Summary of “Every Culture Appropriates”

Customs we may think of as immemorially inherent in one culture very often originated in that culture’s own history of empire and domination.
The Chinese dress young Kezia Daum wanted to wear to prom originated in a brutal act of imperialism, but not by any western people.
They have a morality tale to tell, one of Western victimization of non-Western peoples-a victimization so extreme that it is triggered by a Western girl’s purchase of a Chinese dress designed precisely so that Chinese girls could live more like Western girls.
Why not? The would-be culture police build their whole philosophy on a single assumption of extreme chauvinism: that Western culture is universal-indeed the only universal culture.
Western technology, the Western emphasis on individual autonomy and equal human dignity, and even such oddly specific Western practices as death-metal music-the cultural police take all this for granted as thoroughly as a fish takes for granted the water in its fishbowl.
The various coverings voluntarily adopted by some women in North America and Western Europe evolved in societies where 90 percent of the population still agrees that women must obey their husbands at all times.
Their individual decision to wear a traditional garment has already changed that garment’s cultural context and put it to a new and very Western use.
The Western culture of personal autonomy and equal dignity is a precious thing precisely because it is not universal.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How the music industry overlooked R. Kelly’s alleged abuse of young women”

He is far from the only industry figure who worked with Kelly and benefited from the partnership, even as a cloud of allegations – mostly involving the sexual abuse of young women – began to grow around the star.
Kelly continued to settle with more women as allegations against him mounted, but music industry luminaries remained silent, instead smiling for pictures alongside him at platinum record ceremonies.
In his 2012 memoir “Soulacoaster: The Diary of Me,” Kelly described a childhood wracked by abuse and neglect.
Robert Sylvester Kelly grew up in the Chicago projects, his father gone before his birth, his working mother often leaving him in a house chaotic with “Cousins, aunties, friends of my aunties.” One day, Kelly stumbled upon two people having sex; they called him in and told him he could watch.
In response to questions about Kelly’s relationship with Aaliyah, Kelly’s management team said the following: “As is well known, Mr. Kelly wrote and produced Aaliyah’s recordings. Their collaboration created great music and the world along with Mr. Kelly mourned the loss of her great talent.”
The accounts of Kelly’s routines and household details come from former staffers, court documents, text messages and six women – Tracy Sampson, Patrice Jones, Jerhonda Pace, Asante McGee, Kitti Jones, and Lisa Van Allen – who spoke to The Washington Post about their relationships with Kelly.
Kelly’s management said the allegation of “Rules” was “Absolutely false” and added: “Why are you asking Mr. Kelly to speak for women who can speak for themselves?”.
In the statement provided to The Post, Kelly’s management team said: “Mr. Kelly will never stand between a parent and a child. If a child is an adult, that communication is between them. All of these women are adults and make their own choices.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Psychology Behind Why We Like Long, Dark Eyelashes”

The Everything Guide to Eyelashes is a week of stories on the Cut about lashes, from all the mascaras we’ve obsessively tested to our personal feelings about why eyelashes matter.
Long and sweeping enough to brush the lenses of his sunglasses and attract compliments from old ladies, his lashes embarrassed him: Weren’t long eyelashes for girls? Didn’t they make you pretty? He was a boy.
Long eyelashes are in no technical or biological sense a lady thing.
Still, eyelashes have managed to become one of the few types of female body hair to make it into the “Good, emphasize” category and not the “Bad, eliminate” one – and for centuries, we’ve been imagining the presence of long, dark eyelashes to signify feminine beauty of the highest order.
Eyelashes have also historically been associated with chastity – ancient Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder suggested, rather amusingly in hindsight, that women’s eyelashes could fall out if they had too much sex.
Why? More recent research points toward the notion that long eyelashes are valuable for the illusion they create of wide, gazing eyes.
Still, these theories explain little about why long or full eyelashes are considered feminine.
“What eyelashes do is like what lipstick does, and eyelashes may actually even do it more: They draw a contrast between the eye itself and the eyelid, like lipstick draws attention to the contrast between the lips and the surrounding area.” Attractiveness indicators in men, she says – facial features whose larger size and more striking definition suggest a man possesses traditionally “Masculine” qualities, like confidence and assertiveness – are more likely to be the eyebrows and jawline.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Marathon World Record Holder the World Forgot”

