Summary of “Talking to Boys the Way We Talk to Girls”

The words they use with sons are more focused on achievement – such as “Win” and “Proud.” Researchers believe that these discrepancies in fathers’ language may contribute to “The consistent findings that girls outperform boys in school achievement outcomes.”
They are nearly four times more likely to tell girls than boys to be more careful if undertaking the same activity again.
In his book “Manhood in America,” Michael Kimmel, the masculine studies researcher and author, maintains that “The traditional liberal arts curriculum is seen as feminizing by boys.” Nowhere is this truer than in English classes where, as I’ve witnessed after more than 20 years of teaching, boys and young men police each other when other guys display overt interest in literature or creative writing assignments.
Such squelching messages run counter-intuitively to male wiring, it turns out: Guys are born more emotionally sensitive than girls.
“So the ‘manning up’ of infant boys begins early on in their typical interactions,” Dr. Tronick said, “And long before language plays its role.”
Judy Chu, a human biologist, conducted a two-year study of 4- and 5-year-old boys and found that they were as astute as girls at reading other people’s emotions and at cultivating close, meaningful friendships.
In her book “When Boys Become Boys” she maintains that by the time the boys reached first grade, sometimes earlier, they traded their innate empathy for a learned stoicism and greater emotional distance from friends.
How can we change this? We can start, says Dr. David, by letting boys experience their emotions, all of them, without judgment – or by offering them solutions.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Brain Architecture: Scientists Discover 11 Dimensional Structures That Could Help Us Understand How the Brain Works”

Scientists studying the brain have discovered that the organ operates on up to 11 different dimensions, creating multiverse-like structures that are “a world we had never imagined.”
Their findings, published in the journal Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, reveals the hugely complicated processes involved in the creation of neural structures, potentially helping explain why the brain is so difficult to understand and tying together its structure with its function.
The team, led by scientists at the EPFL, Switzerland, were carrying out research as part of the Blue Brain Project-an initiative to create a biologically detailed reconstruction of the human brain.
In the latest study, researchers honed in on the neural network structures within the brain using algebraic topology-a system used to describe networks with constantly changing spaces and structures.
In the study, researchers carried out multiple tests on virtual brain tissue to find brain structures that would never appear just by chance.
Henry Markram, director of Blue Brain Project, said the findings could help explain why the brain is so hard to understand.
The findings indicate the brain processes stimuli by creating these complex cliques and cavities, so the next step will be to find out whether or not our ability to perform complicated tasks requires the creation of these multi-dimensional structures.
In an email interview with Newsweek , Hess says the discovery brings us closer to understanding “One of the fundamental mysteries of neuroscience: the link between the structure of the brain and how it processes information.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “Studies find high achievers underestimate their talents, while underachievers overestimate theirs”

The saga caught the eye of the psychologist David Dunning at Cornell University, who enlisted his graduate student, Justin Kruger, to see what was going on.
In one study, they asked undergraduate students a series of questions about grammar, logic and jokes, and then asked each student to estimate his or her score overall, as well as their relative rank compared to the other students.
Interestingly, students who scored the lowest in these cognitive tasks always overestimated how well they did-by a lot.
Students who scored in the bottom quartile estimated that they had performed better than two-thirds of the other students!
In a semester-long study of college students, good students could better predict their performance on future exams given feedback about their scores and relative percentile.
As much as D- and F-grade students overestimate their abilities, A-grade students underestimate theirs.
In their classic study, Dunning and Kruger found that high-performing students, whose cognitive scores were in the top quartile, underestimated their relative competence.
These students presumed that if these cognitive tasks were easy for them, then they must be just as easy or even easier for everyone else.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Aging on Nautilus: Why You Can’t Help But Act Your Age”

As scientists have worked to pinpoint a person’s biological age, they have learned that organs and tissues often age differently, making it difficult to reduce biological age to a single number.
In 2013, Anne Newman, director of the Center for Aging and Population Health at the University of Pittsburgh, and her student Jason Sanders reviewed the existing literature on telomeres and concluded that “If telomere length is a biomarker of human aging, it is a weak biomarker with poor predictive accuracy.”
The difference between the biological age and chronological age can be negative, zero, or positive.
It’s important to point out that biological aging is an inexorable process-and there comes a time when no amount of thinking positive thoughts can halt aging.
If body and mind are one and the same-as Langer suggests-then an aging body and aging mind go hand-in-hand, limiting our ability to influence physiological decline with psychological deftness.
Still, Langer thinks that how we age has a lot to do with our perceptions of what aging means-often reinforced by culture and society.
People in their 20s often perceive their age to be the same as their chronological age, and may say they feel somewhat older.
Terracciano and colleagues have found that subjective age correlates with certain physiological markers of aging, such as grip strength, walking speed, lung capacity, and even the levels of C-reactive protein in the blood, an indication of inflammation in the body.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Astronomers Have Found New Evidence That We Live In A Void”

It seems like we just might be in one of those places, a vast cosmic void.
A new study was presented today at the 230th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Texas suggesting as much.
It provides new evidence that our region of space has far fewer galaxies, stars, and planets than others.
The idea that we live in a void neatly explains a problem in astrophysics.
When we measure the expansion rate of the universe, the Hubble Constant, it should be the same everywhere we look.
“Fortunately, living in a void helps resolve this tension.”
According to the findings, the spherical void we reside in is seven times larger than the average void, spanning a huge 1 billion light-years.
Named KBC after its discoverers in 2013, it is the largest void we’ve ever found.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Growing Up Without Siblings May Affect Your Brain’s Development”

