Summary of “Double Loop Learning: Download New Skills and Information into Your Brain”

Double loop learning is the quickest and most efficient way to learn anything that you want to “Stick.”
We can think of double loop learning as learning based on Bayesian updating – the modification of goals, rules, or ideas in response to new evidence and experience.
Double loop learning is part of action science – the study of how we act in difficult situations.
If we are accustomed only to success, double loop learning can ignite defensive behavior.
For double loop learning to happen, the managers would have to let go a little.
37Signals is one company using double loop learning to restructure their work week.
Double loop learning turned his failing noodle bar into an award-winning empire.
Double loop learning is the key to turning experience into improvements, information into action, and conversations into progress.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The 10 Biggest Questions of the 2018 NBA Free-Agency Bonanza”

Which teams will fall into the Phil Jackson zone? A select few teams will get to chase the ultimate brass ring this summer, but most will try to do their best just to keep up.
Any team could wind up overspending in the heat of the chase-the Pelicans nearly doubled their getout price on Solomon Hill two years ago-but the two most likely to pay up for a quick fix are the same ones that made the biggest splashes on draft night.
The quest to find a team in desperate need of a score-first, defense-last power forward to run the offense seems ambitious-though the Clippers, who nearly dealt for Melo last year and may be looking to beef up their bona fides as a superstar destination, make some sense.
Maybe if the Lakers strike out on building a team around current all-league players, they can sign the full boat plus Dwight Howard to form an All-NBA team from a decade prior.
Who will be the surprise team of the summer? Sam Presti’s ninja offseason hardly yielded historic returns, but last year’s surprise trades for a pair of All-Stars completely overhauled OKC’s roster and expectations, after Russell Westbrook’s John McClane act fizzled out in the first round of the 2017 playoffs.
The Bulls’ absorption of Omer Asik’s millstone contract at the trade deadline points to a longer view than this summer-Chicago native Anthony Davis will likely hit free agency in 2020, when the team’s books are protected to be pristine-but they have the potential cap space, assets, and market muscle to get friskier than expected.
Last year, just one RFA changed teams: Tim Hardaway Jr., and it took a gross overpay by a Knicks regime in transition to get him back to New York.
In the end, it was a total bust: A few teams moved up and down, but not a single veteran NBA player was traded for the first time in 15 years.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Biggest Digital Heist in History Isn’t Over Yet”

Since late 2013, this band of cybercriminals has penetrated the digital inner sanctums of more than 100 banks in 40 nations, including Germany, Russia, Ukraine, and the U.S., and stolen about $1.2 billion, according to Europol, the European Union’s law enforcement agency.
The string of thefts, collectively dubbed Carbanak-a mashup of a hacking program and the word “Bank”-is believed to be the biggest digital bank heist ever.
“Carbanak is the first time we saw such novel methods used to penetrate big financial institutions and their networks,” says James Chappell, co-founder and chief innovation officer of Digital Shadows Ltd., a London intelligence firm that works with the Bank of England and other lending institutions.
The Carbanak crew was looking for executives with the authority to direct the flow of money between accounts, to other lenders, and to ATMs. They were also studying when and how the bank moved money around.
As for Katana, Sanchez says he handled the most critical and complex task: He allegedly conducted the reconnaissance of banking systems and then shuffled money around the network like an air traffic controller.
“To attack a bank wasn’t about ‘Let’s steal a million dollars.’ It was, ‘Let’s crack the security the bank is putting in our way.’  ”. Earlier this year the detectives learned Katana and his partners were preparing to up their game with the release of a more potent version of Carbanak.
Unlike the bank jobs of yore, digital heists are amoeba-like ventures that divide over and over again as the malware proliferates.
In recent weeks, employees at banks in the Russian-speaking world have been receiving emails that appear to be from Kaspersky, the security company that unearthed Carbanak.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Brexit Short: How Hedge Funds Used Private Polls to Make Millions”