Maybe it’s the fact that she was a tiny 13-year-old running her first marathon and stepped unnoticed onto the unpaved Eastern Canadian Marathon Championships course.
Amby Burfoot, winner of the 1968 Boston Marathon and a former Runner’s World editor, says it’s crucial to put Mancuso’s run in historical context.
Prior to lining up that morning, Mancuso was a devoted and talented cross-country and track runner, training five or six days a week with her brother and the local running club.
Mancuso went into the race knowing she could break the world record by running 7:30-mile pace.
Despite her showing that day, she says the officials didn’t even name her run a world record at the finish line, because she was too young to qualify for records.
While the marathon already wasn’t her favorite distance, Mancuso says the controversy over her race didn’t help.
Mancuso returned to her track and cross-country training and competed at the World Cross-Country Championships in Scotland when she was 15.
She gave the marathon two more shots in 1968, but because they weren’t a priority for her, Mancuso didn’t properly train for them and didn’t come close to matching her previous performances.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Wall Street’s Biggest Gender Lawsuit Is 13 Years in the Making”

Dermody was relaying news that Chen-Oster, a former vice president at Goldman Sachs, had been awaiting for years.
A federal judge in New York had ruled that she and three other women who claim there’s systematic gender discrimination at Goldman can now represent as many as 2,300 other current and former employees.
A few months before Chen-Oster left Goldman, rival investment bank Morgan Stanley agreed to settle a sex discrimination case for $54 million.
Chen-Oster, the bank argued, hadn’t made it clear from the beginning that she was suing on behalf of other women and it called out her use of “Me” and “My” in her complaint to the EEOC. Goldman lost that one.
Goldman used the Dukes case to attack, saying Chen-Oster’s was so similar that it should be dismissed without wasting the court’s time.
If Chen-Oster wanted Goldman to change, it looked like she’d have to get current bank employees to join her case.
In the decision Chen-Oster would read in a Broadway theater, she ruled that Chen-Oster, Orlich, Gamba, and De Luis could represent female associates and vice presidents who have worked in three divisions at Goldman in the U.S. since September 2004 and in New York since July 2002.
In a telling sign of where things stand for women on Wall Street, Goldman bragged that its 2016 partner class was 23 percent female, its most diverse yet.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: ‘This could be the beginning of a revolution'”

The atmosphere at a recent event with Reni Eddo-Lodge, part of the Southbank’s WOW: Women of the World festival in London, was more like a party than a books evening.
The excitement among the audience of largely young women was as striking as the amazing hair and outfits.
“It’s either the beginning of a revolution, or it is going to be a fad. We just don’t know I do see in women a sense that ‘We’re done, this is it … No.’ and it gives me hope.”
Although the “You” in the letter is “Ijeawele”, a Nigerian mother living in a traditional Igbo culture, Adichie is talking to young women the world over: “To get letters from women, saying ‘you make me feel stronger’ that means a lot to me,” she says.
One group who didn’t seem swayed by how much they found Clinton likable was black American women, 90% of whom voted for her in the election.
“There were white women who were therefore able to overlook his very blatant misogyny because he appealed to their whiteness.”
“There are so many women for whom pregnancy is the thing that pushed them down, and we need to account for that. We need to have a clause in every job that a woman who gets pregnant gets her job back in exactly the same way. It’s wrong!” For her, gender is a social construction: “I don’t think I’m more inherently likely to do domestic work, or childcare … It doesn’t come pre-programmed in your vagina, right?”.
She expected a degree of hostility – “Feminist is a bad word, everywhere in the world, let’s not kid ourselves, but particularly where I come from.” But she was not prepared for the furore that followed an interview on Channel 4 last year when she sparked controversy by arguing that the experiences of trans women are distinct from those of women born female, which was interpreted by some as “Creating a hierarchy” and implying that “Trans women were ‘less than’, which I was not … I don’t think that way.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “Track’s New Gender Rules Could Exclude Some Female Athletes”

