Summary of “Tokyo medical school admits changing results to exclude women”

A Tokyo medical school has apologised after an internal investigation confirmed it altered entrance exam scores for more than a decade to limit the number of female students and ensure more men became doctors.
Tokyo Medical University manipulated all entrance exam results starting in 2006 or even earlier, according to findings released by lawyers involved in the investigation, confirming recent reports in Japanese media.
The school said the manipulation should not have occurred and would not in the future.
The investigation found that in this year’s entrance exams the school reduced all applicants’ first-stage test scores by 20% and then added at least 20 points for male applicants, except those who had previously failed the test at least four times.
“We sincerely apologize for the serious wrongdoing involving entrance exams that has caused concern and trouble for many people and betrayed the public’s trust,” school managing director Tetsuo Yukioka said.
Studies show the share of female doctors who have passed the national medical exam has plateaued at around 30% for more than 20 years, leading some experts to suspect that other medical schools also discriminate against women.
The education minister Yoshimasa Hayashi told reporters he planned to examine the entrance procedures of all medical schools.
Gender equality minister Seiko Noda was quoted by Kyodo News as saying: “It is extremely regrettable if medical schools share a view that having female doctors work at hospitals is troublesome.”

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Summary of “What Will the Miss America Pageant Look Like in a Post-#MeToo World?”

Started in 1921 as a “Bathing beauty” contest meant to extend Atlantic City’s summer season, the Miss America pageant added a talent portion in 1935 and began offering scholarships in 1945.
Through the 1960s, more than 60 million people regularly tuned in to watch Miss America walk the runway to Bert Parks crooning, “There she is, your ideal.” But by 1995, Frank Deford, a four-time judge who wrote a book about the pageant, told the New York Times it had become a “Kind of” pageant, as in: “You’re kind of good-looking. You’re kind of talented. You’re kind of smart. If you were superior at any of these things, you wouldn’t need to bother with this.” Last year, only 5.3 million watched Mund win.
In 1970, the number of women who competed in local, state, and national Miss America pageants was around 70,000.
The answer came last June 5, when Gretchen Carlson, the new chairman of the board and the first former Miss America to serve in that role, appeared on Good Morning America.
As Miss America in 1989-something Carlson had pursued while on leave from Stanford because when her mom mentioned it, she “Felt the familiar tingle of that competitive drive”-she’d gotten a frontline view into the particular conundrum of being an American woman.
Her experiences as Miss America also piqued her interest in broadcast journalism, and afterward, she built a career in that field, starting at a local station in Virginia and working her way up to Fox News, where she stayed for 11 years.
After Carlson’s GMA appearance, Piers Morgan declared in the Daily Mail, “Nobody on the entire planet cares what comes out of the mouths of Miss America contestants unless they say something so dumb it makes us laugh out loud. They’re there because they’re smoking hot.”
“We have to remember this is the Miss America competition,” says Betty Cantrell, Miss America 2016.

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Summary of “Mental Performance Can Be Hurt By Even Mild Dehydration”

Now there’s evidence that too little water can hurt cognitive performance, too, making complex thinking tasks harder.
A growing body of evidence finds that being just a little dehydrated is tied to a range of subtle effects – from mood changes to muddled thinking.
How long does it take to become mildly dehydrated in the summer heat? Not long at all, studies show, especially when you exercise outdoors.
For an average-size person, 2 percent dehydration equates to sweating out about a liter of water.
“Most people can’t perceive that they’re 1.5 percent dehydrated,” Casa says.
Already there are subtle – maybe even imperceptible – effects on our bodies and our mental performance.
“We did manage to dehydrate them by [about] 1 percent just by telling them not to drink for the day,” says Nina Stachenfeld, of the Yale School of Medicine and the John B. Pierce Laboratory, who led the research.
Dehydration didn’t hamper performance on all the tests; the women’s reaction time, for example, was not impeded.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Female Lawyers Still Face Sexism in the Courtroom”

In the courtroom women remain a minority, particularly in the high-profile role of first chair at trial.
In a landmark 2001 report on sexism in the courtroom, Deborah Rhode, a Stanford Law professor, wrote that women in the courtroom face what she described as a “Double standard and a double bind.” Women, she wrote, must avoid being seen as “Too ‘soft’ or too ‘strident,’ too ‘aggressive’ or ‘not aggressive enough.’ ”.
If the courtroom were merely another place where the advancement of women has been checked, that would be troubling, if not entirely surprising.
The problem isn’t merely that women are outnumbered in the courtroom.
In the criminal context, the odds are that a female lawyer will face off against a male prosecutor in a contest overseen by a male judge.
Most judges, of course, don’t strike female attorneys in their courtroom.
In November, one of my students was slated to argue a motion before a judge who I knew could be nasty to female lawyers.
In the courtroom, whether as an attorney or as an instructor, I’m constantly reminded that women lawyers don’t have access to the same “Means and expedients” that men do.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Academic writes 270 Wikipedia pages in a year to get female scientists noticed”

