Summary of “How the Tuberculosis Epidemic Influenced Modernist Architecture”

The first tuberculosis sanatorium in the United States was founded by a doctor named Edward Livingston Trudeau-who had consumption himself-in the Adirondacks town of Saranac Lake, New York, in 1885.
Not unlike the sanatorium, the new architecture was intended to cure the perceived physical, nervous, and moral ailments brought on by crowded cities.
Patients who were more mobile took the sun and fresh air on the roof terrace.
Perhaps the best-known of all of Aalto’s furniture designs, the Paimio chair was made from bent birch plywood, which made it easy to clean, and was angled to ease the patient’s breathing.
Peter MacKeith, dean of architecture at the University of Arkansas, says that while Paimio adheres to many formal principles of Modernism-by concentrating patient rooms in one wing and social spaces in another, for instance -it also adapts them in ways that are more approachable and responsive to the overall site, climate conditions, and patients’ needs.
Remote sanatoria got patients away from the dirty, crowded cities, but also provided them with beneficial views of nature-another focus of Modernist architects.
The overlap between Modernism and sanatorium design is one reason for the movement’s association with sterility-the Modernist obsession with hygiene was real.
“One of the very common criticisms of modern architecture … is that it’s usually presented and understood as being derived from a very mechanistic approach. As opposed to an architecture that’s much more derived [from human] anatomy itself and all of the interrelated systems that we have,” MacKeith said.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Will the Millennial Aesthetic Ever End?”

The millennial aesthetic promises a kind of teleology of taste: as if we have only now, finally, thanks to innovation and refinement, arrived at the objectively correct way for things to look.
If you simultaneously can’t afford any frills and can’t afford any failure, you end up with millennial design: crowd-pleasing, risk-averse, calling just enough attention to itself to make it clear that you tried.
For a cohort reared to achieve and then released into an economy where achievement held no guarantees, the millennial aesthetic provides something that looks a little like bourgeois stability, at least.
No account of the millennial aesthetic could fail to address pink: For the better part of a decade, millennial pink bedeviled anyone a color could bedevil.
One of the first soft, pink harbingers of the millennial aesthetic appeared in 2004, created by Tracy Jenkins, then a graphic-design M.F.A. student at Yale.
Before Samuel began working on interiors, her training was in graphic design, which has proved to be an advantage: “I think about it in all the different points of view – how it will look flat in a photo as well as how it moves as a space.” The summary of services she provides clients in her contract promises “Instagram-ready interiors.” The millennial aesthetic flows freely between physical space and flat image, between brands and the people who buy.
In the 2019 book How to Start a Revolution, Lauren Duca complains on behalf of a millennial cohort about politicians’ “Refusing to cater to us as political customers.” Market to me better, she demands: “Assembling the stock crap that my generation is drawn to doesn’t require a marketing genius. You get a potted plant, a neon sign, and a nice bold sans-serif font, and boom, you’ve got a subway ad for the latest disruptive millennial brand.” She seems to be saying that she does indeed want politicians to assemble that stock crap, but still, it’s hard to miss the note of contempt.
The Buttigieg campaign’s strenuously millennial design efforts seemed to have primarily inspired millennial disdain.

The orginal article.

Summary of “From ‘Emma’ to Natalie Portman, a dress can be worth a thousand words”

Emma is a heroine whom Austen was convinced her readers wouldn’t like.
Emma’s beauty is also a privilege, allowing her to dress simply – unlike the vicar’s crass, social-climbing wife, Mrs. Elton, whose dark hair is styled to match Emma’s but crowned with absurd “Trimmings” of bows and ribbons.
Emma stands on a stool in front of her fireplace, exquisitely dressed, like a statue on a pedestal, only to briefly hitch up her skirt to warm her bare backside – a hint that the goddess is human after all.
At her first ball, eldest sister Meg borrows a low-cut, sugar-pink dress from a rich friend – a disguise of finery that works until she encounters Laurie, her childhood friend and neighbor, who tells her he hates the dress for its “Fuss and feathers.” As in “Emma,” the dislike of gaudy display is a moral judgment, not just an aesthetic one.
Emma argues to Mr. Knightley that her poor and pretty young friend Harriet has every chance of marrying well because looks and charm always turn men’s heads.
Their arguments notwithstanding, both Emma and Amy end up happily paired with their combatants.
On the red carpet at this year’s Oscars – an occasion as carefully costume-designed as any movie – Natalie Portman drew attention for her Dior cape, subtly embroidered with the names of eight women, including Gerwig and Sciamma, who were overlooked for directing honors.
As women battle to make headway against inequality, just as they did two centuries ago, sometimes a dress is more than just a dress.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Four-Letter Code to Selling Just About Anything”