The regulations are meant to ensure “Fair and meaningful competition within the female classification,” according to track’s governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations, known as the I.A.A.F.Athletes will not be required to undergo surgery to lower their hormone levels, the I.A.A.F. said, adding that the regulations are “In no way intended as any kind of judgment on, or questioning of, the sex or the gender identity of any athlete.”
The regulations will affect female track athletes with naturally occurring testosterone levels above five nanomoles per liter.
According to the I.A.A.F., most women, including elite female athletes, have testosterone levels from 0.12 to 1.79 nanomoles per liter, while the normal male range is 7.7 to 29.4 nanomoles per liter.
“To the best of our knowledge, there is no other genetic or biological trait encountered in female athletics that confers such a huge performance advantage,” the I.A.A.F. said in the regulations and supporting documents obtained by The New York Times.
The regulations represent an attempt by the I.A.A.F. to reinstate rules governing female athletes with elevated testosterone levels, which were suspended in 2015 by the Swiss-based Court of Arbitration for Sport, a rough equivalent of the Supreme Court for international sports.
Because the hammer throw and the pole vault, which showed the highest performance advantage for women with elevated testosterone in the 2017 I.A.A.F. study, are not included in the new rules, the regulations appear to be arbitrary and political and not based on solid science, said Katrina Karkazis, a bioethicist and visiting senior fellow at the Global Health Justice Partnership at Yale, who has written extensively on hyperandrogenism and athletic performance.
Female athletes with elevated testosterone levels will essentially face a “Choice of no choice,” Ms. Karkazis said.
Paul Melia, the president and chief executive of the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport, said in an interview from Ottawa on Wednesday that because athletes with hyperandrogenism identify and live as females, and present physically as females, “They have a human right to participate in sport in the gender they identify with.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “At Nike, Revolt Led by Women Leads to Exodus of Male Executives”

As women – and men – continue to come forward with complaints, Nike has begun a comprehensive review of its human resources operations, making management training mandatory and revising many of its internal reporting procedures.
Nike’s own research shows that women occupy nearly half the company’s work force but just 38 percent of positions of director or higher, and 29 percent of the vice presidents, according to an April 4 internal memo obtained by The Times.
While Nike executives have told investors that the women’s category was a crucial part of its revenue growth strategy, former employees said it was not given the budget it needed to roll out the sophisticated marketing campaigns that were the hallmark of traditional men’s sports, like basketball.
While women struggled to attain top positions at Nike, an inner circle of mostly male leaders emerged who had a direct line to Mr. Edwards.
Concerned about these departures, a group of women inside Nike started the behind-the-scenes survey that eventually ended up on Mr. Parker’s desk.
Over time, many women developed a deep skepticism of Nike’s human resources services.
“I think his general attitude toward women was just, subtly, that we were less capable,” said Ms. Amin, a junior designer on one of the Nike apps, who added that she had received positive performance reviews since becoming an employee in 2014.She eventually sought help from human resources, which told her that corrective action would be taken.
Nike recently named a woman, Kellie Leonard, as chief diversity and inclusion officer, and Mr. Wilkins said Nike is focused “on attracting, developing and elevating both women and people of color throughout the organization.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What happens to your brain on sex?”

What happens to your brain on love? Is there such a thing as “Casual sex”? What do we get wrong about male and female sexuality?
She’s written six books about human sexuality, gender differences in the brain, and how cultural trends shape our views of sex, love, and attachment.
Which is why romantic love is a far more powerful brain system than the sex drive.
So casual sex is not casual: It can trigger these brain systems for romantic love and feelings of attachment.
Sean Illing I’m sure you get pushback from people who worry about reducing something as rich and complex as love to brain systems.
You asked me about the brain circuitry associated with romantic love, so that’s what I told you about.
People pine for love, live for love, kill for love and die for love.
There are three brain regions that become active when you are in a longterm, loving relationship.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Life on the Oil Frontier”

My housemates have been all men – more out of necessity than preference – until I decide to go on Craigslist and sign a proper lease.
Masculinity is embedded in the very language of the oil industry: oil men, land men, man camps.
The dirty, difficult nature of the jobs here is better suited for men, he believes: let men civilize the frontier and women follow.
At Champs Place, a squat bar near my new house advertising casino liquor, a man overhears me speaking ill of men abandoning their families and becomes enraged because, like plenty of men here, he claims that his ex-wife won’t let him see his children anymore.
One of the women upstairs, Kate, dropped out of college in Michigan and is out here to pay off $20,000 in student loans.
J. is irritated that men at Walmart ask her out after mentioning their wife and children.
As the price of oil rebounds well into the sixties this year, I hear by all accounts that the North Dakota oilfield has straightened out.
Rao is the author of Great American Outpost: Dreamers, Mavericks and the Making of an Oil Frontier.

The orginal article.