Summary of “What Self-Awareness Really Is”

A few years ago, my team of researchers and I embarked on a large-scale scientific study of self-awareness.
In 10 separate investigations with nearly 5,000 participants, we examined what self-awareness really is, why we need it, and how we can increase it.
Our research revealed many surprising roadblocks, myths, and truths about what self-awareness is and what it takes to improve it.
1: There Are Two Types of Self-Awareness For the last 50 years, researchers have used varying definitions of self-awareness.
The first, which we dubbed internal self-awareness, represents how clearly we see our own values, passions, aspirations, fit with our environment, reactions, and impact on others.
The second category, external self-awareness, means understanding how other people view us, in terms of those same factors listed above.
In our interviews, we found that people who improved their external self-awareness did so by seeking out feedback from loving critics – that is, people who have their best interests in mind and are willing to tell them the truth.
3: Introspection Doesn’t Always Improve Self-Awareness It is also widely assumed that introspection – examining the causes of our own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors – improves self-awareness.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Dark Patterns Online Manipulate Shoppers”

Dark patterns are the often unseen web-design choices that trick users into handing over more time, money, or attention than they realize.
The research builds on the work of Harry Brignull, a London-based cognitive scientist who coined the term dark pattern in 2010, and the authors Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, whose work on “Nudges” explores how default options influence behavior.
Just over one in 10 websites contain at least one type of dark pattern, the Princeton research finds.
The most common dark pattern is scarcity bias: Put an item in your cart, and you’ll be served a message claiming “Only eight left in stock!” thereby urging you to buy immediately before the item is gone.
This theater of numbers is also key to the second most popular dark pattern: the flash sale.
The third most frequent pattern, “Social proof,” has to do with the pop-up messages displayed on the sidebar of some sites: “90 people have viewed this item!”; “Joanne from Florida just saved on a sweater!” The tactic harnesses the power of both bandwagon thinking and scarcity.
After analyzing the sites, researchers again found that the pop-ups come from random number generators and selections of stock messages.
That assurance that we can outwit the dark pattern is, naturally, a dark pattern of its own.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Want To Be Happier and More Successful? Learn To Like Other People”

Much of the time, the same outcomes you’re trying to achieve by changing your own habits, attitudes, and behaviors depend on how you view other people.
It sounds paradoxical, but according to University of Georgia researcher Jason Colquitt and his colleagues, people who tend to trust others at work score higher on a range of measure than those who don’t, from job performance to commitment to the team.
Instead of, “How can I improve?” the better question might be, “How can I start seeing more of the good in people, more often?”.
Why The Benefit Of The Doubt Is So Hard To Give.It can be difficult to believe that others generally have the best intentions; that just isn’t many people’s default assumption.
We’re socialized from a young age to be critical of others’ motives, if not downright suspicious.
Finally, while research on optimism-including assuming the best of others-almost universally shows its benefits for success and satisfaction in both work and life, people tend to fear being seen as an unrealistic “Pollyanna.” Just think of how many words there are in English to describe the experience of too-readily trusting others: gullible, ingenuous, credulous, unwary; imbecile, dimwit, stooge, dunderhead, idiot, fool; beguiled, duped, tricked, betrayed, fleeced, deceived, defrauded, double-crossed, deluded, swindled, conned, rooked, cozened, hoodwinked, bamboozled, flimflammed … you get the idea.
The Self-Help Approach That’s Not About YouTo be sure, there are risks to assuming the best in others, but the benefits may far outweigh the potential costs, especially in the workplace.
Simply assuming the best in others can lay the foundation for managers and their team members alike to learn and improve without wounding egos.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Want To Be Happier and More Successful? Learn To Like Other People”

