Summary of “What Are Dreams? Here Are the Predominant Theories.”

For all the commonalities dreams exhibit, they vary across time-people who grew up watching black-and-white TV are more likely to dream in black and white -and culture.
A 1958 study determined that compared with Japanese people, Americans dreamed more about being locked up, losing a loved one, finding money, being inappropriately dressed or nude, or encountering an insane person.
Japanese people were more likely to dream about school, trying repeatedly to do something, being paralyzed with fear, or “Wild, violent beasts.”
If human dreams sound bleak, bear in mind that even negative ones can have positive effects.
In a study of students taking a French medical-school entrance exam, 60 percent of the dreams they had beforehand involved a problem with the exam, such as being late or leaving an answer blank.
Those who reported dreams about the exam, even bad ones, did better on it than those who didn’t.
So the next time you dream about an education-related sexual experience in which you are both falling and being chased, don’t worry: It’s probably totally meaningless.
This article appears in the April 2019 print edition with the headline “Study of Studies: Bad Dreams Are Good.”.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Cheating Scandal That Has Shaken the World of Master Wine Sommeliers”

Some of this year’s sommeliers had been preparing for the Master exam for fifteen years; others were taking it for the sixth or eighth time.
When the results were decided, the chairman of the Court of Master Sommeliers, the nonprofit organization that administers the Master exam, announced, over raised glasses of champagne, that a record twenty-four candidates had passed.
More controversially, the court also stripped twenty-three of the twenty-four newly anointed Master Sommeliers of their titles, pending a redo of the blind-tasting portion of the test.
Gaining the necessary skills to advance through the court’s certifications-which are not mandatory, but can open doors-is a bit like studying for the MCAT but also a bit like jockeying for a country-club membership: you have to get on the good side of the existing Master Sommeliers, an insular, overwhelmingly male cohort who can provide a leg up to aspiring Masters through mentorship and coaching.
For some, the cheating debacle has inspired broader questions about the court’s outsized control over the lives of sommeliers.
Several younger sommeliers who have worked toward court certification told me that the cheating debacle has rattled their trust in the organization.
Among the twenty-three Master Sommeliers who’ve lost their titles, some intend to reconvene their study groups, uncork fresh bottles, and resume their rigorous blind-tasting training as soon as possible.
A previous version of this post misstated the number of sommeliers who took the Master Sommelier Exam in St. Louis in September.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Tokyo medical school admits changing results to exclude women”

A Tokyo medical school has apologised after an internal investigation confirmed it altered entrance exam scores for more than a decade to limit the number of female students and ensure more men became doctors.
Tokyo Medical University manipulated all entrance exam results starting in 2006 or even earlier, according to findings released by lawyers involved in the investigation, confirming recent reports in Japanese media.
The school said the manipulation should not have occurred and would not in the future.
The investigation found that in this year’s entrance exams the school reduced all applicants’ first-stage test scores by 20% and then added at least 20 points for male applicants, except those who had previously failed the test at least four times.
“We sincerely apologize for the serious wrongdoing involving entrance exams that has caused concern and trouble for many people and betrayed the public’s trust,” school managing director Tetsuo Yukioka said.
Studies show the share of female doctors who have passed the national medical exam has plateaued at around 30% for more than 20 years, leading some experts to suspect that other medical schools also discriminate against women.
The education minister Yoshimasa Hayashi told reporters he planned to examine the entrance procedures of all medical schools.
Gender equality minister Seiko Noda was quoted by Kyodo News as saying: “It is extremely regrettable if medical schools share a view that having female doctors work at hospitals is troublesome.”

The orginal article.