A study in China claims that growing up without siblings can lead to a different brain structure than those who do.
Previous studies have focused on the difference in behaviors, cognitive function, and personality traits between only children and those with siblings.
The researchers studied 250 university students, a somewhat small sample, around half of which were only children.
Corroborating previous findings, the tests showed that only children outperformed those with siblings on creativity, but consistently scored lower on agreeable personality traits.
The only children who performed higher on creativity showed a higher volume of gray matter in the parietal lobe, a part of the brain associated with mental flexibility and imagination.
The scans of those only children who showed less agreeable traits showed less gray matter in the medial prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain known to be involved in thinking about the self in relation to others.
The researchers claim this shows that different family environments do affect children’s structural brain development, and the kind of upbringing we have shapes the kind of people we become on a neurological basis.
Only children miss out on early opportunities to develop and practice social skills, emotional support, and empathy.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What know-it-alls don’t know, or the illusion of competence”

The saga caught the eye of the psychologist David Dunning at Cornell University, who enlisted his graduate student, Justin Kruger, to see what was going on.
In one study, they asked undergraduate students a series of questions about grammar, logic and jokes, and then asked each student to estimate his or her score overall, as well as their relative rank compared to the other students.
Interestingly, students who scored the lowest in these cognitive tasks always overestimated how well they did – by a lot.
Students who scored in the bottom quartile estimated that they had performed better than two-thirds of the other students!
In a semester-long study of college students, good students could better predict their performance on future exams given feedback about their scores and relative percentile.
As much as D- and F-grade students overestimate their abilities, A-grade students underestimate theirs.
In their classic study, Dunning and Kruger found that high-performing students, whose cognitive scores were in the top quartile, underestimated their relative competence.
These students presumed that if these cognitive tasks were easy for them, then they must be just as easy or even easier for everyone else.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Intel study: self-driving cars to create $7 trillion Passenger Economy”

The race to create self-driving cars is on-but what happens when they’re everywhere and nobody has to drive?
That could lead to a “Passenger economy” worth $7 trillion by 2050, according to a new report by Intel and analyst firm Strategy Analytics.
While the name of the potential new market is lame, the amount of cash it’s estimated to drive is not: the study predicts self-driving cars will free up 250 million hours of commuting time per year, providing the backbone for a thriving $800 billion industry by 2035, when the study predicts fully autonomous vehicles will begin to proliferate globally.
“Companies should start thinking about their autonomous strategy now,” Intel CEO Brian Krzanich said in a release promoting the study.
“This is why we started the conversation around the Passenger Economy early, to wake people up to the opportunity streams that will emerge when cars become the most powerful mobile data generating devices we use and people swap driving for riding.”
The $7 trillion estimate is broken down into a few potential revenue streams, the largest of which at $3.7 trillion is “Consumer mobility-as-a-service,” i.e. providing people with transportation via car-sharing and ride-hailing services as private car ownership is phased out.
Intel has certainly embraced the autonomous future; the company established a $100 million fund for self-driving development back in 2012 and made an even bigger investment with the purchase of automotive imaging company Mobileye for a whopping $15.3 billion back in March.
Intel doesn’t have a plan to actually manufacture its own vehicles – instead, it’s building a platform it hopes to market to the industry at large – the company’s partnership with BMW on its iNext platform is an early example of such an arrangement.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Want to Raise Successful Kids? Science Says Read to Them Like This”

It has to do with the way we read to children when they’re very young.
The Cincinnati study is best viewed as the latest of a series of recent research results that suggest that the sooner parents engage kids in a “Participatory reading style”, the more cognitive benefits they’ll see as a result.
In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics began advising parents to read to their children from the earliest age in infancy.
The researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan the brains of 22 four-year-old girls while their mothers read to them.
Those whose mothers read to them in an engaging way-also known as “Dialogic reading”-had greater activity in the parts of the brain where “Cognitive skill acquisition and refinement via connection to language” occur.
So what is “Dialogic reading” exactly? In sum, it means a reading experience that is more of a dialogue than a one-way recitation.
It means engaging children, and making them become more than passive listeners while you read to them.
In other words, the fact that the girls whose mothers read to them in a more engaging and dialogic manner had brain scans suggesting greater activity doesn’t necessarily mean that the reading style was the root cause of the greater activity.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Being open-minded literally changes the way you see the world”

Recent studies suggest that personality traits don’t simply affect your outlook on life, but the way you perceive reality.
One study published earlier this year in the Journal of Research in Personality goes so far as to suggest that openness to experience changes what people see in the world.
In the study, researchers from the University of Melbourne in Australia recruited 123 volunteers and gave them the big five personality test, which measures extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience.
Though the research suggests that personality affects the way we filter conscious experience, it’s not clear exactly how this process works.
While studies show that personality can shift over time, there’s currently little research on whether perception also changes to correspond with new personality traits.
Given the above cited evidence that meditation can shift perception, Antinori believes the way we see the world may well change in line with personality.
“It may be possible that a change in people’s personality may also affect how they see the world,” she says.
Mounting evidence suggests that our personalities are affecting our experience of the world in more ways than we realize.

The orginal article.