Much of the time, the same outcomes you’re trying to achieve by changing your own habits, attitudes, and behaviors depend on how you view other people.
It sounds paradoxical, but according to University of Georgia researcher Jason Colquitt and his colleagues, people who tend to trust others at work score higher on a range of measure than those who don’t, from job performance to commitment to the team.
Instead of, “How can I improve?” the better question might be, “How can I start seeing more of the good in people, more often?”.
Why The Benefit Of The Doubt Is So Hard To Give.It can be difficult to believe that others generally have the best intentions; that just isn’t many people’s default assumption.
We’re socialized from a young age to be critical of others’ motives, if not downright suspicious.
Finally, while research on optimism-including assuming the best of others-almost universally shows its benefits for success and satisfaction in both work and life, people tend to fear being seen as an unrealistic “Pollyanna.” Just think of how many words there are in English to describe the experience of too-readily trusting others: gullible, ingenuous, credulous, unwary; imbecile, dimwit, stooge, dunderhead, idiot, fool; beguiled, duped, tricked, betrayed, fleeced, deceived, defrauded, double-crossed, deluded, swindled, conned, rooked, cozened, hoodwinked, bamboozled, flimflammed … you get the idea.
The Self-Help Approach That’s Not About YouTo be sure, there are risks to assuming the best in others, but the benefits may far outweigh the potential costs, especially in the workplace.
Simply assuming the best in others can lay the foundation for managers and their team members alike to learn and improve without wounding egos.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Bending the spoon, and other secrets of ESP – Experience Magazine”

On a recent Friday night, the Rhine hosted one of its semi-annual community outreach events, Psi Games, in which the curious can spend an evening getting tested for latent psychic powers.
That’s never particularly bothered folks at the Rhine, who have been conducting paranormal research since founder J.B. Rhine established the Parapsychology Lab at Duke University in 1935.
Initially trained as a biologist, Rhine was a legitimate man of science and is credited with more-or-less inventing the methodologies and laboratory protocols for ESP testing.
Though the Rhine Research Center is no longer affiliated with the university, it still draws independent researchers and rogue academics from around the world, hosting conferences and presentations, and publishing the peer-reviewed Journal of Parapsychology, in publication since 1937.
The Friday night testing program is held at Rhine’s modest two-story offices near the Duke campus.
At the other end of the library, the ESP testing session is facilitated by Steve Barrell, research fellow with the Rhine and lead investigator with Haunted North Carolina, Inc. Barrell looks like the actor Liam Neeson, except somehow even more intense.
Psychic testing is a little J.B. Rhine, sure.
As if on cue, Kruth wraps up the spoon bending party with an announcement about the Rhine’s latest membership drive.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The forgotten part of memory”

“What is memory without forgetting?” asks Oliver Hardt, a cognitive psychologist studying the neurobiology of memory at McGill University in Montreal, Canada.
“To have proper memory function, you have to have forgetting.”
Researchers are still pinpointing the details, but they know that autobiographical memories – those of events experienced personally – begin to take lasting form in a part of the brain called the hippocampus, in the hours and days that follow the event.
Much is still unknown about how memories are created and accessed, and addressing such mysteries has consumed a lot of memory researchers’ time.
It’s a remarkable oversight, says Michael Anderson, who studies cognitive neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, UK. “Every species that has a memory forgets. Full stop, without exception. It doesn’t matter how simple the organism is: if they can acquire lessons of experience, the lessons can be lost,” he says.
Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, is involved in moderating a host of behaviours in the fly brain, and Davis proposed that this chemical messenger might also play a part in memory.
If forgetting is truly a well-regulated, innate part of the memory process, he says, it makes sense that dysregulation of that process could have negative effects.
More memory researchers are shifting their focus to examine how the brain forgets, as well as how it remembers.

The orginal article.

Summary of “When Are You Most Likely to Catch Other People’s…”

Their study found that when a person wanted to stay calm, they remained relatively unfazed by angry people, but if they wanted to feel angry, then they were highly influenced by angry people.
The researchers also discovered that people who wanted to feel angry also got more emotional when they learned that other people were just as upset as they were, according to the results from a series of laboratory experiments the researchers conducted.
To learn how people react to upsetting situations and respond to others around them, the researchers examined people’s anger toward politically charged events in a series of laboratory studies with 107 participants.
The researchers found that participants who wanted to feel less angry were three times more likely to be influenced by people expressing calm emotions than by angry people.
Participants who wanted to feel angry were also three times more likely to be influenced by other people angrier than them, as opposed to people with calmer emotions.
“They are a little bit of a tool. We have the ability to use our emotions to achieve certain goals. We express certain emotions to convince other people to join our collective cause. On social media, we use emotions to signal to other people that we care about the issues of a group to make sure people know we’re a part of it.”
One of the next topics Goldenberg says he wants to examine further is whether the desire of people to want to see and experience certain emotions lies at the core of how they choose their network of friends and other people around them.
“If you don’t want to be angry today, one way to do that is to avoid angry people. Do some people have an ingrained preference for stronger emotions than others? That’s one of my next questions.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Diet That Might Cure Depression”

