Summary of “Dry Eyes Deserve Attention”

Untreated, severe dry eye disease can result in scarring, ulceration, infection and even perforation of the cornea, the clear outer layer of the eye that protects the iris, pupil and anterior chamber and accounts for much of the eye’s optical power.
“We now know that there are many hundreds of substances in tears, including 1,500 proteins, and three main components. We try to pinpoint why a particular person is experiencing dry eye and treat that person’s specific problem.”
Tears are now known to have layers: an outer fatty layer produced by the meibomian, or tarsal, glands at the rim of the eyelids; a middle watery layer from the lacrimal gland in the upper outer corner of each eye; and an inner protein-rich lubricating layer of mucin from the goblet cells of the conjunctiva that covers the whites of the eyes and lines the eyelids.
A disruption of any one of these systems can result in dry eye.
Dry eye disease also turns out to have far more possible causes – and, as a result, various specific treatments – than was once thought.
Possible causes include defects in the parts of the eye that produce each of the layers in tears; an inflammatory disease like allergy or chronic blepharitis; environmental conditions like tobacco smoke or a dry climate; a hormonal imbalance; the use of contact lenses; a vitamin deficiency; an underlying systemic disease like diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis; prolonged use of certain medications; and damage to nerves in the eye, as can happen in LASIK eye surgery.
There is much that dry eye sufferers can do for themselves.
If blepharitis is a chronic problem, wet a washcloth with hot water and apply warm compresses to the eyes every morning.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The future of management: how automation and outsourcing will change how leaders operate”

As its name implies, Orchestra conducts a swarm of workers, most of whom are freelancers, and other “Robots” to complete projects.
Automation is often associated with repetitive work such as torquing a bolt or combing through contracts during an audit.
Orchestra and other systems like it demonstrate that the management of that work, and even work too complex to fully automate, also involves tasks with high automation potential.
The future of work may have become the hot topic, but the future of management may involve an equally drastic change.
Employees at a company called MobileWorks published a paper with researchers at the University of Berkeley in 2012 describing a “Dynamic work routing system” that automatically priced tasks-everything from managing a Twitter account to digitizing stacks of business cards-and assigned them to qualified workers.
Multiple workers completed the same task to help check for accuracy.
Workers who made a lot of mistakes were assigned to practice tasks until they improved.
Konsus, which offers business services such as data entry and PowerPoint design, has created automated workflows that hand work between its pool of freelancers and automated processes.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The history of Houston’s iconic rainbow uniforms is a story worth telling”

Case in point: The Houston Astros’ famous rainbow uniform debuted in 1975.
Rollins: “McCann hadn’t done a uniform before. The team’s previous uniforms had been designed by Gulf State Advertising. That company’s gone, and so are all the principals, unfortunately.”
Caesar: “I’d never worked on a uniform before. But it was the era of the Athletics with their colorful uniforms, and other teams, like the White Sox. I think everybody was reassessing what they could do, except for the Yankees.”
Side-by-side comparison of early Astros rainbow prototype design and how the uniform eventually turned out.
The Astros stopped wearing the rainbow uniform after the 1986 season.
Echoes of Astros’ old rainbow uniform live on in the team’s Sunday jersey and vendors’ uniforms.
“And you know, that rainbow pattern is what provides continuity through the side panels on our Sunday uniforms, our vendor uniforms and more. It’s stood the test of time for every generation. So meeting these guys would be a great experience for us.”
Paul Lukas looks forward to telling the untold stories behind other uniform designs.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Peak age for intelligence: Math, vocabulary, memory, etc.”

Like the ability to read others’ emotions or do basic arithmetic, don’t arrive until middle age or beyond.
“At almost any given age, most of us are getting better at some things and worse at others,” Joshua Hartshorne, an MIT cognitive science researcher and the lead author of a study looking at how intelligence changes as we age, told Business Insider.
Their results suggest that no matter your age, there’s almost always a new peak on the horizon.
Overall brain processing power and detail memory peaks around age 18.
Young people don’t appear to be as saddled by this issue, though – a 2011 study found that humans are best at learning new names in our early 20s. Concentration abilities peak around age 43.
Having trouble focusing? A 2015 study from researchers at Harvard University and the Boston Attention and Learning Laboratory suggests that our ability to sustain attention improves with age, reaching its peak around age 43.
Peak ability to learn and understand new information also occurs around age 50.
Similar to the way your ability to do basic math peaks at age 50, your ability to learn and understand general information – like historical events and political ideas – doesn’t reach its pinnacle until around the same age, according to Hartshorne’s study.

The orginal article.

Summary of “4 Rare Things Smart Leaders Do to Get Respect”

In my research of the best features of leaders that get respect from employees, it comes down to what they do from an emotional space – how they make their employees feel.
Translated as “Go and see for yourself,” the idea behind Genchi Genbutsu is to bring leaders down from their high perches to the production floor, where they can engage with workers, ask questions, and actively listen to truly understand current issues.
Respected leaders are discovering such insights, at the ground level, are key to helping them with decision-making.
Finding the leadership trait of curiosity in your future leaders has tremendous impact, and its benefits are backed by science.
One of the factors behind it – a true blind spot for most people in management roles – is their inability to display the one strength of exceptional leaders: Vulnerability.
When employees connect above the neck with their leaders, they will walk through walls for them.
Not convinced yet? For more than four decades, global HR consulting giant Development Dimensions International has been developing millions of leaders on personal effectiveness and employee engagement.
In one study, involving 15,000 leaders from more than 300 organizations, DDI researchers set out to determine which soft skill has the highest impact on overall performance for early stage leaders.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A Chinese Threat to Australian Openness”

