Summary of “Why the Covid-19 economy is devastating to millennials, in 14 charts”

A poll from the Pew Research Center conducted from April 7 to 12 found American millennials to be the most pessimistic of any age group about the future of the economy.
Given the high – and growing – cost of college education, younger millennials found themselves needing to wait longer than older millennials to see those benefits.
This is true for millennials broadly, but even more true for millennials of color.
All of this adds to the economic stress millennials – particularly millennials of color – were already facing.
Millennials delayed home buying, which means they don’t have stable equity With fewer resources, millennials have delayed buying homes – again, assets that for older Americans provide some measure of economic security amid sudden downturns like those created by the pandemic.
A 2019 report by the National Association of Real Estate Brokers found that 16 percent of black millennials owned homes in 2017, compared to 46 percent of white millennials, 34 percent of Asian American millennials, and 29 percent of Latinx millennials.
Millennials never really recovered from the Great Recession – and this time is looking worse The Great Recession hit millennials really hard.
A 2018 study by the St. Louis Federal Reserve found that while older Americans recovered in the years following the recession, millennials continued to sustain economic losses, so much so that by 2016, the median wealth of a household headed by a millennial was 34 percent lower than historical models suggested it should have been.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Convincing Boomer Parents to Take the Coronavirus Seriously”

I still think of my parents as the grownups, the ones who lecture me about saving for retirement and intervene in squabbles with my little sister.
A lot of us have spent the past week pleading with our baby-boomer parents to cook at home, rip up the cruise tickets, and step away from the grandchildren.
It’s striking that the first celebrities to announce that they had contracted COVID-19 were Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson, the closest thing that Hollywood has to fun boomer parents.
One friend writes that her doctor parents have been “Overcautious” for a month, and plenty of others have rightfully hunkered down.
It’s a normal part of the life cycle for adult children to start parenting their parents.
This generational role reversal may be a prelude to the demographic shift to come, as baby boomers age out of late-late “Middle age” and are forced to relinquish their invincibility, while their children take on the burdens of caring for elderly-yes, elderly-parents.
It’s a twisted inverse of the generation gap of the sixties, when young boomers screamed across the table at their parents about Vietnam-except that now we’re telling ours not to leave their homes.
The literary agent Lucy Carson pleaded on Twitter, “Best advice for convincing a diabetic boomer parent to stop commuting into the city? Rage-sobbing into the phone isn’t helping my cause.” At Vogue, Molly Jong-Fast wrote about a similar dynamic with her “Fabulous feminist mother,” the generation-chronicling author Erica Jong.

The orginal article.

Summary of “You’re Never Too Old to Become Fluent in a Foreign Language”

A 2018 study on second language learning took the media by storm.
There’s a good reason for this: fluency is not what the study’s authors, or any other scientists studying the effect of age in foreign language learning, are interested in.
To be fluent in another language means that you can communicate with relative ease, that is, without it being a real strain on either the speaker or the listener.
Pretty much anyone can become fluent in pretty much any language at pretty much any age.
It’s not even true that young children learn languages faster than older children or adults: if you expose different age groups to the same amount of instruction in a foreign language, the older ones invariable do better, both initially and in the long run.
The claim that its findings suggest that after age ten you are too old to learn a foreign language fluently is one of the worst misrepresentations of a scientific outcome that I have ever seen.
Questions of how and why micro-features of grammar are learned in a second language have important implications for linguistic theory, but they are of little consequence to the actual learner.
You can become a perfectly fluent speaker of a foreign language at any age, and small imperfections of grammar or accent often just add to the charm.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Do We Really Live Longer Than Our Ancestors?”

The average person born in 1960, the earliest year the United Nations began keeping global data, could expect to live to 52.5 years of age.
The natural conclusion is that both the miracles of modern medicine and public health initiatives have helped us live longer than ever before – so much so that we may be running out of innovations to extend life further.
“You need to live in a world where you have a certain amount of documentation where it can even be possible to tell if someone lived to 105 or 110, and that only started quite recently,” Scheidel points out.
If a man got to the age of 21 and didn’t die by accident, violence or poison, he could be expected to live almost as long as men today: from 1200 to 1745, 21-year-olds would reach an average age of anywhere between 62 and 70 years – except for the 14th Century, when the bubonic plague cut life expectancy to a paltry 45.
By the late 17th Century, English nobles who made it to 25 went on to live longer than their non-noble counterparts – even as they continued to live in the more risk-ridden cities.
As researchers Judith Rowbotham, now at the University of Plymouth, and Paul Clayton, of Oxford Brookes University, write, “Once the dangerous childhood years were passed life expectancy in the mid-Victorian period was not markedly different from what it is today.” A five-year-old girl would live to 73; a boy, to 75.
Data from modern-day foragers, who have no access to medicine or modern food, write Michael Gurven and Cristina Gomes, finds that “While at birth mean life expectancies range from 30 to 37 years of life, women who survive to age 45 can expect to live an additional 20 to 22 years” – in other words, from 65 to 67 years old.
That’s not to delegitimise the extraordinary advances of the last few decades which have helped so many more people reach that maximum lifespan, and live healthier lives overall.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Research indicates at least four patterns of biological aging”

