Summary of “Proximate vs Root Causes: Why You Should Keep Digging to Find the Answer”

The mental model of proximate vs root causes is a more advanced version of this reasoning, which involves looking beyond what appears to be the cause and finding the real cause.
There are a number of relevant factors which we must take into account when figuring out root causes.
Looking at proximate vs root causes is a form of abductive reasoning- a process used to unearth simple, probable explanations.
“Man is the only real enemy we have. Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished forever.”The issue with root cause analysis is that it can lead to oversimplification and it is rare for there to be one single root cause.
The key distinction between Socratic questioning and normal discussions is that the former seeks to draw out root causes in a systematic manner.
The purpose is to understand cause and effect relationships, leading to the root causes.
Let’s take a look at how cause and effect mapping can be used to identify the root cause of a disaster which occurred in 1987: The King’s Cross fire.
Soon after the fire, stations began replacing these with metal When analysing root causes, we must be sure not to attribute blame where it does not exist.

The orginal article.

Summary of “HOW YOU CAN GAIN FINANCIAL FREEDOM”

So out of college at age 21, I had “Enough” money.
Cindy taught me how to save money and life below my means.
Does the alternator in the car go out, and it costs $300 to fix? We gotta take out a credit card debt, beg family or friends for money.
She put a very little amount of money in there- maybe $200 or $500. She told me when I was a kid, “Eric, I started you a college fund. Let’s learn how to save money, and one day you can go to college.” One day my mom finds out that money is missing.
In theory, we can now never run out of money, assuming we don’t do any stupid shit like buying a Hermes bag, a Hublot watch, and a Maserati.
Funny thing is that it doesn’t matter how much money you have.
When you have financial independence, you essentially have “Fuck you money”.
Help me make more money to help more people.

The orginal article.

Summary of “In the AI wars, Microsoft now has the clearer vision”

Having spent a few days at both events, I couldn’t help coming home thinking that it may be Microsoft that has the more complete vision for this AI-first world we’ll soon live in – and if Google has it, it didn’t do a good job articulating it at I/O this year.
Google CEO Sundar Pichai noted during his keynote segment that the company is moving from being a mobile first company to an AI first one.
Google Lens, which can identify useful information in images, looks like it could be really useful, too, but it’s worth noting that Google’s presentation wasn’t very clear here and that a number of people I talked to after the event told me that they had a hard time figuring out whether this was a developer tool, a built-in feature for the Google Assistant or a standalone app.
At the core of the two companies’ AI efforts for consumers are Microsoft Cortana and the Google Assistant.
This is one area where Google remains clearly ahead of Microsoft, simply because it offers more hardware surfaces for accessing it and because it knows more about the user.
Google’s current approach is different in that it want to use machine vision to use phones as the prime lens for viewing AR experiences.
Google, of course, had already pre-announced Android O and Microsoft had already pre-announced that it’ll now offer two Windows 10 releases a year, so the fact that we’ll get a new update in the fall really wasn’t a surprise.
There simply wasn’t all that much to announce this year, it felt, and while that would’ve allowed Google to more clearly lay out its vision, it instead squandered valuable keynote time on talking about previously announced YouTube features that few people in the audience cared about.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What Data Scientists Should Know About Hiring, Sharing, and Collaborating”

In this post we summarize some of our most recent and favorite answers on Quora to questions from the community about hiring junior data scientists, sharing work with the public, and collaborating.
“What do you look for when hiring an entry-level data scientist? Would a master’s in Data Science or a bootcamp be beneficial?”.
What’s the best way for data scientists to share their work?
Considering the deeply technical nature of the work, and the many ways in which an analysis can go awry, it can feel like an especially daunting task to share one’s work as a data scientist.
A recent article by Emma Walker, Data Scientist at Qriously, even called communication the “Critical skill” many data scientists are missing.
What are best practices for collaboration between data scientists?
Once a data scientist had their work noticed, and once they’ve been hired as a data scientist at an organization, the truism that “Data science is a team sport” will become a daily reality.
It’s exciting to discuss the latest new approach or algorithm, but there are many interesting questions beginning to come out surrounding the people, processes, and careers of data scientists.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Corporate Values Get Hijacked and Misused”

The painful result of widespread misuse of company values, according to one major study, is that only 23% of U.S. employees strongly agree that they can apply their organization’s values to their work every day, and only 27% “Believe in” their organization’s values.
Another comprehensive study based on more than 1,000 firms in the Great Places to Work database reveals a strong correlation between corporate financial performance and the extent to which employees believe their company’s espoused values are practiced.
Values hold the power to drive meaningful differences in performance by shaping a culture, and when misused, can undermine performance with toxic force.
When these three conditions aren’t present, values can get hijacked and misused.
In one organization, the alleged commitment to “Values accountability” became so twisted that statements like “She’s not aligned with our values” or “I can’t support that decision because I don’t see how it reflects the values” became so reflexive that they shut down honest conversation.
In this company’s case, senior leaders who were criticized for not modeling the values quickly ousted their accusers for “Not being team players.” The very values intended to unify and inspire the culture had turned it into a poisonous gang rivalry.
People fill workshops where executives tell heartwarming stories about how the values have shaped their careers and will distinguish their organization in the future.
A company’s values must reflect what makes it uniquely successful, conveying to employees, “This is what it takes to succeed here.” Processes like strategy, selection, rewards, performance management, and resource allocation must have values woven deeply into them with undeniable consistency between actions and words.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Question Isn’t Why Wage Growth Is So Low. It’s Why It’s So High.”