“I’ve done about 270 in the past year,” says Wade, a postdoctoral researcher in the field of plastic electronics at Imperial College London’s Blackett Laboratory.
Wade went to an all-girls school and, with both her parents being doctors, science was a backdrop to her childhood.
Wade started giving talks at schools and became engaged in outreach to encourage girls to take up science, but quickly became frustrated with much of the work going on under the “Women in science” banner.
Many of the initiatives are backed by a significant amount of funding – Wade estimates £4m to £5m is spent annually on women in science outreach, with big contributions from banks and engineering firms as well as the government.
“In the UK, the percentage of female A-level physics students has stagnated at about 21% for the past decade and for computing the proportion of A-level students who are female is just 10%”. In Britain, fewer than 9% of professional engineers are women – a figure that is among the worst globally and which has not increased in the past decade.
Wade went to a talk by Susan Goldberg, editor of National Geographic, who noticed she too lacked a Wikipedia entry.
As we weave our way through a labyrinthine intersection between Imperial’s physics and maths buildings, Wade greets a colleague before turning to me to say: “That’s Emma McCoy, the first woman to be a professor of maths here. I made her page.”
After reading Angela Saini’s 2017 book, Inferior, which applies scientific scrutiny to claims of sex differences and gender stereotypes, Wade started distributing copies.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Gaming’s toxic men, explained”

How did we get here? Gaming has attracted many angry young men who are comfortable with harassing and abusing women.
There’s an often promoted belief amongst certain people within the worlds of gaming and tech that technology is naturally, even biologically, the domain of men.
Why are objectionable opinions so common in gaming spaces? Gaming’s toxic men are often keen to display offensive opinions about women and people of color.
Why is online gaming chat rife with overt and casual racism? People of color who venture into gaming spaces are often assaulted with vile insults or tired cliches.
If you look at gaming circles and the gaming industry, it is a fairly white industry – both in development and publishing, and press.
Why are gaming’s toxic men so enraged? Women and people of color are beginning to appear in games as powerful characters with their own agency.
“For these people, white male is the default mode for humanity” Why do so many men in gaming exhibit a persecution complex? White male gamers often defend their own toxic behavior by claiming to be marginalized.
How can real change be effected? Gaming’s toxic men are often hostile to progressive change and inclusion.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Elizabeth Warren Is Waging a Full-Body Fight to Defeat Trump”

Watching Warren this steamy summer as she works to move her party through the perilous wilderness of the Donald Trump administration, through the midterms and her own reelection to the Senate, and then perhaps toward a run for the presidency, she appears to have committed her whole body to the effort.
In the absence of a clear favorite to challenge Trump and the Republicans, Warren has emerged in just the past few weeks as the de facto leader of the Democratic Party, and accordingly, the candidate-of-the-moment for 2020.
The battles have burned hottest with Trump himself; it’s clear that Warren scares the president nearly as much as that other 60-something white grandma did, and he devotes an inordinate amount of energy to insulting her.
There are those – often political reporters and longtime Democratic denizens – who remind me that she was a weak candidate in 2012, that her politics are too far left, and that she’d activate the Trump base; an early 2017 poll showed Trump losing to a generic Dem but winning against Warren.
Warren’s style – her competence, precision, and practicality – combined with the apparently endless thrill of hating Hillary Clinton, along with stories pushed by the right to maximally alienate the left about her purportedly cozy private relationships with the bankers she publicly assails, plus the fact that she is the same age, race, and gender as the former Democratic candidate, mean that Elizabeth Warren basically is Hillary Clinton – or could be cast as smudgily indistinguishable from her within about five minutes of entering a presidential contest.
Notwithstanding all this, Warren has already been described, in her 2012 race, as “Hectoring” and “Schoolmarmish”; in 2016, Mika Brzezinski, that great advocate for women’s “Value,” suggested that Warren was “Shrill unmeasured and almost unhinged.” In a 2016 story about the senator, the New York Times characterized Warren as “Imperious” and “Never short on confidence” as she swept through congressional hallways in her “Jewel-toned jacket” – a frame absolutely chilling in its familiarity.
After the indictment of 12 Russian nationals for hacking the DNC server in an attempt to interfere with the 2016 election, Warren tweeted to Trump that he should “Cancel your ridiculous Putin summit and get your butt on a plane back to the United States.” In a pep talk with her state campaign staff in June, Warren baldly declared, “This is an administration that is rife with corruption, with favoritism, and with just outright stupidity.”
When in the fall she told her own #MeToo story on Meet the Press, about back when she was a “Baby law professor” and a senior faculty member chased her around his desk trying to grab her, she recalled thinking, “If he gets hold of me, I’m going to punch him right in the face.” And Warren is so proud of her Twitter takedowns of our president that she actually published many of them, in Twitter format, in her recent book, This Fight Is Our Fight.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How the BBC Women Are Working Toward Equal Pay”