Became the father of industrial design, Raymond Loewy boarded the SS France in 1919 to sail across the Atlantic from his devastated continent to the United States.
At the age of 25, Loewy was looking to start fresh in New York, perhaps, he thought, as an electrical engineer.
Loewy’s Starliner CoupĂ© from the early 1950s-nicknamed the “Loewy CoupĂ©”-is still one of the most influential automotive designs of the 20th century.
In 1932, Loewy met for the first time with the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Locomotive design at the time hadn’t advanced much beyond Thomas the Tank Engine-pronounced chimneys, round faces, and exposed wheels.
His first designs met with considerable skepticism, but Loewy was undaunted.
A great industrial designer, it turns out, needs to be an anthropologist first and an artist second: Loewy studied how people lived and how machines worked, and then he offered new, beautiful designs that piggybacked on engineers’ tastes and consumers’ habits.
Soon after his first meeting with the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Loewy helped the company design the GG-1, an electric locomotive covered in a single welded-steel plate.
One of Loewy’s final assignments as an industrial designer was to add an element of familiarity to a truly novel invention: nasa’s.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How This One Font Took Over the World”

If the advertisements in the train stations and bus stops in your city don’t use Gotham, they probably use a Gotham look-alike.
Gotham is everywhere, as the name of one of the Tumblr accounts dedicated to tracking its prevalence suggests, but how did it become so ubiquitous? How does a typeface take over so thoroughly in such a short period of time – and what do advertisers across every industry like so much about it?
Gotham is a geometric sans serif – sans serif meaning it lacks the little feet in the corners of letters you’d see in a typeface like Times New Roman, and geometric alluding to the influence of basic shapes in its design.
With the addition of new designers on the team, the campaign took a very different visual direction, paving the way for a re-election campaign that would prominently feature Gotham in its original and custom slab serif forms.
At the time that Obama switched over to Gotham in 2008, more traditional serif typefaces dominated the political sphere; now, in the 2020 primary, geometric-leaning sans serifs are all the rage, along with bold colors well outside the traditional red and blue palette.
You likely wouldn’t immediately peg Gotham as “The Obama font,” or “The Saturday Night Live font,” or “The Spotify font,” would you? In its universality, Gotham resists being pigeon-holed, allowing it to be used by major brand after major brand without becoming stale.
In the nearly two decades since Gotham’s arrival, the already well-populated field of pared-down sans serifs has seen an explosion in the world of advertising.
Gotham look-alikes including Raleway, Montserrat, and Gibson have taken up the mantle of clean, straightforward sans serifs, alongside Gotham progenitors like Avenir and Proxima Nova.

The orginal article.

Summary of “There’s Already a Blueprint for a More Accessible Internet. If Only Designers Would Learn It”

Using his platform as Google’s “Chief internet evangelist,” Cerf has been proselytizing about how bad design results in injustice.
Creating a more accessible internet rests on the shoulders of designers and developers who make web content.
Lazar suggests software companies could train designers to build accessible sites.
In a lecture at Google in July 2017, he proposed a scenario where software prompts designers to follow WCAG principles, as part of the normal production process.
What if design tools required designers to add tags to every element they introduce, much like commerce sites compel us to supply personal data to proceed with a transaction.
Adobe Illustrator has a useful, but little-known Color Blind Proof Setup Mode, which gives graphic designers a preview of how their work will be perceived by individuals with red-green colorblindness.
Kat Holmes, who previously led the Inclusive Design practice at Microsoft, notes that accessible design can even lead to innovation.
“There’s a long history of innovations designed with and by excluded communities that have become a part of everyday life for many more people,” she explains to Quartz.

The orginal article.

