Summary of “How Women of Color Get to Senior Management”

The problem is that, to date, companies have not been great at promoting women of color to senior roles.
To increase diversity at senior executive levels, more must be known about one group in particular: women of color in midlevel leadership, who successfully developed and progressed beyond individual contributor and first-line management.
In order to advance from first-level management toward senior leadership, the women in my sample needed to have access to managing people, critical negotiations, new businesses ventures, and external client relations.
Having influential senior leaders – including men as well as women of color – serve as mentors, advisers, and role models provided emerging women managers with the tacit knowledge needed to navigate their company’s leadership structure.
Clearly, elevating women of color isn’t just the job of the women themselves, as these experiences highlight.
Business leaders monitor and are held accountable for making or missing sales goals, so why not the same for diversity and inclusion? That’s why companies must monitor culture and talent metrics for women of color in addition to surveying them about how they’re experiencing their development and progression.
In traditional male-dominated hierarchies, tacit knowledge about how the organization works, the availability of advancement opportunities, and how to access mentors and sponsors is often shared through homogenous closed social networks that women of color aren’t privy to.
In learning from women of color who have advanced, and in learning effective ways to develop and sponsor them, these women and the companies they work for can turn aspirations into something more concrete: meaningful and long-lasting leadership experiences.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Women Can Get What They Want in a Negotiation”

How common is Tara’s situation? Research suggests that 20% of women never negotiate at all.
If women see negotiation as a chore, they either don’t negotiate or do so in ways that can hurt the outcome.
Based on a growing body of research on gender in negotiations, combined with burgeoning research on positivity and mindfulness, we offer five strategies that can help women both choose to engage and perform more effectively in negotiations.
Prior to a negotiation, women can use positive priming to increase positive emotions, resulting in greater creativity, openness, and willingness to collaborate, all of which are essential to successful negotiation.
This can increase the likelihood that women choose to enter a negotiation to begin with.
A greater awareness of the emotions of others during a negotiation can help women better understand their needs and interests, which can make it easier to find integrative solutions.
The ability to reframe the negotiation – even one with the goal of increasing one’s total compensation – into one where the other party also benefits is particularly important for women.
In the case of salary negotiation, women would help themselves by looking at the total compensation package, which might include paid time off, the hiring of an assistant, or a commuting allowance – all of which have monetary value – as opposed to salary alone.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Elon Musk’s New York Times Interview Reveals Double Standards for Male and Female CEOs”

For women, the risks of being open are far greater, and they can manifest in tangible ways.
“Women incur social and economic penalties for expressing masculine-typed emotions because they violate proscriptions against dominance for women. At the same time, when women express female-typed emotions, they are judged as overly emotional and lacking emotional control, which ultimately undermines women’s competence and professional legitimacy,” according to the Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women, a collection of research and literature on the topic.
The guidebook for being a female CEO is, at its core, the same as the one for being a female anything: No matter your title, the double bind remains.
Women in the workplace are constantly walking a tightrope.
A 2008 series of studies from the Harvard Kennedy School’s Women and Public Policy Program found that displays of anger from men in professional contexts are often viewed as responses to external circumstances, while the same from women are seen as representations of their personality.
In other words, men are provoked, while women are naturally prone to anger.
The research also found that women who expressed anger in work contexts were perceived as less competent and received lower wages, while the opposite was true for men.
According to It’s Always Personal: Navigating Emotion in the New Workplace by Anne Kreamer, women who cry at work “Feel rotten afterward, as if they’ve failed a feminism test.” Men tend to feel better after crying: Kreamer’s research showed that “Their minds felt sharper, the future seemed brighter, and they felt more physically relaxed and in control.” When HuffPost interviewed 15 high-profile female leaders about crying in the office, the majority considered it taboo and bound to produce negative results.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Saudi Women Can Drive. But Will They Be Allowed to Take the Wheel?”