Some hedge funds gained confidence, through private exit polls, that most Britons had voted to leave the EU, or that the vote was far closer than the public believed-knowledge pollsters provided while voting was still underway and hours ahead of official tallies.
While some of the practices discovered by Bloomberg fall into a gray area, the law is clear: It would have been a violation if, prior to the polls closing, “Any section of the public” had gotten the same data the pollsters sold privately to hedge funds.
If this happened for Brexit, it might negate some of the advantages hedge funds had from private polls by giving the world definitive information at 10 p.m., according to polling firm executives.
Another potential obstacle to hedge fund exit polls may have been more significant: It is a crime in the U.K. to “Publish” any exit poll results prior to 10 p.m. Hedge funds wanted data streamed to them throughout the day so their own data experts could track trends, and so they could make bets while people were still voting.
YouGov’s chief financial officer spoke to lawyers and decided that a single hedge fund could not be considered “a section of the public” but that multiple hedge funds getting the same exit poll might cross the line.
The published accounts differ, but both say that Farage had learned the results of an unidentified, financial-services exit poll well before the polls closed at 10 p.m. These accounts also say that Farage learned the results before giving his concession statement to Sky at roughly 9:40 p.m., which the network then aired within seconds of the polls closing at 10 p.m. Farage, who had not detailed since that night what he learned or how he knew it, told Bloomberg that the only external exit poll results he received on June 23 were Survation’s-and that Lyons-Lowe gave them to him.
Many were, because even exit polls that got it wrong gave hedge funds underlying data that pointed to pro-Brexit trends, according to those involved.
If public polling up to and on the final day inflated a bubble, how might private polls have helped traders? In at least two ways, according to pollsters involved, hedge fund traders and consultants.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The insane Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector can find dying stars”

Neutrinos are sub-atomic particles which travel through space and pass through solid matter as though it were air.
“A neutrino could pass through a hundred light-years of steel without even slowing down.”
Before a star starts to collapse it shoots out neutrinos, so Super-K acts as a sort of early-warning system, telling us when to look out for these dazzling cosmic events.
Situated on the opposite side of Japan in Tokai, the T2K experiment fires a neutrino beam 295 km through the Earth to be picked up in Super-K on the west side of the country.
Studying the way the neutrinos change as they pass through matter may tell us more about the origins of the universe, for example, the relationship between matter and anti-matter.
So when a neutrino travels through water, “It will produce light in the same way that Concord used to produce sonic booms,” said Dr Uchida.
“If an aeroplane is going very fast, faster than the speed of sound, then it’ll produce sound – a big shockwave – in a way a slower object doesn’t. In the same way a particle passing through water, if it’s going faster than the speed of light in water, can also produce a shockwave of light.”
Super-Kamiokande may be massive, but Dr Wascko told Business Insider that a yet bigger neutrino detector called “Hyper-Kamiokande” has been proposed.

The orginal article.

Summary of “First space, then auto-now Elon Musk quietly tinkers with education”

For the past four years, this experimental non-profit school has been quietly educating Musk’s sons, the children of select SpaceX employees, and a few high-achievers from nearby Los Angeles.
It started back in 2014, when Musk pulled his five young sons out of one of Los Angeles’ most prestigious private schools for gifted children.
Ad Astra’s principal hopes that the school will revolutionize education in the same way Tesla has disrupted transportation, and SpaceX the rocket industry.
Will Musk maintain interest in the school once his children move on? And even if he does, can a school of fewer than 40 students ever be anything more than a high-tech crèche for already-privileged children?
“There are people who could afford any of the private schools in LA but want that school in particular,” she says.
“That’s the level of interest in this school. I cannot imagine that happening with any other school, public or private.”
It is not unusual for parents to have a grassroots effort to build their own school, according to Nancy Herzog, an educational psychology professor at University of Washington and an expert in gifted education.
These, like everything else at school including tuition, are paid for by Elon Musk.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How one man went from hunting meteorites to being hunted by the law”

Over the next eight years, Curry went from a passionate rockhound with a corny sense of humor to a disturbed man trapped inside a distorted universe of his own making.
The more Steve Curry studied meteorites, the less he could understand how scientists and dealers could claim that they were uncommon.
As Curry’s filings were repeatedly rejected by the courts, he sensed that the injustice he faced reached far beyond meteorites and implicated the larger legal and political system that the country operates on.
Every individual, Curry came to believe, was a sovereign citizen and had the right to create their own courts and juries following common law.
There was the Steve Curry who was named in legal papers, and then there was the real Steve Curry Curry, an avowed atheist, considered himself a rational man.
The shop’s owner, a man named Phil Bates, says he made it out to Curry’s crater a couple times.
The two men wrestled, and then Curry went for Sanchez’s own holster.
Insofar as the scientific literature is concerned, no evidence has ever linked delusion disorder with an extraterrestrial impact, but most everyone who knows Curry agrees that something in him changed the moment he got wrapped up in meteorites.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Day I Drove for Amazon Flex”

