Summary of “When Are You Most Likely to Catch Other People’s…”

Their study found that when a person wanted to stay calm, they remained relatively unfazed by angry people, but if they wanted to feel angry, then they were highly influenced by angry people.
The researchers also discovered that people who wanted to feel angry also got more emotional when they learned that other people were just as upset as they were, according to the results from a series of laboratory experiments the researchers conducted.
To learn how people react to upsetting situations and respond to others around them, the researchers examined people’s anger toward politically charged events in a series of laboratory studies with 107 participants.
The researchers found that participants who wanted to feel less angry were three times more likely to be influenced by people expressing calm emotions than by angry people.
Participants who wanted to feel angry were also three times more likely to be influenced by other people angrier than them, as opposed to people with calmer emotions.
“They are a little bit of a tool. We have the ability to use our emotions to achieve certain goals. We express certain emotions to convince other people to join our collective cause. On social media, we use emotions to signal to other people that we care about the issues of a group to make sure people know we’re a part of it.”
One of the next topics Goldenberg says he wants to examine further is whether the desire of people to want to see and experience certain emotions lies at the core of how they choose their network of friends and other people around them.
“If you don’t want to be angry today, one way to do that is to avoid angry people. Do some people have an ingrained preference for stronger emotions than others? That’s one of my next questions.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Diet That Might Cure Depression”

In a one abstract, researchers studying 964 elderly participants over six and a half years found those who followed the DASH diet, which emphasizes whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, had lower rates of depression, while those who ate a traditional Western diet were more prone to depression.
“Medications to treat depression are wonderful, but for many people, it’s going to be a combination of things.”
Past research has found that following the DASH diet was associated with reduced depression in adolescent girls and with less physician-diagnosed depression among thousands of Spaniards.
The results in teens suggest that diet could be a way to stave off some mental disorders entirely, since half of all mental illnesses start in the teen years.
The evidence suggests diet improves depression symptoms even when controlling for factors like income or education, says Felice Jacka, a professor of nutritional psychiatry at Australia’s Deakin University.
Jacka found in 2010 that women who ate a diet high in produce, meat, fish, and whole grains had lower odds of major depression and anxiety than others.
Jacka told me that at this point, the connection between diet and depression is so well-established that more studies like Cherian’s aren’t really necessary.
The real connection between diet and mental health might be closer to the work of a different 19th-century figure: The French lawyer Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, who wrote, in 1825, “Dis-moi ce que tu manges, je te dirai ce que tu es.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “Who Actually Feels Satisfied About Money?”

In a different study, not as focused on such an extreme outcome, people tended to be less happy the more their neighbors earned.
Dunn also noted a couple of variables, other than peers, that might lead people to feel richer.
She brought up a 2016 study that found people’s bank balances-viewed separately from just spending, or investments, or debt-to be, in its authors’ words, “Of unique importance to life satisfaction.” “One reason why middle-income people might feel pretty good about their level of income is if they just happen to be living their lives in such a way that even if they don’t actually have a lot of net worth, but they always have 8,000 bucks in the bank,” Dunn speculated.
She also suspects that people overrate the importance of earnings in feeling financially satisfied.
As she and other researchers have found, spending money in certain ways can make people feel better; it generally helps to funnel more funds toward charity, memorable experiences, and paying others to handle one’s most dreaded tasks, such as washing the dishes or cooking.
These spending tactics don’t only work for affluent people.
Those are some of the main takeaways of the academic research that’s been done on this subject, but maybe financial coaches-people who have firsthand experience listening to people’s money problems-can fill in some answers that research can’t.
“That’s actually something that I hear a lot, where they think that if they just increase income, that everything would get better,” she said.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Science Says Parents of the Most Successful Kids Do These 10 Things”

