Summary of “Why Living in a Poor Neighborhood Can Change Your Biology”

The people who did move to better neighborhoods didn’t change their diets or daily lifestyles.
The people who moved out of poor neighborhoods were healthier.
The HUD study, and subsequent research, have shown that something more than race, individual behavior, or genetics is taking a toll on the health of people who live in poor neighborhoods: stress.
In its early stages, drugs that increase sensitivity to insulin, along with diet and exercise, can restore some cell function in people with Type 2; later, people with Type 2 diabetes need insulin injections to keep high blood sugar in check.
A recent Pew Charitable Trusts study found that 66 percent of African Americans born between 1985 and 2000 lived in neighborhoods where at least 20 percent of people were poor.
African-Americans and whites living at or near the poverty line had higher rates of diabetes than their wealthier peers.
That’s not the case: Black Africans have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and depression than their distant cousins in the U.S. And Hasson says Type 2 diabetes among blacks and Hispanics drops just as fast as among whites in response to changes in exercise or diet-powerful evidence that there’s no inherent physiological difference at play.
“Hasson, of the University of Michigan, praises Obama.”She’s bringing attention to the fact that people need to get out and start moving, and people are starting to ask: “How can we motivate people to start moving again?” Hasson says.

The orginal article.

Summary of “‘It’s Kind of Crazy in a Developed Country’: Inside the Amputation Crisis in the Rio Grande Valley”

A couple of months after the blister appeared, Zamora drove 2 miles to Valley Baptist Medical Center, where doctors quickly diagnosed him: His diabetes, uncontrolled for years, had blocked blood flow to his toe, preventing it from healing.
Perhaps the most visceral indication of the Valley’s diabetes crisis is the shocking number of people living with amputations.
Gregg, who worked on the study, told the Observer that though diabetes care overall has improved, the “Alarming” findings are a “Wake-up call.” He says amputations are important indicators that something went wrong with diabetes management, because they’re generally preventable in patients who can access diabetes education and primary care.
A family physician who’s originally from Brownsville, Oliveira opened the first wound care center in the Rio Grande Valley in the early ’90s. At his Edinburg clinic, tucked into a complex of buildings at Doctors Hospital at Renaissance, most of his patients are diabetic, with stubborn wounds that refuse to heal.
Diabetics had to travel hours to get this kind of care, said Oliveira, who co-founded the Rio Grande Valley Diabetes Association in 2007.
“Everybody’s big on the amputations, but not big on the preventive care part. They’re so busy doing hospital consults on patients that already need an amputation. They don’t have time to do the preventive care.” In the Rio Grande Valley, the numbers are more stark.
Researchers at UTHealth estimate that nearly 30 percent of adults in the Rio Grande Valley are diabetic, and more than one-third of Valley diabetics don’t know they have the disease.
Another community program aims to reach people at risk of diabetes before it gets too bad. At a makeshift clinic in the pulga, or flea market, in Alamo, nestled among booths hawking tropical fruits, used clothing and Mexican candy, health workers offer free diabetes testing and consultation.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Diabetes Patients Pressure Drugmakers Over High Price Of Insulin”

Unlike Type 2 diabetes, which can sometimes be controlled by diet, people with Type 1 diabetes need daily insulin injections to regulate their blood sugar.
They are putting pressure on the three main companies that make insulin: Sanofi of France, Novo Nordisk of Denmark, and Eli Lilly and Co. in the U.S. Taking on the drugmakers.
In October Minnesota’s attorney general sued insulin manufacturers alleging price gouging, and a bipartisan caucus in the U.S. Congress issued a report in November urging action to bring insulin prices down.
Nonprofit group T1International, which advocates for Type 1 diabetes around the world, with a particular focus on insulin prices, has started holding rallies outside the Indianapolis headquarters of pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and Co. Lautner joined more than 70 people who came together to demonstrate there in September.
They were asking for three things: transparency about how much it costs to make a vial of insulin and how much profit comes from each vial, and a commitment from the company to lower the list price of insulin.
While there are cheaper versions of insulin available over-the-counter, they work differently than most insulin prescribed by doctors, and it can be difficult to guess at the right dosage and timing.
Most people with Type 1 diabetes use two types of insulin: short-acting insulin to counteract the carbohydrates consumed with meals, and long-acting insulin to keep blood sugar stable throughout the day.
They’ve met with legislators in all three states about establishing emergency insulin prescription refills and about making the cost of insulin more transparent.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Stress Around You Could Cause Obesity or Diabetes”