Summary of “From the Ashes: Rwanda’s Traditional Imigongo Art Is on the Rise”

You might never guess that “Imigongo” art from Rwanda, which is characterized bold, geometric designs, is actually made of cow dung.
In Rwanda, bold, geometric imigongo art adorns the huts of traditional villages and the lobbies of the country’s finest boutique hotels.
The hottest fashion design shops and artisan studios in the capital of Kigali proudly carry pieces of imigongo art on their shelves.
In the disarray that followed the genocide, the art form nearly disappeared; but now, riding the wave of cultural resurgence that’s taking over the country 25 years later, imigongo stands as a symbol of incredible resilience and ingenuity-like Rwandans themselves.
A replica of a traditional Rwandan village near Volcanoes National Park features huts with imigongo designs.
Although supposedly invented by a prince, imigongo has traditionally been a women’s art form.
You can find imigongo in the several design shops and artisan studios in Kigali that profile these artists’ work.
Head out along the RN3 road and you’ll pass several artisan cooperatives such as the Imigongo Art Center and craft coffee shop in Kayonza and the Ikora Imigongo Kirehe in Kaziba village.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Twitch streamer behind Tfue’s custom $3,500 mechanical keyboard”

Most recently, Kim put together a custom mechanical keyboard for Turner “Tfue” Tenney, one of the world’s most popular Twitch streamers and among the most famous Fortnite competitors currently playing the game.
Tfue was already a custom keyboard enthusiast, after starting out early on in his Fortnite stardom helping popularize a 60 percent keyboard – a compact model ideal for gaming because of how little space it takes up – called the Ducky One 2 Mini.
Tfue graduated from there to more luxury models designed and assembled by a growing community of mechanical keyboard enthusiasts like Kim, who caught Tfue’s eye when he advertised his services in the streamer’s Twitch chat.
Kim worked closely with North Carolina-based custom keyboard shop Keycult, one of his main sponsors, to get the custom case and circuit board manufactured.
The streamer unboxed the keyboard live on his Twitch channel to nearly 30,000 viewers on Monday afternoon, with a mic held up close so viewers could hear the Cream switches as he tested them out.
That’s where Kim sees his future – as a content creator in the ever-expanding mechanical keyboard space.
Another video of him building a custom keyboard for popular Apex Legends streamer Coby “Dizzy” Meadows last year, featuring the full two-hour and 44-minute live stream from his Twitch channel, has been watched nearly 800,000 times.
His goal now is to build his Twitch and YouTube channels, and to become a respected source of information on mechanical keyboards that will continue sending big-name streamers his way.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Redesign Cities to Fight Loneliness”

You may also underestimate the effects of loneliness.
Federal MP Andrew Giles, in a recent speech, said: “I’m convinced we need to consider responding to loneliness as a responsibility of government.”
What do cities have to do with loneliness? “The way we build and organize our cities can help or hinder social connection,” reads a Grattan Institute report.
The students, using design as a research methodology, came up with potential architectural and urban responses to loneliness.
Having a pet is one of the most effective ways to tackle loneliness, but often people don’t have enough time to care for one.
Beverley Wang looked at loneliness in the aging population.
There is an utterly different kind of loneliness that accompanies the loss of a loved one.
Without claiming to solve loneliness, design can be a important tool in response to it.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Interior design trends that defined the 2010s”

The 2010s tested interior design like no other decade.
EARLY 2010s During the early 2010s, post-recession belt tightening informed interior design.
MID 2010s Design began to soften during the middle of the 2010s, a time when many more products entered the picture.
Interior design trends became bigger and more viral during the mid-2010s.
Interior design startups tried to capitalize on this, too.
Homepolish, an affordable interior design services website founded in 2011, raised $20 million in funding in 2016.
Eclecticism While design from the early and mid 2010s pulled from modernism, the late 2010s have progressed into postmodernism, which embraced eclecticism, historicism, and plurality.
Direct-to-consumer home The direct-to-consumer business model pioneered by Warby Parker began to enter the home and interior design space in the mid-2010s-Casper was founded in 2014-and went full steam ahead in 2018 with numerous cookware, tableware, paint, bed linen, and houseplant companies adopting similar strategies and aesthetics.

The orginal article.