Equal pay is easily confused with the gender pay gap, which is a measure of the difference between men’s and women’s average earnings.
A law firm can pay equally and still have a gender pay gap, if most of the women it employs are associates and most of its partners are men.
It wasn’t until 1963 that the Equal Pay Act enshrined into law the principle of equal pay for men and women.
While women of Asian descent earn eighty-seven cents on the white-male dollar, black women are typically paid sixty-three cents and Latina women fifty-four.
On the last day of January, 2018, Carrie Gracie appeared before a parliamentary committee that, prompted by her resignation letter, had called a hearing to examine the issue of pay at the BBC. The company had released the results of an “Equal pay audit,” which found that, for on-air talent, “There does not appear to be any form of systemic discrimination against either men or women.” The pay gap at the BBC was nine per cent.
Last year, the U.K. began requiring organizations with more than two hundred and fifty employees to make an annual report of four measures: gender pay gap in hourly pay, gender pay gap in bonus pay, percentage of men and women receiving bonuses, and proportion of men and women in each quartile of the pay scale.
According to BBC Women, by July more than a thousand women had asked the corporation to look at their pay.
Some were in the early stage of discussions; some were taking settlements and moving on; others were holding out to see if anyone would achieve what one of the founding members of BBC Women described to me as “The holy grail”-pay parity, full pension restitution, and up to six years’ back pay.

The orginal article.

Summary of “He Cooks, She Cooks. He Elevates, She Relates.”

Are great chefs also great artists? They could be-if being “Great” is taken as read. Food has appeared in art since time immemorial.
The program defines the “Great” chef on these terms, just as the canon of fine art defines the great artist.
Greatness even becomes pedigree; male chefs can even call their own work great while knocking women’s down.
Réne Redzepi reclaiming Nordic ingredients and identity is great; Alex Atala reclaiming Brazilian food as elevated is great; Christina Tosi reclaiming childhood nostalgia is relatable.
Whether a great male chef, a great male author, or a great male filmmaker, Kennedy is certain that greatness breeds premature forgiveness: “The idea of greatness, of course, is so deeply tied to white, patriarchal, capitalist notions of worth. I suspect that’s what makes it so difficult for us to let go of the heroes we’ve built up, such as Batali. If he was a great chef, someone who succeeded in all the ways we are taught are significant, then surely there must be some way to forgive him his trespasses?”.
Cooking together is radical; eating together is revolutionary; the chefs and restaurateurs who support the communities around them are great; the people who ask if everyone is OK before service are great; white chefs can still be great.
First, asking whether “Great” chefs can be “Great” artists perpetuates the public reproducibility of one kind of greatness.
Perhaps great chefs can be great artists, and perhaps food can be nourishment and art, without cleaving a distinction that alienates entire demographics and cultures.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Are Male and Female Brains Biologically Different?”

There’s no doubt that whatever their brains look like, behavior and school performance differences between men and women are strongly shaped by socialization.
Eliot said that Damore has a deep misunderstanding of neuroscience and that his letter grossly overstated the role of testosterone in male and female bodies.
While testosterone is linked to aggression, it doesn’t offer a universal explanation for male behavior.
Eliot also said that everyone, regardless of sex, can be competitive or aggressive, but males and females might have different ways of expressing those traits based on social norms.
She said that even scientifically indisputable differences, such as the oft-cited statistic that male brains are 10 percent bigger than female brains, don’t mean anything.
If scientists and academics were to begin with the premise that men and women are equally capable, Eliot said, their studies would result in radically different conclusions.
“People said brilliance in math is a male phenomenon,” Eliot said.
“The default assumption is that these differences are hard-wired … But male and female brains are not much [more] different from each other than male or female hearts or kidneys.”

The orginal article.