Still, scientists and researchers have made a lot of progress studying what the parents of the larger share of successful people have in common.
Here are 10 of the most important things those parents do, which I found while compiling my free e-book, How to Raise Successful Kids.1.
Parents who want to give their kids a leg up and set them on the road to success will uproot their lives if necessary.
So what do parents of successful kids do, armed with that knowledge? It’s simple to say and hard to execute: They model good relationships with friends and family, and they encourage their children to nurture their relationships, too.3.
Parents of successful kids learn to praise in a way that encourages positive lifelong habits.
A couple of years ago, Julie Lythcott-Haims, a former dean of freshmen at Stanford University and the author of the book, How to Raise an Adult, said one of the best pieces of advice she had for parents was to make their kids do chores-and never do their homework for them!
Don’t worry, we don’t mean that you’ll always support them financially! Instead, this is about one of the hottest debates in parenting circles: whether parents should encourage their kids to “Suck it up” when they are hurt or suffer setbacks, or instead “Run to their side.”
“Parents who respond to their children’s emotions in a comforting manner have kids who are more socially well-adjusted than do parents who either tell their kids they are overreacting or who punish their kids for getting upset,” child psychologist Nancy Eisenberg of Arizona State University said in an interview.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Science Says Parents of the Most Successful Kids Do These 10 Things”

Still, scientists and researchers have made a lot of progress studying what the parents of the larger share of successful people have in common.
Here are 10 of the most important things those parents do, which I found while compiling my free e-book, How to Raise Successful Kids.1.
Parents who want to give their kids a leg up and set them on the road to success will uproot their lives if necessary.
So what do parents of successful kids do, armed with that knowledge? It’s simple to say and hard to execute: They model good relationships with friends and family, and they encourage their children to nurture their relationships, too.3.
Parents of successful kids learn to praise in a way that encourages positive lifelong habits.
A couple of years ago, Julie Lythcott-Haims, a former dean of freshmen at Stanford University and the author of the book, How to Raise an Adult, said one of the best pieces of advice she had for parents was to make their kids do chores-and never do their homework for them!
Don’t worry, we don’t mean that you’ll always support them financially! Instead, this is about one of the hottest debates in parenting circles: whether parents should encourage their kids to “Suck it up” when they are hurt or suffer setbacks, or instead “Run to their side.”
“Parents who respond to their children’s emotions in a comforting manner have kids who are more socially well-adjusted than do parents who either tell their kids they are overreacting or who punish their kids for getting upset,” child psychologist Nancy Eisenberg of Arizona State University said in an interview.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How the dust in your home may affect your health”

This project, called 360 Dust Analysis, is one of a number of recent efforts that are starting to crack the code on indoor dust.
About one-third of household dust is created inside your home.
We hope our 360 Dust Analysis program will help solve more of the riddle of just what else goes into dust.
How did these molecules end up in people’s bodies? Mostly via inhalation or ingestion of indoor dust.
At least one study found that elevated levels of triclosan, a common antimicrobial agent in hand soaps, were correlated with high levels of antibiotic-resistant genes in dust, presumably from bacteria that live in your home and dust.
To get a full picture of dust sources and hazards, you need to consider the other two-thirds of the indoor dust load, which actually come from outside.
One of the most widespread health issues related to outdoor sources is lead. This potent neurotoxin has accumulated to sometimes extremely high levels in soils and dust after a century of emissions from industrial sources, vehicles burning leaded gasoline and degraded lead-based paints.
Much as Freon in refrigerants and other products caused the degradation of Earth’s protective stratospheric ozone layer and bisphenol A, a plasticizer used in bottles and other consumer products ended up in people’s bodies, there’s concern among scientists that “Better living through chemistry” might result in a string of unintended human health consequences in the realm of dust.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Cultural Differences Shape Your Gratitude”

“Gratitude is literally one of the few things that can measurably change people’s lives,” writes pioneering researcher Robert Emmons in his book Thanks! His studies suggest that gratitude can improve our health and relationships-making it one of the most well-studied and effective ways to increase our well-being in life.
The findings tell us something about a fundamental human experience-appreciating the kind things that other people do for us-and they offer insights into how we can spread gratitude around a diverse world.
The different ways we say thanks Advertisement X. Jonathan Tudge, a professor at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, is perhaps the foremost expert on cultural differences in gratitude.
Last year, Tudge and his colleagues published a series of studies examining how gratitude develops in children across seven very different countries: the United States, Brazil, Guatemala, Turkey, Russia, China, and South Korea.
Overall, children in China and South Korea tended to favor connective gratitude, while kids in the United States leaned toward concrete gratitude.
We’ve looked at how children and adults in different societies naturally develop and express gratitude.
Another complication is that those few experiments all asked people to write gratitude letters, which simply might not be the ideal way to show gratitude in all cultures.
Continuing to study cultures beyond the United States-ones that acknowledge just how much our lives are enriched by our interdependence with others-may help us get at this deeper and more complex understanding of gratitude.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Talk Yourself Into Better Endurance”

