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The orginal article.

Summary of “Chemists discover how blue light speeds blindness”

Blue light from digital devices and the sun transforms vital molecules in the eye’s retina into cell killers, according to optical chemistry research at The University of Toledo.
“It’s no secret that blue light harms our vision by damaging the eye’s retina. Our experiments explain how this happens, and we hope this leads to therapies that slow macular degeneration, such as a new kind of eye drop.”
Karunarathne’s lab found that blue light exposure causes retinal to trigger reactions that generate poisonous chemical molecules in photoreceptor cells.
“It’s toxic. If you shine blue light on retinal, the retinal kills photoreceptor cells as the signaling molecule on the membrane dissolves,” Kasun Ratnayake, a Ph.D. student researcher working in Karunarathne’s cellular photo chemistry group, said.
Blue light alone or retinal without blue light had no effect on cells.
“The retinal-generated toxicity by blue light is universal. It can kill any cell type.”
The lab currently is measuring light coming from television, cell phone and tablet screens to get a better understanding of how the cells in the eyes respond to everyday blue light exposure.
To protect your eyes from blue light, Karunarathne advises to wear sunglasses that can filter both UV and blue light outside and avoid looking at your cell phones or tablets in the dark.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Obesity in America 2018: 7 charts that explain why it’s so easy to gain weight”

“The food environment is a strong predictor of how we eat,” says Scott Kahan, director of the National Center for Weight and Wellness and a faculty member at both Johns Hopkins and George Washington University.
“And in America, the unhealthiest foods are the tastiest foods, the cheapest foods, the largest-portion foods, the most available foods, the most fun foods.”
We’re told to eat nutrient-dense foods like broccoli and Brussels sprouts instead of energy-dense foods like soda and french fries, yet there aren’t enough nutrient-dense foods to go around.
7) We’re bombarded with ads for unhealthy food Sugary, oily foods are engineered to be consumed often and in big portions.
A 2006 report by the Institute of Medicine helped establish how the rise in obesity among kids corresponds to increasing marketing of unhealthy food and drinks to them.
The UConn Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity found that in 2014, food companies spent $1.28 billion to advertise snack foods on television, in magazines, in coupons, and, increasingly, on the internet and mobile devices.
How the food environment could support healthful eating instead With the expansion of our waistlines over the past 30 years, the factors in our environment that promote obesity – some of them outlined here – have come into focus.
There’s ample evidence that many people can’t make sense of the traditional food labels on the back of food packages: they too often require math, and some knowledge of nutrition.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Wonderschool raises $20M to help people start in-home preschools – TechCrunch”

Enter ‘Wonderschool’, a company that lets licensed educators and caretakers launch in-home preschools or daycares.
With the cash and Andreessen partner Jeff Jordan joining its board, Wonderschool is looking to build powerful lead generation and management software to turn teachers into savvy entrepreneurs.
Wonderschool started when co-founder Arrel Gray was having trouble finding childcare for his daughter close to home.
Wonderschool would recruit existing teachers and caregivers or guide people to get licensed so they could become “Directors” of in-home schools.
Wonderschool acts almost like Airbnb by turning them into small businesses earning money from home.
Wonderschool now has over 500 directors working with its software, with some making as much as $150,000 or $200,000.
In exchange for its 10 percent cut of tuition, Wonderschool provides directors with a “Bootcamp” to prep them for the job.
If Wonderschool can keep its brand clean through thorough oversight, it could both create better paying jobs in a field rife with undercompensated heroes, and open early schooling to a wider range of students.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Women’s ‘Health-Care Gaslighting’ Went Mainstream”

In her 23 years practicing medicine, Sherif has received a lot of thank-you notes from women she’s treated-and “They don’t say ‘Thank you for saving my life’ or ‘Thank you for that great diagnosis,'” she says.
“They say, ‘Thank you for listening to me.’ Or ‘I know we couldn’t get to the bottom of it, but thank you for being there.'” So Sherif sees a common theme in the recent flurry of high-profile expressions of disappointment in women’s reproductive health care, feminist protests against President Donald Trump, and the #MeToo movement: All three, she says, result from women feeling that their complaints, concerns, and objections aren’t being listened to.
Ottey believes women’s increasing candor about their health- and health care-related frustrations can be traced back to the advent of social media.
Ottey describes her own struggle to finally get a diagnosis and a treatment plan for PCOS in 2008 as one that made her feel “Absolutely alone,” but in the years since, she says, she’s seen women with similar conditions and complaints find and support each other on platforms like Facebook and Twitter.
Ottey’s social-media strength-in-numbers theory is borne out in The Bleeding Edge, too: Women whose health deteriorated after getting the Essure birth-control device implanted eventually created an advocacy campaign after finding each other through a Facebook group launched in 2011.
Thirty-five thousand women had joined by the time The Bleeding Edge was filmed.
Angie Firmalino, the Facebook group’s founder, remembers being surprised at how many women quickly joined the group, despite it being a project she’d started just so she could warn her female friends about the device.
“We became a support group for each other,” Firmalino says, as a montage of selfie videos women have posted to the group page play onscreen.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Bedrest Doesn’t Work”

