Summary of “Why Did Two-Thirds of Saiga Suddenly Drop Dead?”

These calving aggregations should be joyous events, but the gathering in May 2015 became something far more sinister when 200,000 saiga just dropped dead. They did so without warning, over a matter of days, in gathering sites spread across 65,000 square miles-an area the size of Florida.
Whatever killed them was thorough and merciless: Across a vast area, every last saiga perished.
The saiga were dying too synchronously and too quickly.
As for the saiga, “What really frustrates me is that there is no magic-bullet solution to avoid these mass die-offs,” says Aline Kühl-Stenzel from the UN Environment Program.
All the countries across which the saiga roams recently signed a mini-treaty to protect the antelope, and governments and NGOs are working hard to put an end to poaching.
“The saiga really is a success story,” says Kühl-Stenzel.
The saiga is the ultimate rebounder-a species that’s adapted to bouncing back from catastrophe.
As long as a decent baseline persists, so too will the saiga.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why does it cost $32,093 just to give birth in America?”

America is the most expensive nation in the world to give birth.
It’s nearly impossible to put a price tag on giving birth in America, since costs vary dramatically by state and hospital.
Even the luxurious accommodations provided to the Duchess of Cambridge for the birth of the royal family’s daughter Princess Charlotte – believed to have cost up to $18,000 – were cheaper than many births in America.
Nearly half of American mothers are covered by Medicaid, a program available to low income households that covers nearly all birth costs.
People with private insurance still regularly pay thousands of dollars in co-pays, deductibles and partially reimbursed services when they give birth.
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The orginal article.

Summary of “Ronaldinho: a player so good he made you smile”

Watch for long enough – it won’t take long – and you might even feel like standing to applaud, just like the Santiago Bernabéu did, an ovation for a Barcelona player, as if for all the rivalry they hadn’t so much been beaten by his genius as shared in it.
There may never have been a player who made the game as enjoyable as Ronaldinho, in part because he played and it was a game.
Almost a comedy cartoon character himself, he inspired the “BarcaToons” and on Spain’s version of Spitting Image his puppet giggled and laughed and repeated one word over and over: fiesta! “I am like that,” he admitted.
“When you have the ball at your feet, you are free,” Ronaldinho wrote in an open letter to his younger self, repeating a mantra: creativity over calculation.
Ronaldinho’s brother was his idol but he ended up better than him.
An advert featuring Ronaldinho showed him ambling to the corner of the penalty area, pulling on new boots, flicking a ball into the air and keeping it there.
Without letting the ball drop, he strolls back to where he started, sets it down and smiles.
The Brazilian legend Tostão claimed: “Ronaldinho has the dribbling skills of Rivelino, the vision of Gerson, the spirit and happiness of Garrincha, the pace, skill and power of Jairzinho and Ronaldo, the technical ability of Zico and the creativity of Romário.” Above all he had one, very special ability: he made you smile.

The orginal article.

Summary of “It Took Apple Executive Angela Ahrendts 1 Sentence to Drop the Best Career Advice You’ll Hear Today”

As the SVP of retail strategy at Apple, Angela Ahrendts is one of the highest-ranking executives at the most valuable company in the world.
Not everyone thought Ahrendts had what it took to successfully lead others.
Ahrendts recently spoke to ABC journalist Rebecca Jarvis for her popular podcast No Limits.
Asked about the worst career advice she ever received, Ahrendts tells of the time she was working at a big corporation and a human resources manager told her that she needed to make changes-like not talking so emotionally with her hands-if she wanted to be considered “CEO material.”
At the recommendation of the company, Ahrendts traveled to Minneapolis to meet with a coach, where she would be filmed and critiqued.
“I was supposed to be there for a couple of days, and I went for a couple of hours,” explains Ahrendts.
Authenticity doesn’t mean sharing everything about yourself, to everyone, all of the time.
It does mean saying what you mean, meaning what you say, and sticking to your values and principles above all else.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A new theory for why Americans can’t get a raise.”

Since 1979, inflation-adjusted hourly pay is up just 3.41 percent for the middle 20 percent of Americans while labor’s overall share of national income has declined sharply since the early 2000s.
A recent study by a group of labor economists introduces an interesting theory into the mix: Workers’ pay may be lagging because the U.S. is suffering from a shortage of employers.
Studying monopsony has traditionally been tricky for economists, because they lacked good data that would let them analyze broad trends specifically in labor market concentration.
In their paper, the authors find that America’s local labor markets had a whopping average HHI score of 3,157.
According to one of their calculations, moving from the 25th percentile of labor market concentration to the 75th percentile would lower pay in a metro area by 17 percent.
In the perfectly competitive labor markets of economics textbooks, labor unions are basically dead weight that make companies less efficient.
If two health insurers merge, will Americans end up paying higher premiums? If a wireless company eats its rival, will our cellphone bills shoot up? In principle, the government’s lawyers can also consider what corporate consolidation will do to workers, but that tends to be a backburner issue.
Harvard University labor economist Lawrence Katz told me that he suspected the findings about market concentration and wages were directionally correct but that they may be a bit “Overstated,” because it’s simply hard to control for the health of the labor market.

The orginal article.