The aim was to detect patterns common to all as we age as well as patterns that vary from person to person.
Emerging from that study, published this week in the journal Nature Medicine, is the idea that individuals age along at least four biological “Pathways.” While one person may be most prone to decline in the function of his kidneys, another may experience the most age-related degradation in the liver, the immune system or in metabolic function, the findings suggest.
Most of us likely age along some or all those fronts, if not more, said Stanford geneticist Michael Snyder, who led the research.
In the second study, scientists from USC’s Buck Institute for Research on Aging profiled the known universe of tissues and cells that can reveal the biological age of the human body.
Researchers increasing suspect that when you disrupt the development of one disease of aging, you may help protect against others – a principle called the “Unitary theory of fundamental aging processes.” If senescent cells and the inflammation they trigger could be brought under control, perhaps many age-related diseases – indeed, unhealthy aging itself – could be averted and the experience of aging might be far less miserable.
While the list is likely to expand with further research, the authors suggest that people tend to age most along one of four distinct biological pathways: metabolic, immune, hepatic and nephrotic.
Dr. Zoltan Arany who studies aging processes at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine, said that while it probed a very wide range of measures and looked for changes over time, determining whether they actually cause aging or are innocent bystanders of the process “Will require a lot of further work.”
Even after scientists have established the common roots of age-related diseases – a task that is far from complete – there’s still hard work ahead, said Dr. James L. Kirkland, who studies aging at the Mayo Clinic.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Gen X Women Get Less Sleep Than Any Other Generation. Why?”

Members of Generation X like me-those born between 1965 and 1980-report sleeping fewer hours per night than their Silent Generation grandparents, Boomers, Millennials and Generation Z. Sleeplessness is particularly common among Gen X women, a third of whom get less than seven hours a night on average.
A 2017 national report found that perimenopausal women were least likely to sleep more than seven hours a night, followed by postmenopausal women.
“By many objective measures, the lives of women in the United States have improved over the past thirty-five years,” wrote the authors of an analysis of General Social Survey data a decade ago, as the oldest members of Generation X entered middle age.
When Sheehy wrote a new introduction to Passages in 2006, she acknowledged that Gen X women were playing a whole new ballgame: “There are still broad, general stages of adulthood, and predictable passages between them. But the timetable has stretched by at least ten years, and counting. Age norms for major life events have become highly elastic. Since there is no longer a standard life cycle, people are left to customize their own.” Women of this generation, she wrote, are living “Cyclical lives that demand they start over again and again.”
Middle age is different for Gen X women than it was for our mothers and grandmothers.
Middle-aged Gen X women bear financial responsibilities that men had in the old days while still saddled with traditional caregiving duties.
For Gen X women, all of these stressors are exacerbated by the profound changes our bodies go through in the years leading up to menopause.
The unique confluence of stressors and hormonal shifts poses a sort of chicken-or-egg problem for Gen X women: the symptoms of hormonal fluctuation are exacerbated by stress, while those symptoms in turn raise stress levels.

The orginal article.

Summary of “5 Famous Scientists That Started Their Work as Young Teens”

History is full of scientists who have shaped the world due to their work as teenagers.
Isaac Newton – During Newton’s formative years, it was common place for the young man to develop various devices while attending school.
Although his mother attempted to make a farmer of him by removing young Isaac from school, the schoolmaster and his uncle suggested to his mother that he return to school to finish his education.
Isaac Newton attended Cambridge University upon finishing school in 1661.
From there, Albert Einstein attended Aargau Cantonal School in Aarau, Switzerland where he graduated with passing grades in some subjects and receiving the highest grade scale possible in mathematics and physics.
His theories have laid the ground work for many scientists of today and is most notable for the Theory of Relativity.
The young man changed his degree from medical sciences to mathematics after attending a lecture on geometry.
Blaise Pascal – Did you know that your Windows-based computer system has a tool installed that was invented 350 years ago? Blaise Pascal began work on calculating devices and prototypes at the age of 16, in 1642.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Say Goodbye to the Information Age: It’s All About Reputation Now”