Economic theory tells us that when workers are scarce, employers have to raise wages, though it hasn’t always worked out that way: Wage growth underperformed productivity and inflation during some periods of low joblessness, including in the mid-1980s and mid-2000s.
Economists at Goldman Sachs recently studied which factors drive wage trends in 10 major economies, and identified low productivity growth as the main culprit behind the recent weakness in wage numbers around the world.
“Some of it is a result of the minimum wage, but some of it is simply because there are areas in the country where employment levels are strong.”
The wage question quickly leads us into more difficult economic questions.
This is particularly important if, as our analysis of wage trends suggests, low productivity growth is the culprit behind Americans’ small inflation-adjusted pay increases during the last few years.
The causation could go in other directions, however: Wage growth, or the lack of it, might affect innovation and productivity.
Some left-of-center economists are exploring whether a higher minimum wage or a stronger social welfare system might increase productivity growth and the supply of labor.
Perhaps we can at least ask better questions: The real mystery isn’t why wage growth is so low, but why productivity is so low.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Hoping to stretch pensions, Americans move to Ecuador, Canada, Mexico, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Panama, Nicaragua and Costa Rica”

Best known for the Galapagos and providing asylum in its London embassy to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, Ecuador is home to 2,850 retirees receiving benefits, according to the U.S. government.
The city of Cuenca recently conducted a census that found its municipality alone was home to almost 10,000 foreign retirees, most of them Americans from Texas and Florida.
The city is trying to combat local fears that the retirees are both driving up land prices and bleeding the public healthcare system, she said.
A full 73 percent of the retirees in Cuenca, according to the city’s survey, said they found out about the city via “Best of” rankings online.
If there is a real driving force for retirees, it’s healthcare.
Cuenca’s survey of retirees found that most were either paying for healthcare out-of-pocket or had private healthcare.
Crespo, the city official, said the retirees are pumping money into the economy, but there are growing concerns over how they might be affecting the healthcare system.
Congresswoman Soliz said the legislature is planning on doing a comprehensive study of how foreign retirees might be straining public resources.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The 35 words you’re getting wrong”

Inchoate/Incoherent “Inchoate” describes something not ready to be judged “Incoherent”, which means “Lacking clarity”.
It does catch fire as easily as anything flammable, because the two words mean the same.
Judicial/Judicious Judicial means “Connected with a court of law”; judicious means “Wise”.
Momentarily You have to hope the pilot and stewards are lying when they say: “We will be in the air momentarily.” That does not mean: “We will be in the air in a few minutes.” It means: “We will be in the air for a moment.” That is strictly speaking, of course, but what is the point of having words if they mean nothing?
Regalia Regal means “Of or by kings”, and regalia means “The insignia of royalty”.
Transpire Wrongly used to mean, merely, “Happen”.
Viable/Feasible “Viable” means capable of independent life – a viable foetus or seed or, figuratively, in the sense of “Capable of succeeding”, a candidate.
Virtually Incorrectly used to mean “Nearly all”; eg: “Virtually all the chocolates were eaten.” “Virtually” is useful for an imprecise description that is more or less right, close enough, as good as.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Retirement savings: The world is sitting on a $400 trillion financial time bomb”

The World Economic Forum predicts that by 2050 the world will face a $400 trillion shortfall in retirement savings.
The WEF defines a shortfall as anything less than what’s required to provide 70% of a person’s pre-retirement income via public pensions and private savings.
It is followed by China’s $119 trillion shortfall.
Much of the massive shortfall is baked into retirement systems; setups in which nobody, neither individuals nor the government, saves enough.
Putting money aside for retirement now confers the benefit of compound interest and provides certainty to financial markets that fear ballooning government debts.
If the shortfall proves bigger than expected, the costs of waiting will be larger, too.
The report offers several suggestions to address the shortfall.
Most include ways to boost individual saving by offering retirement accounts to a wider population and expanding financial literacy.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The opioid crisis changed how doctors think about pain”

Understanding how opioids became so ubiquitous in America requires understanding a fundamental shift that happened 30 years ago in how doctors thought about pain itself.
The ensuing opioid addiction crisis has now forced doctors to rethink some very fundamental pillars of how they practice medicine: How much can they do to treat pain? Were they right to consider it a vital sign? How much should they do? Is it more ethical to ask patients to live with pain when they know relieving pain can have horrific side effects?
A 1995 editorial in the Journal of Clinical Oncology lamented the “Numerous barriers that have prevent patients from receiving effective pain treatment.” It cited studies finding that oncologists constantly underestimate their patients’ pain, and underprescribe pain relievers as a result.
In November 2015, two pain doctors from the University of Washington wrote a controversial article in the New England Journal of Medicine arguing that doctors need to think less about pain levels entirely.
“If you focus just on pain intensity, the tendency is just to use opioids, because opioids are the only thing that will reduce pain so immediately.”
The measure of good treatment, they argued, wasn’t getting rid of pain – it was getting people back to the activities that pain prevented.
“The goal of pain relief should be 30% to 55% improvement, and therefore the patient should be expecting tolerable pain levels, not 0 pain levels,” Harvard surgeon Haytham Kaafarani and his co-authors argued.
Instead of focusing on fixing their pain, he works with them to figure out how they can get back to the valuable activities in their life even if their chronic pain persists.

The orginal article.