Summary of “We Don’t Have the Numbers to Fully Appreciate the Patriots’ Dynasty”

Let’s run through the numbers of the Pats dynasty that you haven’t heard.
The Patriots are the most winning team of the Tom Brady-Belichick era and looking at their regular-season point differential, a simple metric that can be more informative than a team’s record, paints a picture of even greater dominance.
The Patriots are in a different galaxy at plus-2,534-more than double every team except no.
Yes, counting the playoffs, the Patriots are 82-24 against the AFC East since 2001, the best divisional mark in the league.
The Patriots are better against the AFC North, which includes rivals Pittsburgh and Baltimore, than they are against their own division.
The Patriots are nine-point favorites against Jacksonville, the biggest spread in a conference championship game since 2007, when the Chargers were 14-point underdogs against New England.
In the past 10 years, the Patriots have been an underdog a league-low 20 times, and that number should probably be lower.
Sin City is finally catching on: This season, the Patriots became the 19th team in a 16-game season to be favored in every game.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The New York Review of Books”

A cryptocurrency such as bitcoin is purely digital: it is a piece of code-a string of numbers and letters-that uses encryption techniques and a decentralized computer network to process transactions and generate new units.
Three months later, when the first version of bitcoin software was released by Nakamoto and the inaugural bitcoins were traded, they were essentially free.
A website called Abra, for example, enables users to send bitcoins, which are denominated fractionally down to eight decimal points, from one mobile phone to another, anywhere in the world; the receiver can keep the payment in bitcoin or exchange it for digital dollars or pesos or some other currency, and spend them at merchants that accept Abra as a payment system.
Since the $50 I was willing to invest was more than ten times less than the cost of a single bitcoin even before Coinbase subtracted its service fee, I figured the fractional amount of bitcoin I’d be buying-something on the order of.0076-would hardly be worth it.
What began as a structural feature of bitcoin software-that only one-megabyte blocks of transaction data could be processed every ten minutes-has become a structural obstacle, as transactions get bottlenecked and the speed at which new ones can be resolved slows to a crawl.
A bitcoin is nothing more than a record of value-you have seven bitcoin, I have five bitcoin, and so on-encoded and stored on the bitcoin system as an address.
The “Miners” who verify and collect these transactions into a block-“Miners” being a term for those who run the computers on the network-are also required by the bitcoin software to perform an additional validating function before the block can be added to the bitcoin ledger.
Ulbricht is now serving a sentence of life without possibility of parole, and the criminals and terrorists who, before his arrest, had relied on bitcoin to shield their identities are using tumblers-programs that mix transactions and make them hard to link to a specific account-or they have migrated to cryptocurrencies that promise full anonymity, which neither the bitcoin nor Ethereum network does.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How the Best Restaurants in the World Balance Innovation and Consistency”

To receive three Michelin stars – the highest rating given by the prestigious Michelin Guide – restaurants must deliver a consistently flawless experience over many visits.
This kind of rigorous repetition would seem to stymie innovation – by limiting opportunities to learn from mistakes, to quickly prototype, or to search for new ideas – and innovation is another critical dimension for success in the high-end restaurant world.
It’s a main consideration for the similarly influential 50 Best Restaurants of the World list, which occasionally leads it to rewards different restaurants than Michelin.
Noma obtained the top spot in the 50 Best for its reinvention of Nordic Cuisine, while it was only granted two Michelin stars; and Paul Bocuse’s restaurant, the oldest restaurant with three Michelin stars, has served virtually the same menu for decades and has never made the 50 Best list.
A handful of extraordinary restaurants have managed to deliver both the flawless standards of three Michelin stars and the innovation demanded by the 50 Best list – and they’ve managed to leverage this acclaim to achieve growth.
Though the main restaurant closed in 2011, they subsequently reopened it as the ElBulli Foundation, while the other restaurants and business lines are still operating today.
While a dedicated lab expands a restaurant’s capacity for R&D, innovation more importantly has to be embedded in the DNA of the organization.
High-end restaurants that cannot afford a team and space solely devoted to R&D still make innovation a key value alongside consistency.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Technology Is Changing Our Reading Habits”

How is technology affecting the publishing industry?
About a decade ago, when Amazon introduced its first e-reader, publishers panicked that digital books would take over the industry, the way digital transformed the music industry.
It has definitely become a new way for readers to connect with authors and discover books, but it has probably also cut into the time that people spend reading.
Many new authors are skipping traditional publishers and use tech tools to go straight to self-publishing their own e-books or print books.
There have been a handful of massively successful self-published authors who have started their own publishing companies, and they’ve started to publish other “Self-published” authors.
In many parts of the country, Barnes & Noble is the only place people can buy books, and it’s still a beloved brand.
The store even looks like a 3-D version of the website, with book covers facing out and curated sections that reflect what’s popular with Amazon’s customers.
I’ll be curious to see how Indigo Books, the Canadian chain, will do here next year when it expands into the United States.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Consumerism’s Dirty Little Secret: Are We Buying All the Wrong Things?”

In Spent: Sex, Evolution and Consumer Behavior evolutionary psychologist Geoffrey Miller argues that one big reason we buy things is for their signal: what the products tell others about us.
“Humans evolved in small social groups in which image and status were all-important, not only for survival, but for attracting mates, impressing friends, and rearing children. Today we ornament ourselves with goods and services more to make an impression on other people’s minds than to enjoy owning a chunk of matter - a fact that renders ‘materialism’ a profoundly misleading term for much of consumption. Many products are signals first and material objects second. Our vast social-primate brains evolved to pursue one central social goal: to look good in the eyes of others.”The Hummer is “Good” precisely because it is wasteful.
We purchase pricey products and leverage names like Lacoste, Lancome or Lamborghini to manufacture and broadcast a signal to others.
“Consumerism’s dirty little secret is that we do a rather good job of assessing such [important] traits through ordinary human conversation, such that the trait-displaying goods and services we work so hard to buy are largely redundant, and sometimes counterproductive.”If we use products to broadcast a fake signal, we may be able to deceive some people in the short-term.
Lie 1: Products can make up for your insufficiencies.
We believe we can use products to hide our physical and mental weaknesses.
Lie 2: Products can do a better job of showing others who I am.
We believe we can use products to bolster our signal, better broadcasting to others who we are.

The orginal article.