When they went back and measured the differences between people who got vouchers and people who didn’t, the results were remarkable: The people who got vouchers to move to low-poverty neighborhoods had significantly lower rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes.
“By dint of the design, the cause of the difference in diabetes and obesity was the voucher and the move to a less-distressed neighborhood,” Whitaker says.
“The amazing thing is that the cause of the difference in obesity and diabetes was the move.”
“Even if you’re not stress-eating, there’s a direct link between cortisol and Type 2 diabetes risk, and cortisol and obesity,” Hasson says.
In its early stages, drugs that increase sensitivity to insulin, along with diet and exercise, can restore some cell function in people with Type 2; later, people with Type 2 diabetes need insulin injections to keep high blood sugar in check.
That’s not the case: Black Africans have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and depression than their distant cousins in the U.S. And Hasson says Type 2 diabetes among blacks and Hispanics drops just as fast as among whites in response to changes in exercise or diet-powerful evidence that there’s no inherent physiological difference at play.
He’s spent a decade and a half hunting for genes that contribute to racial differences in obesity and diabetes.
Perhaps no program is as identified with the individual approach to preventing obesity and Type 2 diabetes as Michelle Obama’s “Let’s Move.” With the telegenic First Lady as its figurehead, the program has put a spotlight on encouraging kids and adults to exercise more and eat less.

The orginal article.

Summary of “‘Spectacular’ diabetes treatment could end daily insulin injections”

A potential medical breakthrough that could put an end to the daily insulin injections endured by people living with diabetes has been unveiled by Dutch scientists.
It is believed there is a link between nutrient absorption by the mucus membrane in the small intestine and the development of insulin resistance among people with type 2 diabetes.
Jacques Bergman, a professor of gastroenterology at Amsterdam UMC, said: “Because of this treatment the use of insulin can be postponed or perhaps prevented. That is promising.”
People with type 2 diabetes aged between 28 and 75 are now being recruited for a larger study of 100 people.
Type 1 diabetes is where the level of sugar in the blood is too high because the pancreas does not produce insulin.
Those with type 2 diabetes are not producing enough insulin.
Most people will need to take tablets or inject insulin after living with it for five to 10 years.
Nine out of 10 people diagnosed with diabetes have type 2.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The $250 Biohack That’s Revolutionizing Life With Diabetes”

Sydney, now 15, is still using an updated version of that DIY system, which, because a fellow DIYer donated the pump, cost only $250 to make.
There are plenty of potential converts: In the U.S. alone, about 1.3 million people have Type 1 diabetes, and there are indications the technology could also help some sufferers of Type 2, the group that accounts for most of the world’s 422 million diabetes cases.
Although no users have reported a disastrous malfunction, trusting your life to a DIY pancreas carries obvious risks.
“You’ve got a group that is circumventing all of the controls that are in place,” says Hooman Hakami, president of the diabetes group at Medtronic Plc, the leader in the $8.3 billion market for old-school diabetes devices.
Ben West, a programmer and diabetes patient in San Francisco, had decided to hack the pump.
Medtronic, which sells about $2 billion worth of diabetes devices a year, is among the companies that have come to regard the DIY community as allies.
Company reps meet with DIYers regularly to help them better understand how new technologies such as fast-acting insulin will affect their system, says Ali Dianaty, who handles R&D in Medtronic’s intensive insulin management unit.
Marie Schiller, who runs Eli Lilly’s two-year-old artificial pancreas project-and has used the Loop app for her own diabetes treatment-has invited hackers including West, Lewis, and Leibrand to talk to her developers.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Air Pollution Causes Diabetes”

The study authors controlled for things like obesity and BMI, so it wasn’t the case that heavier people simply lived in more polluted neighborhoods and were also more likely to get diabetes.
When there’s lots of PM2.5 in the air, the air might look smoggy or hazy.
Previous research has found that Latino children living in areas with more air pollution had a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
This new study makes an even stronger case, suggesting that the current limits on air pollution in the United States might be too high.
The EPA’s pollution threshold on particulate matter is 12 μg/m3, or micrograms per cubic meter of air, but this study says the risk of diabetes starts at about 2.4 μg/m3.
Among people exposed to between five and 10 μg/m3 of particulate matter, about 21 percent developed diabetes.
For each 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter, the risk of developing diabetes goes up by 15 percent.
“We have some of the cleanest air in the world, and there’s scientific data that this has protected millions of lives and contributed to the longevity of American citizens.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “7 Foods That Lower Blood Sugar”