It’s also the second largest metropolis in one of the most conservative countries in the world, where until the stroke of midnight women were not allowed to drive.
Allowing women to drive paints a more modern image of the Saudi government for the businesses and non-Muslim tourists they hope to attract, but it will not offer Saudi women total freedom of movement.
At the time, Saudi women’s rights activists like Manal al-Sharif, Loujain al-Hathloul and Aziza al-Yousef had been fighting for the right to drive for decades, with little hope of the ban ever lifting.
There’s reason for any woman in Saudi Arabia to think twice before wearing a feminist slogan tee: over the last several months, the Kingdom has arrested more than a dozen activists for campaigning for the very rights Saudi women are now receiving.
Despite the complex political and economic motives behind government-supported women’s rights, there’s no doubt that the outcome will be major improvements in the daily lives of many Saudi women.
The right to drive means more freedom of movement, and job opportunities in fields like accident management, emergency response and car sales, which will help lower Saudi women’s dismal unemployment rate.
It’s not exactly that the Saudi government discriminates against women: instead, it’s that it legally enshrines the discrimination of women by their own families.
“I remember first realizing that men and women in Saudi Arabia couldn’t do the same things when I was in high school and my brother was allowed to go off to the states to study and live alone,” another student, named Joury, said.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Little Women: Louisa May Alcott’s Misunderstood Classic”

That Little Women, which Alcott embarked on with reluctance and wrote with formulaic conventions in mind, turned out to be the book that made her name and her fortune.
If each era gets the Little Women adaptation it deserves, this is Alcott as fall-wedding Pinterest board.
Robin Swicord, who wrote the screenplay, created virtually every line of dialogue from scratch, saying that she had imagined what Alcott might have written had she been “Freed of the cultural restraints” of her time.
Focusing on the Marches as more than just daughters, sisters, and wives, Armstrong’s Little Women also foregrounds its characters’ creative talents-their plays, their newspaper, Jo’s writing, Amy’s art-without sacrificing the aspects that readers have come to love, not least the have-it-all denouement that Alcott fiercely, and by now famously, resisted delivering in its most treacly form: Chafing at the pressure to marry Jo off, she made sure to flout readers’ desperate desire to see Jo end up with Laurie.
Alcott instead paired her with the older, far less glamorous Professor Bhaer-a subversive step beyond which a late-20th-century director and audience plainly weren’t ready to go, aware though Armstrong surely was that the author herself had yearned to leave Jo single.
In the future who’s to say what choices new film incarnations might make? Lea Thompson is starring as Marmee in a feature-length “Modern” update of Little Women pegged for release this year, and the actor and Oscar-nominated director Greta Gerwig is adapting and directing a version to appear in 2019; Robin Swicord is back, this time as a producer, and the star-studded cast will include Meryl Streep.
The latest adapters proceed, they have already found-as have directors and writers before them-that the reality of Alcott’s life adds a liberating, complicating dimension to the story of Little Women.
Writing as A. M. Barnard, she empowered her adult heroines in ways her little women could only dream of.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Women’s ‘Health-Care Gaslighting’ Went Mainstream”

In her 23 years practicing medicine, Sherif has received a lot of thank-you notes from women she’s treated-and “They don’t say ‘Thank you for saving my life’ or ‘Thank you for that great diagnosis,'” she says.
“They say, ‘Thank you for listening to me.’ Or ‘I know we couldn’t get to the bottom of it, but thank you for being there.'” So Sherif sees a common theme in the recent flurry of high-profile expressions of disappointment in women’s reproductive health care, feminist protests against President Donald Trump, and the #MeToo movement: All three, she says, result from women feeling that their complaints, concerns, and objections aren’t being listened to.
Ottey believes women’s increasing candor about their health- and health care-related frustrations can be traced back to the advent of social media.
Ottey describes her own struggle to finally get a diagnosis and a treatment plan for PCOS in 2008 as one that made her feel “Absolutely alone,” but in the years since, she says, she’s seen women with similar conditions and complaints find and support each other on platforms like Facebook and Twitter.
Ottey’s social-media strength-in-numbers theory is borne out in The Bleeding Edge, too: Women whose health deteriorated after getting the Essure birth-control device implanted eventually created an advocacy campaign after finding each other through a Facebook group launched in 2011.
Thirty-five thousand women had joined by the time The Bleeding Edge was filmed.
Angie Firmalino, the Facebook group’s founder, remembers being surprised at how many women quickly joined the group, despite it being a project she’d started just so she could warn her female friends about the device.
“We became a support group for each other,” Firmalino says, as a montage of selfie videos women have posted to the group page play onscreen.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Bedrest Doesn’t Work”

