston, where most students live below the poverty line and the needle-strewn bike path that abuts the marching band’s practice field is known as “heroin highway,” climate change is not regarded as the most pressing issue.
Including a handful of red ones, have recently begun requiring students to learn that human activity is a major cause of climate change, but few, if any, have provided a road map for how to teach it, and most science teachers, according to one recent survey, spend at most two hours on the subject.
Chagrined to learn that none of his students could recall a school visit by a scientist, Mr. Sutter hosted several graduate students from nearby Ohio University.
As an alternative, Gwen took an online class for environmental science credit, which she does not recall ever mentioning climate change.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Something is wrong with Connecticut.”

Something has gone wrong with Connecticut, the golden boy of New England.
On Wednesday, health insurance giant Aetna announced it will move its headquarters out of the state capital, Hartford, where the company has been since 1853.
“We are in negotiations with several states regarding a headquarters relocation, with the goal of broadening our access to innovation and the talent that will fill knowledge economy-type positions,” the company said in a statement.
Gov. Dannel Malloy, a Democrat, told reporters that the state had made offers to Aetna CEO Mark Bertolini, including proposals to invest in Hartford, adapt the state’s workforce development programs around the company’s needs, and make the state’s health insurance exchanges more insurer-friendly.
Hartford is an insurance town, “America’s filing cabinet.” New Haven is a college town and the state’s cultural capital.
The bad news is that as the state’s budget deficit grows, the response from Hartford has been to put more obligations on struggling cities rather than on the financial sector.
Connecticut’s metropolises are already impoverished and dangerous, starved by decades of suburban separatism and victims of the state’s highly segregated school system.
Now, in a time of budget stress and ongoing population loss, Republicans are pushing for the state to recover its status as a New England tax haven.

The orginal article.

Summary of “China is developing a warship of naval theorists’ dreams”

Post-Cold War naval theorists have long dreamed of recreating the old battleships’ power through massive “Arsenal ships,” or warships carrying hundreds of guided missiles that could fire at land and sea targets.
What’s the big deal about an underwater arsenal vessel? Well submerging all or even most of a large warship would reduce its radar and visual signature, as well as protect it against most missile threats.
There are two concepts in circulation: one is a high-speed warship with much of its hull submerged but otherwise has a functional superstructure with defense weapons and radar, the other is almost completely submerged arsenal ship with two conning towers.
The scale of the designs are significant; either ship would displace roughly about 20,000 tons at full load. The submersible warship has four stages: submerged, partial exposure of the superstructure, raising the hull to the ‘waterline’ and as a low draft, and operating as a high-speed hydroplane.
Even on his deathbed, leading naval engineer Professor Dong Wei Cai continued to work on a key aspect of the arsenal ship design: the high-speed wave hydroplane.
When traveling with a high-speed naval taskforce, the arsenal ship will sacrifice stealth to use its flat hull bottom to hydroplane at high speeds, cutting across the waves like a speedboat or amphibious armored vehicle.
An arsenal ship can rely on the carrier’s airwing and surface warship escorts to protect it against airborne threats, while providing the carrier group hundreds of extra missile launchers holding anything from air-defense rockets to land-attack cruise missiles.
Chinese research institutes have been testing sub-models of both arsenal ship configurations since 2011, including open-water tests for the hydroplane arsenal ship and laboratory tests for the arsenal submarine.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Facebook’s Role in European Elections Under Scrutiny”