This condition is when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be type 2 diabetes.
Although those with prediabetes have up to a 50% chance of developing diabetes over the next five to 10 years, with lifestyle changes – like eating foods that lower blood sugar.
Eat every 3 to 6 hoursHave breakfast within an hour or two of waking up and then eat a snack or meal every three to six hours after that, says Rebecca Denison, RD, doctor of integrative medicine and diabetes educator at Greater Baltimore Medical Center’s Geckle Diabetes and Nutrition Center.
“You want to eat just a teeny bit before you actually need it so that your body doesn’t have to figure out how to keep your blood sugar stable,” Denison explains.
“Evidence suggests you may need to secrete more insulin to regulate your blood sugar compared to eating earlier in the day.”
THE BEST FOODS TO LOWER YOUR BLOOD SUGARFocusing on the following foods can help regulate your blood sugar.
Whole grains Eating whole grains has been shown to cause blood sugar levels to rise more slowly after a meal and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Replacing half a serving of eggs, bread, rice, or baked potato with legumes daily also was associated with lower risk of diabetes incidence.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Stress Around You Could Cause Obesity or Diabetes”

When they went back and measured the differences between people who got vouchers and people who didn’t, the results were remarkable: The people who got vouchers to move to low-poverty neighborhoods had significantly lower rates of obesity and Type 2 diabetes.
“By dint of the design, the cause of the difference in diabetes and obesity was the voucher and the move to a less-distressed neighborhood,” Whitaker says.
“The amazing thing is that the cause of the difference in obesity and diabetes was the move.”
“Even if you’re not stress-eating, there’s a direct link between cortisol and Type 2 diabetes risk, and cortisol and obesity,” Hasson says.
In its early stages, drugs that increase sensitivity to insulin, along with diet and exercise, can restore some cell function in people with Type 2; later, people with Type 2 diabetes need insulin injections to keep high blood sugar in check.
That’s not the case: Black Africans have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and depression than their distant cousins in the U.S. And Hasson says Type 2 diabetes among blacks and Hispanics drops just as fast as among whites in response to changes in exercise or diet-powerful evidence that there’s no inherent physiological difference at play.
He’s spent a decade and a half hunting for genes that contribute to racial differences in obesity and diabetes.
Perhaps no program is as identified with the individual approach to preventing obesity and Type 2 diabetes as Michelle Obama’s “Let’s Move.” With the telegenic First Lady as its figurehead, the program has put a spotlight on encouraging kids and adults to exercise more and eat less.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Apple Watch can detect diabetes with an 85% accuracy, Cardiogram study says”

The study is part of the larger DeepHeart study with Cardiogram and UCSF. This particular study used data from 14,000 Apple Watch users and was able to detect that 462 of them had diabetes by using the Watch’s heart rate sensor, the same type of sensor other fitness bands using Android Wear also integrate into their systems.
In 2015, the Framingham Heart Study showed that resting heart rate and heart rate variability significantly predicted incident diabetes and hypertension.
Previously, Ballinger and his colleagues were able to use Apple’s Watch to detect an abnormal heart rhythm with up to a 97 percent accuracy, sleep apnea with a 90 percent accuracy and hypertension with an 82 percent accuracy when paired with Cardiogram’s AI-based algorithm.
Diabetes is a huge – and growing – problem in the U.S. More than 100 million U.S. adults are now living with pre-diabetes or diabetes and more than 1 in 4 of them go undiagnosed, according to the CDC. Part of the problem is the pain that goes into checking blood glucose levels.
While there have been other attempts to build special-purpose glucose-sensing hardware, this is the first large-scale study showing that ordinary heart rate sensors-when paired with an artificial intelligence-based algorithm-can identify diabetes with no extra hardware.
So what’s next? Ballinger and his colleague on the study Johnson Hsieh mentioned they could be looking at a number of diseases to detect through heart sensors, possibly even gestational diabetes.
Hsieh also cautions that those tested were already known to have diabetes or pre-diabetes and that anyone who thinks they might have it should go to their doctor, not just rely on the Watch to tell them what’s going on.
We’ll just have to wait and see what else the Apple Watch and other fitness monitors with a built-in heart rate sensor are able to tell us about ourselves next.

The orginal article.