From the ‘information age’, we are moving towards the ‘reputation age’, in which information will have value only if it is already filtered, evaluated and commented upon by others.
If you are asked why you believe that big changes in the climate are occurring and can dramatically harm future life on Earth, the most reasonable answer you’re likely to provide is that you trust the reputation of the sources of information to which you usually turn for acquiring information about the state of the planet.
Without an evaluative judgment about the reliability of a certain source of information, that information is, for all practical purposes, useless.
The paradigm shift from the age of information to the age of reputation must be taken into account when we try to defend ourselves from ‘fake news’ and other misinformation and disinformation techniques that are proliferating through contemporary societies.
Whenever we are at the point of accepting or rejecting new information, we should ask ourselves: Where does it come from? Does the source have a good reputation? Who are the authorities who believe it? What are my reasons for deferring to these authorities? Such questions will help us to get a better grip on reality than trying to check directly the reliability of the information at issue.
In the reputation age, our critical appraisals should be directed not at the content of information but rather at the social network of relations that has shaped that content and given it a certain deserved or undeserved ‘rank’ in our system of knowledge.
They prepare us to question and assess the reputation of an information source, something that philosophers and teachers should be crafting for future generations.
A civilised cyber-world will be one where people know how to assess critically the reputation of information sources, and can empower their knowledge by learning how to gauge appropriately the social ‘rank’ of each bit of information that enters their cognitive field.

The orginal article.

Summary of “New Tests Use Epigenetics to Guess How Fast You’re Aging”

Just be aware that tests from different companies will measure different sets of patterns, and the results may not match.
Epigenetic tests don’t need to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and company disclaimers state that they don’t screen for or assess disease risk.
Some life insurance companies have begun using the tests, along with the usual physical exams and family history, to predict your lifespan.
Horvath took his own test when he was 51, to see what it would tell him about how fast he is aging.
Beginning in January, her newest epigenetic clock will be sold as a commercial test beginning in January for $500 from the company Elysium Health, where she is head of bioinformatics.
Levine views the test as a tool for personalized prevention, enabling people to see if their healthy lifestyle changes cause their epigenetic age to decline, making them biologically younger.
Commercial epigenetic testing is in its infancy, so consumers should be wary if companies make claims about a specific disease risk or offer to precisely predict lifespan-or use the results to market other products, says Robert Green, a medical geneticist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston who has studied direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
If you learn from an epigenetic test that you should improve your diet, lose weight, stop smoking, exercise more, and get more sleep-well, that’s advice you knew before shelling out a few hundred bucks.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Will 90 Become The New 60?”

In 1946 the newly founded Gerontological Society of America cited, in the first article of the first issue of its Journal of Gerontology, the need to concern ourselves to add “Not more years to life, but more life to years.” The dictum was famously sharpened 15 years later by Robert Kennedy when he told the delegates at the first White House Conference on Aging “We have added years to life; it is time to think about how we add life to years.” Political theorist and futurist Francis Fukuyama was particularly eloquent but hardly alone when he warned two decades ago that if we maintain our obsession with extending life at all costs, society may “Increasingly come to resemble a giant nursing home.”
Life expectancies have been increasing at a steady rate of 3 months per year for the past 175 years, and on average, expert calculations of the maximum possible human lifespan have been exceeded an average of five years after being made.
Specifically, the average age of onset of arthritis was 64.7 years for the WWII veterans, but only 53.7 years for the Civil War veterans.
Heart disease started nearly 10 years later, and chronic respiratory disease more than 11 years.
Comparing the Union Army results with late 20th-century health surveys has led to estimates of disability-rate declines of 0.6 percent per year, accelerating to 1.7 percent per year in the 1980s and 1990s.
Perhaps more immediately relevant, Americans aged 65 saw their remaining life expectancy increase from 15 to 19 years, with 2.5 of the 4 extra years being disability-free.
When the U.S. National Institutes of Health first founded its Aging Unit-later the National Institute on Aging-in 1940, it announced the goal of research in “The problems of aging,” particularly “The period between 40 and 60 years of age.”4.On the other hand, the story of morbidity compression could be about to change.
Disease-free life expectancy after age 65 barely increased, from 8.0 to 8.6, while years with disease increased from 9.5 to 9.7.

The orginal article.