Various studies found that the physical effects of bed rest like bone loss, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular deconditioning can persist for months after the baby is born.
Women who spend time on bed rest are at higher risk of postpartum depression and anxiety.
One study described a “Type of sensory deprivation.” “When women spend long, isolated, fright-filled hours in bed, time is perceived as slowing down Women also feel out of control of what is happening with their bodies. Women report feeling imprisoned,” wrote the authors.
Doctors ran with Hilton’s guidance, prescribing rest for indefinite periods of time.
Rest became the treatment for heart attacks, tuberculosis, mental illness, ulcers, and rheumatic fever.
Several months of confinement, or lying-in, became the norm for affluent pregnant Victorian women.
One of the most celebrated medical authorities of the era, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell gained fame for championing what he called the “Rest cure” as an answer to the malady of the day: hysteria, a common medical diagnosis reserved largely for women.
“Hysterical” women were ordered to bed, isolated from friends and family, and instructed not to move a muscle or engage in intellectual work of any kind.

The orginal article.

Summary of “20 Years of Wisdom From Amazon’s Jeff Bezos”

There’s another founder/CEO giving Buffett a run for his money: Over the last 20 years, Amazon’s Jeff Bezos has been putting pen to paper and churning out the same type of actionable wisdom we should all be reading.
We cannot numerically estimate the effect that consistently lowering prices will have on our business over five years or ten years or more.
Optionality – i.e., being able to pursue multiple lines of business moving forward – is a key characteristic of Amazon.
Bezos looks for three things in such lines of business.
To get an idea for the kind of outside-the-box thinking that happens in Amazon’s C-Suite, look at how Bezos described the mindset used when designing the Kindle.
Bezos gets into the nitty-gritty of how Amazon constructs its technology to make the business better.
Amazon worries more about fulfilling its mission than about what the competition is up to.
Starting in 2014, Bezos made it clear that three lines of business were driving most of Amazon’s results: the online market place, Prime, and AWS. A dreamy business offering has at least four characteristics.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Best science fiction movies of all time, according to critics”

Twentieth Century Fox / Dreamworks SKG. At its best, science fiction can present a captivating, inventive picture of societal trends and flaws.
The Metacritic data we compiled here to track the most critically acclaimed sci-fi movies of all time traces a lineage of great films from Stanley Kubrick’s “2001: A Space Odyssey” through the Tom Cruise-led “Minority Report” and Spike Jonze’s “Her.”.
The resulting list includes all of the highest-rated movies that feature a “Sci-fi” tag on the site, which turned out to be a wide-ranging categorization.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Marlon Brando, on Location”

“Every time you turn around, some Japanese is giving you a present. They’re crazy about giving presents,” Brando observed.
“Give me a ring around then,” Brando said, finally.
Murray, as I knew, was only one member of what some of the “Sayonara” company referred to as “Brando’s gang.” Aside from the literary assistant, the gang consisted of Marlon Brando, Sr., who acts as his son’s business manager; a pretty, dark-haired secretary, Miss Levin; and Brando’s private makeup man.
The year of that meeting was 1947; it was a winter afternoon in New York, when I had occasion to attend a rehearsal of Tennessee Williams’ “A Streetcar Named Desire,” in which Brando was to play the role of Stanley Kowalski.
He’d come to reclaim the “Gift” packages of candy and rice cakes that Brando had already opened and avidly sampled.
“Ah, Missa Marron Brando, it is a missake. They were meant for derivery in another room. Aporogies! Aporogies!” Laughing, Brando handed the boxes over.
One of the most memorable film scenes Brando has played occurs in the Kazan-directed “On the Waterfront;” it is the car-ride scene in which Rod Steiger, as the racketeering brother, confesses he is leading Brando into a death trap.
Many years later, Stella Adler, Brando’s former drama coach, described Mrs. Brando, who died in 1954, as “a very beautiful, a heavenly, lost, girlish creature.” Always, wherever she lived, Mrs. Brando had played leads in the productions of local dramatic societies, and always she had longed for a more brightly footlighted world than her surroundings provided.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Reading Horror Can Arm Us Against A Horrifying World”

Reading Horror Can Arm Us Against A Horrifying World Why read horror stories when the real world is scary enough on its own? Because horror does more than scare us – it teaches us how to live with being scared, and how to fight back against evil.
To quote another favorite entertainer, Neil Gaiman, “Fairy tales are more than true: Not because they tell us that dragons exist, but because they tell us that dragons can be beaten.” Horror, descended from those tales, tells us about more monsters – and more strategies for beating them.
The banal evils of the world – children shot, neighbors exiled, selves reframed in an instant as inhuman threats – these are horrible, but they aren’t horror.
Horror spins everyday evil to show its fantastical face, literalizing its corroded heart into something more dramatic, something easier to imagine facing down.
Horror helps us name the original sins out of which horrible things are born.
All of which gives horror the opportunity to be radically empowering, and to condemn these evils in the starkest of terms.
How much modern horror still draws frissons of fear from disabled villains, or the threat of “Madness,” or whatever Other happens to be convenient? How many can only imagine threats as violations of white-picket-fence comfort, overcome when the monster’s defeat allows a return to that comfort for those who had it in the first place?
Horror as a genre is built around one truth: that the world is full of fearful things.

The orginal article.