Various studies found that the physical effects of bed rest like bone loss, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular deconditioning can persist for months after the baby is born.
Women who spend time on bed rest are at higher risk of postpartum depression and anxiety.
One study described a “Type of sensory deprivation.” “When women spend long, isolated, fright-filled hours in bed, time is perceived as slowing down Women also feel out of control of what is happening with their bodies. Women report feeling imprisoned,” wrote the authors.
Doctors ran with Hilton’s guidance, prescribing rest for indefinite periods of time.
Rest became the treatment for heart attacks, tuberculosis, mental illness, ulcers, and rheumatic fever.
Several months of confinement, or lying-in, became the norm for affluent pregnant Victorian women.
One of the most celebrated medical authorities of the era, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell gained fame for championing what he called the “Rest cure” as an answer to the malady of the day: hysteria, a common medical diagnosis reserved largely for women.
“Hysterical” women were ordered to bed, isolated from friends and family, and instructed not to move a muscle or engage in intellectual work of any kind.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Tokyo medical school admits changing results to exclude women”

A Tokyo medical school has apologised after an internal investigation confirmed it altered entrance exam scores for more than a decade to limit the number of female students and ensure more men became doctors.
Tokyo Medical University manipulated all entrance exam results starting in 2006 or even earlier, according to findings released by lawyers involved in the investigation, confirming recent reports in Japanese media.
The school said the manipulation should not have occurred and would not in the future.
The investigation found that in this year’s entrance exams the school reduced all applicants’ first-stage test scores by 20% and then added at least 20 points for male applicants, except those who had previously failed the test at least four times.
“We sincerely apologize for the serious wrongdoing involving entrance exams that has caused concern and trouble for many people and betrayed the public’s trust,” school managing director Tetsuo Yukioka said.
Studies show the share of female doctors who have passed the national medical exam has plateaued at around 30% for more than 20 years, leading some experts to suspect that other medical schools also discriminate against women.
The education minister Yoshimasa Hayashi told reporters he planned to examine the entrance procedures of all medical schools.
Gender equality minister Seiko Noda was quoted by Kyodo News as saying: “It is extremely regrettable if medical schools share a view that having female doctors work at hospitals is troublesome.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “What Will the Miss America Pageant Look Like in a Post-#MeToo World?”

Started in 1921 as a “Bathing beauty” contest meant to extend Atlantic City’s summer season, the Miss America pageant added a talent portion in 1935 and began offering scholarships in 1945.
Through the 1960s, more than 60 million people regularly tuned in to watch Miss America walk the runway to Bert Parks crooning, “There she is, your ideal.” But by 1995, Frank Deford, a four-time judge who wrote a book about the pageant, told the New York Times it had become a “Kind of” pageant, as in: “You’re kind of good-looking. You’re kind of talented. You’re kind of smart. If you were superior at any of these things, you wouldn’t need to bother with this.” Last year, only 5.3 million watched Mund win.
In 1970, the number of women who competed in local, state, and national Miss America pageants was around 70,000.
The answer came last June 5, when Gretchen Carlson, the new chairman of the board and the first former Miss America to serve in that role, appeared on Good Morning America.
As Miss America in 1989-something Carlson had pursued while on leave from Stanford because when her mom mentioned it, she “Felt the familiar tingle of that competitive drive”-she’d gotten a frontline view into the particular conundrum of being an American woman.
Her experiences as Miss America also piqued her interest in broadcast journalism, and afterward, she built a career in that field, starting at a local station in Virginia and working her way up to Fox News, where she stayed for 11 years.
After Carlson’s GMA appearance, Piers Morgan declared in the Daily Mail, “Nobody on the entire planet cares what comes out of the mouths of Miss America contestants unless they say something so dumb it makes us laugh out loud. They’re there because they’re smoking hot.”
“We have to remember this is the Miss America competition,” says Betty Cantrell, Miss America 2016.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Mental Performance Can Be Hurt By Even Mild Dehydration”

Now there’s evidence that too little water can hurt cognitive performance, too, making complex thinking tasks harder.
A growing body of evidence finds that being just a little dehydrated is tied to a range of subtle effects – from mood changes to muddled thinking.
How long does it take to become mildly dehydrated in the summer heat? Not long at all, studies show, especially when you exercise outdoors.
For an average-size person, 2 percent dehydration equates to sweating out about a liter of water.
“Most people can’t perceive that they’re 1.5 percent dehydrated,” Casa says.
Already there are subtle – maybe even imperceptible – effects on our bodies and our mental performance.
“We did manage to dehydrate them by [about] 1 percent just by telling them not to drink for the day,” says Nina Stachenfeld, of the Yale School of Medicine and the John B. Pierce Laboratory, who led the research.
Dehydration didn’t hamper performance on all the tests; the women’s reaction time, for example, was not impeded.

The orginal article.