Summary of “Mansa Musa: The richest man who ever lived”

“Contemporary accounts of Musa’s wealth are so breathless that it’s almost impossible to get a sense of just how wealthy and powerful he truly was,” Rudolph Butch Ware, associate professor of history at the University of California, told the BBC. Mansa Musa was “Richer than anyone could describe”, Jacob Davidson wrote about the African king for Money.com in 2015.
The 10 richest men of all time Mansa Musa wealth incomprehensible.
Mansa Musa left such a memorable impression on Cairo that al-Umari, who visited the city 12 years after the Malian king, recounted how highly the people of Cairo were speaking of him.
On his way back home, Mansa Musa passed through Egypt again, and according to some, tried to help the country’s economy by removing some of the gold from circulation by borrowing it back at extortionate interest rates from Egyptian lenders.
There is no doubt that Mansa Musa spent, or wasted, a lot of gold during his pilgrimage.
Mansa Musa had put Mali and himself on the map, quite literally.
After Mansa Musa died in 1337, aged 57, the empire was inherited by his sons who could not hold the empire together.
“The history of the medieval period is still largely seen only as a Western history,” says Lisa Corrin Graziose, director of the Block Museum of Art, explaining why the story of Mansa Musa is not widely known.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Are we on the road to civilisation collapse?”

Collapse may be a normal phenomenon for civilisations, regardless of their size and technological stage.
So collapse may be a normal phenomenon for civilisations, regardless of their size and stage.
While our scale may now be global, collapse appears to happen to both sprawling empires and fledgling kingdoms alike.
The collapse of the Anasazi, the Tiwanaku civilisation, the Akkadians, the Mayan, the Roman Empire, and many others have all coincided with abrupt climatic changes, usually droughts.
COMPLEXITY: Collapse expert and historian Joseph Tainter has proposed that societies eventually collapse under the weight of their own accumulated complexity and bureaucracy.
RANDOMNESS/BAD LUCK: Statistical analysis on empires suggests that collapse is random and independent of age.
Despite the abundance of books and articles, we don’t have a conclusive explanation as to why civilisations collapse.
In theory, a civilisation might be less vulnerable to collapse if new technologies can mitigate against pressures such as climate change.

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Summary of “The Roman Empire, explained in 40 maps”

Here are 40 maps that explain the Roman Empire – its rise and fall, its culture and economy, and how it laid the foundations of the modern world.
2) The Roman Empire was vast At its height around 100 AD, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the Northwest to Egypt in the Southeast.
Roman troops first invaded the area under Pompey in 63 BC, and after 40 BC it was ruled as a Roman client state by King Herod.
The decline of Rome 30) The third century AD was a bad time to be a Roman emperor For the first two centuries after Augustus became emperor in 27 BC, the Roman Empire experienced a period of unprecedented political stability and economic prosperity.
37) The East becomes the Byzantine Empire Historians generally refer to the Eastern Roman Empire after 476 as the Byzantine Empire.
People in the Byzantine Empire continued to think of themselves as Romans, and their empire as the Roman Empire, for centuries after 476.
In practice, the Holy Roman Empire didn’t have very much to do with the original Roman Empire.
The empire was ruled by Germans rather than Italians, lacked traditional Roman institutions such as the Senate, and was more decentralized than the Roman Empire had been at its height.

The orginal article.

Summary of “With Star Wars: Secrets of the Empire, VR is finally ready for prime-time”

What I experienced was Star Wars: Secrets of the Empire, the much-anticipated collaboration between virtual reality park designers The Void and ILMxLAB, the immersive entertainment wing of Lucasfilm and Industrial Light & Magic.
From the moment the companies announced they were working together on a Star Wars-based VR adventure, with locations opening in both California and Florida, expectations have been high.
For mainstream audiences, Star Wars: Secrets of the Empire may be the first time virtual reality actually delivers on the Holodeck-esque potential it’s been promising all along.
Breaking it down into those kind of singular moments seems reductive, because more than anything else, Secrets of the Empire legitimately feels like starring in a Star Wars movie or TV show of your very own.
That’s not to say Star Wars: Secrets of the Empire is flawless, by any means.
The first step toward making VR and mixed reality legitimate extensions of the ‘Star Wars’ storyline Those ultimately feel like minor quibbles particularly when something delivers so fully on the most essential promise of all: letting guests feel like they’re actually stepping inside Star Wars.
For ILMxLAB, the project feels like the first real step in delivering on the group’s larger vision of using virtual reality, mixed reality, and other platforms as legitimate extensions of the Star Wars universe.
Star Wars: Secrets of the Empire is priced at $29.95.

The orginal article.

Summary of “6 ways climate change and disease helped topple the Roman Empire”

The empire was generous in granting Roman citizenship throughout its vast territory, and by making subjects into citizens, the empire helped to unleash the cultural potential of the provinces under Roman sway.
The fall came in two parts: German kingdoms replaced Roman rule in the West in the fifth century, then Arab conquerors seized the prize parts of the Eastern empire in the middle of the seventh century.
In recent years historians have also started to revisit the fall of the Roman Empire with an openness to the importance of environmental factors, including climate change and pandemic disease.
The centuries during which the empire was built and flourished are known even to climate scientists as the “Roman Climate Optimum.” From circa 200 BC to AD 150, it was warm, wet, and stable across much of the territory the Romans conquered.
Globalization brought great wealth – and disease In the AD 160s, at the apex of Roman dominance, the empire fell victim to one of history’s first recorded pandemics – an event known as the “Antonine Plague”.
Climate change prodded the Huns to move, setting up a chain reaction The Roman Empire in the fourth century, led now by Christian emperors, enjoyed a kind of second golden age.
The Late Antique Little Ice Age We rightly fear climate change in the form of global warming, but in the later Roman Empire, the greater danger was sudden sharp cooling.
In the first part of his reign, Justinian codified all of Roman law, went on the grandest building spree in Christian history, and took back Roman Africa and Italy.

The orginal article.