In a one abstract, researchers studying 964 elderly participants over six and a half years found those who followed the DASH diet, which emphasizes whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, had lower rates of depression, while those who ate a traditional Western diet were more prone to depression.
“Medications to treat depression are wonderful, but for many people, it’s going to be a combination of things.”
Past research has found that following the DASH diet was associated with reduced depression in adolescent girls and with less physician-diagnosed depression among thousands of Spaniards.
The results in teens suggest that diet could be a way to stave off some mental disorders entirely, since half of all mental illnesses start in the teen years.
The evidence suggests diet improves depression symptoms even when controlling for factors like income or education, says Felice Jacka, a professor of nutritional psychiatry at Australia’s Deakin University.
Jacka found in 2010 that women who ate a diet high in produce, meat, fish, and whole grains had lower odds of major depression and anxiety than others.
Jacka told me that at this point, the connection between diet and depression is so well-established that more studies like Cherian’s aren’t really necessary.
The real connection between diet and mental health might be closer to the work of a different 19th-century figure: The French lawyer Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, who wrote, in 1825, “Dis-moi ce que tu manges, je te dirai ce que tu es.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “Who Actually Feels Satisfied About Money?”

In a different study, not as focused on such an extreme outcome, people tended to be less happy the more their neighbors earned.
Dunn also noted a couple of variables, other than peers, that might lead people to feel richer.
She brought up a 2016 study that found people’s bank balances-viewed separately from just spending, or investments, or debt-to be, in its authors’ words, “Of unique importance to life satisfaction.” “One reason why middle-income people might feel pretty good about their level of income is if they just happen to be living their lives in such a way that even if they don’t actually have a lot of net worth, but they always have 8,000 bucks in the bank,” Dunn speculated.
She also suspects that people overrate the importance of earnings in feeling financially satisfied.
As she and other researchers have found, spending money in certain ways can make people feel better; it generally helps to funnel more funds toward charity, memorable experiences, and paying others to handle one’s most dreaded tasks, such as washing the dishes or cooking.
These spending tactics don’t only work for affluent people.
Those are some of the main takeaways of the academic research that’s been done on this subject, but maybe financial coaches-people who have firsthand experience listening to people’s money problems-can fill in some answers that research can’t.
“That’s actually something that I hear a lot, where they think that if they just increase income, that everything would get better,” she said.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Science Says Parents of the Most Successful Kids Do These 10 Things”

Still, scientists and researchers have made a lot of progress studying what the parents of the larger share of successful people have in common.
Here are 10 of the most important things those parents do, which I found while compiling my free e-book, How to Raise Successful Kids.1.
Parents who want to give their kids a leg up and set them on the road to success will uproot their lives if necessary.
So what do parents of successful kids do, armed with that knowledge? It’s simple to say and hard to execute: They model good relationships with friends and family, and they encourage their children to nurture their relationships, too.3.
Parents of successful kids learn to praise in a way that encourages positive lifelong habits.
A couple of years ago, Julie Lythcott-Haims, a former dean of freshmen at Stanford University and the author of the book, How to Raise an Adult, said one of the best pieces of advice she had for parents was to make their kids do chores-and never do their homework for them!
Don’t worry, we don’t mean that you’ll always support them financially! Instead, this is about one of the hottest debates in parenting circles: whether parents should encourage their kids to “Suck it up” when they are hurt or suffer setbacks, or instead “Run to their side.”
“Parents who respond to their children’s emotions in a comforting manner have kids who are more socially well-adjusted than do parents who either tell their kids they are overreacting or who punish their kids for getting upset,” child psychologist Nancy Eisenberg of Arizona State University said in an interview.

The orginal article.