Facebook provides little information on how political parties use ads to reach undecided voters on the site.
The political ads shown to Mr. Dodd are being tallied by WhoTargetsMe?, a nonpolitical group that designed a digital tool to monitor Facebook’s role ahead of the British election.
Questions over the social network’s role in politics are particularly raw in Britain, where outside groups were accused of spending lavishly on Facebook during a heated campaign before a referendum on the country’s membership the European Union.
“Political advertising is fundamentally different; there’s a lot of concern about what’s being seen on Facebook,” said Sam Jeffers, the group’s co-founder and a former digital media strategist.
In the buildup to the election the data showed that the Liberal Democrats – who are likely to remain a minority presence in Parliament – posted the largest number of political ads on Facebook.
The number of ads seen by WhoTargetsMe? volunteers has also roughly doubled in the last month, though political messages still represented 2 percent of overall ads displayed in Facebook feeds, according to the group’s analysis.
The social networking giant also sponsored get-out-the-vote campaigns, and encouraged political groups to create Facebook pages to promote their messages.
The role of companies like Facebook in spreading online falsehoods is limited in Germany, Mr. Scott said, because social media does not play as significant a role in everyday politics as it does in the United States.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Leaving Social Media Taught Me How Broken The News Cycle Is”

It wasn’t news to me that I used social media for procrastination purposes, but without it, I found myself lacking an easy source for distractions.
I still consumed the news – in old-fashioned print and a few news apps – but I was taking it in without being told how to feel, and I was reading more stories that weren’t the emotion-provoking ones that most often seem to get shared in my feeds.
Social media is opinion-oriented, and people are quick to comment without verifying and judge and share without reading.
The leggings incident is the kind of fast-moving story that quickly takes over social media, and after opting out of this news-of-now cycle, I’ve come to believe that distractions like these leave me less informed.
Without social media focusing me on the news of the instant, I consumed news in a slower, less frantic fashion.
I never made a public announcement about my social media break, and so I missed announcements and news from people outside my inner circle.
For me, social media is a passive way of connecting with people, and I liked how my friends and family called and texted me more often when they knew they couldn’t reach me on Facebook.
Following people on social media often feels like voyeuristically looking in on their lives, and I’d much prefer to actively participate.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Understanding the Limitations of Maps”

We just have to understand and respect the inherent limitations of maps whose territories may have changed.
Jerry Brotton, in his book A History of the World in Twelve Maps, reveals that “The problem of defining where the viewer stands in the relation to a map of the world is one geographers have struggled with for centuries.” Right from the beginning, your starting point becomes your frame of reference, the centre of understanding that everything else links back to.
Why? Because, as Tim Marshall explains in his book Prisoners of Geography, most of us use the standard Mercator world map, and “This, as do other maps, depicts a sphere on a flat surface and thus distorts shapes.” A world map always has to be distorted, with a bent toward the view you are trying to present.
Marshall explains, “The region’s very name is based on a European view of the world, and it is a European view of the region that shaped it. The Europeans used ink to draw lines on maps: they were lines that did not exist in reality and created some of the most artificial borders the world has seen. An attempt is now being made to redraw them in blood.”
“No world map is, or can be, a definitive, transparent depiction of its subject that offers a disembodied eye onto the world.” All maps reflect our understanding of the territory at that moment in time.
Sewer maps, transit maps, maps from before there were any roads, and planning maps for the future.
Maps of buildings that were, and maps of buildings that are only dreams.
The more maps you have of a territory, the increased understanding you will have of the complexities of the terrain, allowing you to make better decisions as you navigate through it.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Increasing Salaries So Teachers Don’t Have To Become Principals”

Spencer Campbell spends much of his days walking the halls of Elk Ridge Middle School, checking breezeways for kids playing hooky, redirecting foot traffic between classes and checking on substitute teachers.
“As a teacher I was making $43,000 a year and I had a part-time job where I would work another 20,” he says.
“There’s not a step in the ladder between teacher and administrator,” Campbell says.
“It’s just teacher. And administrator.”
“The problem is that there is a big disparity between what teachers make and a living wage in lots of places,” says Janice Voorhies, the president of the Jordan District school board where Campbell works.
The board recently approved a salary increase, including an additional $7,000 for beginning teachers.
In the meantime, classrooms will continue to lose teachers like Spencer Campbell.
“That’s one less amazing teacher a kid has.”

The orginal article.