Flex operates year-round, not just during the holiday season, which suggests there’s another reason for it: It’s cheap.
Amazon has rolled out Flex in more than 50 cities, including New York; Indianapolis, Indiana; and Memphis, Tennessee.
The company doesn’t share information about how many drivers it has, but one Seattle economist calculated that 11,262 individuals drove for Flex in California between October 2016 and March 2017, based on information Amazon shared with him to help the company defend a lawsuit about Flex drivers.
Flex workers get no health insurance or pension, and are not guaranteed a certain number of hours or shifts a week.
One Amazon Flex driver in Cleveland, Chris Miller, 63, told me that though he makes $18 an hour, he spends about 40 cents per mile he drives on expenses like gas and car repairs.
He made slightly less than $10 an hour driving for Uber, he told me, once he factored in these expenses; Flex pays a bit better.
Miller’s wife has a full-time job with benefits, so his Flex earnings are helpful for paying off his family’s credit-card bills.
I became an Amazon Flex independent contractor by downloading an app, going through a background check, and watching 19 videos that explained in great detail the process of delivering packages.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Neuroscience of Pain”

Virginia Woolf bemoaned the fact that “The merest schoolgirl, when she falls in love, has Shakespeare or Keats to speak her mind for her; but let a sufferer try to describe a pain in his head to a doctor and language at once runs dry.” Elaine Scarry, in the 1985 book “The Body in Pain,” wrote, “Physical pain does not simply resist language but actively destroys it.”
The history of pain research is full of ingenious, largely failed attempts to measure pain.
The 2014 edition of the textbook “Nursing: A Concept-Based Approach to Learning” warned practitioners that Native Americans “May pick a sacred number when asked to rate pain,” and that the validity of self-reports will likely be affected by the fact that Jewish people “Believe that pain must be shared” and black people “Believe suffering and pain are inevitable.” Last year, the book’s publisher, Pearson, announced that it would remove the offending passage from future editions, but biases remain common, and study after study has shown shocking disparities in pain treatment.
At the same time, research identifying the regions most crucial to the experience of pain has inadvertently pointed the way to the creation of artificial pain purely through targeted neurostimulation.
Chronic pain is often defined, somewhat misleadingly, as “Pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing.” In reality, once you’ve “Gone chronic,” as Tracey puts it, pain is the disease, rather than a symptom.
Until recently, chronic pain was thought of merely as prolonged “Normal” pain.
Tracey told me that it seems we may all be predisposed by our brain stems to feel pain more acutely or less, but that in chronic-pain patients it’s as if the volume knob of pain were turned all the way up and jammed there permanently.
Studies of twins suggest that our pain response is, in part, heritable, but there are close correlations between chronic pain and many other factors-gender, age, stress, poverty, and depression.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Bo Burnham’s Age of Anxiety”

When Bo Burnham was in eighth grade, he starred in a middle-school production of “Footloose,” in the Kevin Bacon role.
“I did not set out to write a movie about eighth grade,” Burnham told me one afternoon in May. “I wanted to talk about anxiety-my own anxiety-and I was coming to grips with that.” Burnham speaks like a college bro, but at an amped-up pace; he rarely finishes one sentence before launching into another, and he often has a Red Bull in his hand.
Burnham has spent his short adult life trying to shake the label “Teen YouTube sensation.” His friend Aidy Bryant, a “Saturday Night Live” cast member-they both played comedians in “The Big Sick”-told me, “I feel like so much of his online tale is about being young, but he’s just such a cranky old man.” Still, because Burnham is a product of the Internet, and because his work deals with the tribulations of youth, he is sometimes asked to play generational pundit.
Pattie drove us to Miles River Middle School, where Burnham attended eighth grade.
An eighth grader with curly hair beelined to Burnham and introduced himself as Max.
In the movie, Kayla opens a time capsule that she made for herself in sixth grade; Pattie had found Burnham’s 2001 time capsule in the attic, addressed to the Bo of 2008.
Burnham corrected her again: “I have a lazy streak, and I would want to game the system to get good grades.”
In Burnham’s early days as a touring comedian, his parents would accompany him; Pattie recalled dropping him off for his first gig at the Improv, in Hollywood, with the apprehension of a mother leaving her child on the first day of school: “We drive off, I look at Scott, and I’m, like, ‘What in God’s name have we done?'” Life on the road was wearing, especially when Burnham talked to his friends from home.

The orginal article.