A series of studies has changed my mind, and over the past few years I’ve written and spoken about self-talk frequently-which has sparked a common question that I’ve been totally unprepared to answer: once you believe it, how do you actually do it?
Of course, there’s lots of folk wisdom out there on how to deploy self-talk, and some of it is undoubtedly good.
The skeptic in me still wants evidence to back whatever advice I offer, and there hasn’t been much systematic testing of different self-talk approaches for endurance.
Hardy and his colleagues decided to compare the effectiveness of self-talk using first-person or second-person pronouns-that is, the difference between telling yourself “I can do this!” or “You can do this!” They didn’t just pluck this idea out of thin air.
Previous research, for example, has suggested that second-person self-talk enhances public speaking performance and reduces the associated stress, possibly because it enhances “Self-distancing.” Stepping outside your immediate experiences and emotions, and viewing them instead from the detached perspective of a supportive onlooker, allows you to take the fear of failure less personally and to make better decisions.
On separate days, they did two more 10K time trials, using their updated self-talk statements in either first-person or second-person format, in random order.
It’s worth noting that without a control condition, we don’t know if both forms of modified self-talk improved performance to different degrees, or if one made it better and the other had no effect or made it worse.
That’s one obvious avenue for further research, and the broader lesson probably applies to pretty much all advice about self-talk: what works on average may not work for you.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Often Will Bystanders Help Strangers in Need?”

The presence of many bystanders diffuses our own sense of personal responsibility, leading people to essentially do nothing and wait for someone else to jump in.
Researchers watched footage and coded the nature of the conflict, the number of direct participants in it, and the number of bystanders.
Bystanders were defined as intervening if they attempted a variety of acts, including pacifying gestures, calming touches, blocking contact between parties, consoling victims of aggression, providing practical help to a physical harmed victim, or holding, pushing, or pulling an aggressor away.
Each event had an average of 16 bystanders and lasted slightly more than three minutes.
The study finds that in nine out of 10 incidents, at least one bystander intervened, with an average of 3.8 interveners.
Instead of more bystanders creating an immobilizing “Bystander effect,” the study actually found the more bystanders there were, the more likely it was that at least someone would intervene to help.
How does this study generate findings that are so at odds with such widely held norms? The researchers point out that the bystander effect was reinforced by research that took place in laboratory-like experiments, which put bystanders in situations that do not approximate real life.
This high rate that bystanders intervene may seem somewhat surprising given the high personal risks they take.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Secret Life of the Professor Who Lives With Nazis”

Pete Simi looked around the crammed living room as it quickly filled with around 50 racists clapping and swaying to the guitar and drum music of a white-power band, Hate Train, which belted out lyrics about “Aryan pride.” The color of Simi’s skin allowed him to blend in.
Few researchers have dared to venture as deeply into white-power organizations as Simi, now a professor at Chapman University in Orange County.
Simi has grown accustomed to the threats on his life.
Many people have asked Simi over the years: Why does he put his safety – and psyche – at risk? Before Charlottesville, and before white-power groups began becoming more visible, throwing their support behind President Trump, Simi says many academics and members of the public wrote off or simply ignored research on such groups, because they considered them “Fringe.” He was made to feel like his work “Was a pointless, futile effort. Because in academia, people don’t often study it. They’re studying Islamic terrorism, right? So just off in la-la land – like why are you doing this?”.
Simi, 46, is a chummy-looking professor who prefers button-downs and khakis, the kind of compassionate, low-key researcher who students and strangers feel comfortable confiding in.
Bonnie told Simi how two black doctors helped save her daughter’s life.
Simi shares his insights and research findings with groups like Life After Hate, which is working to pull white supremacists out of the movement and help those who have left recover.
This year, Simi has closely followed the murder of 19-year-old Blaze Bernstein, a gay, Jewish University of Pennsylvania sophomore who was stabbed to death while home for winter break in Orange County, not far from where Simi lives and works.

The orginal article.