Chinese students are taking this approach into the Australian classroom.
A recent ABC-Fairfax report gave the example of Lupin Lu, head of the Chinese Students and Scholars Association chapter at the University of Canberra.
Ms. Lu said she would not hesitate to inform officials at the Chinese Embassy if she heard of Chinese students organizing, for example, protests against Beijing.
Some students ask to be placed in tutorial groups without other Chinese citizens so they can speak openly.
Sally Sargeson, an associate professor at the Australian National University, said to Forbes magazine that every Chinese student she asked about this problem “Said they know they are being monitored and adjust their speech so they will not get into trouble.”
When Chinese students self-censor or monitor and report on their peers, it is not necessarily because the Chinese state is bearing down on them.
Rather, many Chinese students believe that speaking out against the officially approved view, on any topic, is inappropriate.
Because many Chinese students have internalized the need to align with official views, maintaining Australia’s standards for free and open debate will remain a daunting challenge.

The orginal article.

Summary of “3 Black Swans could trigger global recession”

By late 2006, we had an inverted yield curve steep to be a high-probability indicator of recession.
Turned out the losses topped well over $2 trillion and triggered the financial crisis and Great Recession.
There is another recession in our future, which I think will ensue by the end of 2018.
Below are three scenarios that may turn out be fateful black swans.
What happens when the Fed raises interest rates in the early, uncertain stages of a recession instead of lowering them? Logic suggests the Fed will curb any inflation pressure that exists and push the economy into outright deflation.
Let me make an uncomfortable prediction: I think the Trump Fed-and since Trump will appoint at least six members of the FOMC in the coming year, it will be his Fed-will take us back down the path of massive quantitative easing and perhaps even to negative rates if we enter a recession.
President Xi Jinping has been trying to dial back credit growth in the state-owned banks for some time; but in the shadow banks that Xi doesn’t control, credit is growing at an astoundingly high rate, far offsetting any minor cutbacks that Xi has made.
It is very possible that any of these black swans could trigger a recession in the US. And let’s be clear: The next US recession will be part of a major global recession and will result in massive new government debt build-up.

The orginal article.

Summary of “MTV Mines the Past for Its Future: ‘Total Request Live'”

“If we’re going to come back and reinvent MTV, the studio is a given,” he said.
The latest strategic pivot at MTV is vital to the fortunes of Viacom, which also owns other cable channels like Comedy Central and Nickelodeon.
The company, which has experienced a chaotic year and a half, has tried to stabilize itself with a strategy targeting six core cable channels, MTV included.
Michael Nathanson, an analyst at MoffettNathanson Research, said MTV had several challenges, including a fickle audience that is preoccupied with social media platforms like Instagram and Facebook.
There have been many strategic shifts at the network in the last five years: heavy investments in scripted programming, a hiring spree for MTV News, and a seemingly endless stream of dark and dreary reality series.
MTV will unveil the revival of “TRL.” The original iteration – which featured a countdown of music videos, a studio audience and frequent appearances from star musicians – was, in a way, a throwback itself, an updated version of “American Bandstand.”
MTV is hoping the “TRL” name is enough of a star.
Charlie Walk, the president of Republic Records, which has musicians like Drake and Lorde on its talent roster, said that in recent years MTV had abandoned the music business and that bringing “TRL” back was a big step in the right direction.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What Parents Can Do to Nurture Good Writers”

Steve Graham, a professor at Arizona State University’s Teachers College, has been researching how young people learn to write for more than 30 years.
How does reading at home help children become better writers?
Should a parent correct a child’s writing, or just be encouraging?
Is social media hurting children’s writing at school?
We can use that to our advantage, working with kids on how we’d put that writing in a more formal situation.
What should parents look for to assess the writing instruction at their child’s school?
It’s like we’ve imagined that kids have acquired what they need to know to be good writers by then! In middle and high school, the most common activities are fill-in-the-blanks on worksheets, writing single sentences, making lists or writing a paragraph summary.
So the first questions are: “Is my kid writing at school, and was he given writing assignments to work on at home? Do those require writing more extended thoughts for the purposes of analysis and interpretation?” That’s what they need to be able to do for college.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A comprehensive guide to the new science of treating lower back pain”

She went on to write Crooked: Outwitting the Back Pain Industry and Getting on the Road to Recovery, an incredible tale of back pain and its treatment, published last May. The big takeaway: Millions of back patients like Ramin are floundering in a medical system that isn’t equipped to help them.
Mainstream medicine has failed people with chronic back pain Lower back pain is one of the top reasons people go to the doctor in the US, and it affects 29 percent of adult Americans, according to surveys.
“Our best understanding of low back pain is that it is a complex, biopsychosocial condition – meaning that biological aspects like structural or anatomical causes play some role but psychological and social factors also play a big role,” Roger Chou, a back pain expert and professor at Oregon Health and Science University, summarized.
Moving is probably the most important thing you can do for back pain When back pain strikes, your first instinct may be to avoid physical activity and retreat to the couch until the pain subsides.
There are two recent Cochrane reviews on spinal manipulation for low back pain: one focused on people with acute pain and the other on chronic pain.
The 2011 review on chronic low back pain found that spinal manipulation had small, short-term effects on reducing pain and improving the patient’s functional status – but this effect was about the same as other common therapies for chronic low back pain, such as exercise.
The Cochrane systematic review on massage for low back pain looked at 25 trials on massage and, like AHRQ, found short-term improvements in pain and function for both subacute and chronic low back pain but a very mixed evidence base.
“Chronic lower back pain is very prevalent, and we know some people with chronic lower back pain have used opioids for it,” he said.

The orginal article.