Summary of “The Psychology Behind Why We Like Long, Dark Eyelashes”

The Everything Guide to Eyelashes is a week of stories on the Cut about lashes, from all the mascaras we’ve obsessively tested to our personal feelings about why eyelashes matter.
Long and sweeping enough to brush the lenses of his sunglasses and attract compliments from old ladies, his lashes embarrassed him: Weren’t long eyelashes for girls? Didn’t they make you pretty? He was a boy.
Long eyelashes are in no technical or biological sense a lady thing.
Still, eyelashes have managed to become one of the few types of female body hair to make it into the “Good, emphasize” category and not the “Bad, eliminate” one – and for centuries, we’ve been imagining the presence of long, dark eyelashes to signify feminine beauty of the highest order.
Eyelashes have also historically been associated with chastity – ancient Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder suggested, rather amusingly in hindsight, that women’s eyelashes could fall out if they had too much sex.
Why? More recent research points toward the notion that long eyelashes are valuable for the illusion they create of wide, gazing eyes.
Still, these theories explain little about why long or full eyelashes are considered feminine.
“What eyelashes do is like what lipstick does, and eyelashes may actually even do it more: They draw a contrast between the eye itself and the eyelid, like lipstick draws attention to the contrast between the lips and the surrounding area.” Attractiveness indicators in men, she says – facial features whose larger size and more striking definition suggest a man possesses traditionally “Masculine” qualities, like confidence and assertiveness – are more likely to be the eyebrows and jawline.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How this optical illusion made me question my reality”

The latest visual illusion to make me question my reality is a blurry swirl of colors that disappear if I stare at them for long enough.
The illusion popped up on the r/woahdude Reddit today, but versions of it have existed since at least 1804 when a philosopher named Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler described how an image can fade away if you stare at it hard enough.
When our senses get used to a consistent sensation, it’s called neural adaptation, explains Susana Martinez-Conde, a professor at SUNY Downstate Medical Center and author of the book Champions of Illusion.
Of course, the moment that happens, the illusion breaks and I can see all the colors again.
I asked Martinez-Conde whether my excitement that the illusion had worked somehow made the image reappear.
Still, if the illusion doesn’t work for you, Martinez-Conde recommends closing one eye so that you only have to focus on keeping one eye still.
If it still doesn’t work, change the contrast on your monitor and give yourself a good 45 seconds to let the illusion disappear.
There’s no shame in letting the illusion trick your mind, Martinez-Conde says.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Am I Going Blind?”

I had almost certainly experienced what is colloquially called “a stroke of the eye,” whereby the optic nerve is ravaged by a brief reduction of blood flow and thus oxygen.
It would edit my right eye out of the equation so that my left eye could guide me on its own, leaving me with entirely serviceable vision.
Worse, the “Stroke” revealed anatomical vulnerabilities that meant that my left eye was potentially in jeopardy, too, and there was no proven script for protecting it.
The central vision in my right eye was compromised, in an unsubtle fashion.
For the first month after my diagnosis, I’d catch myself absent-mindedly rubbing my eyes, as everyone does, and terror would sizzle through me.
If the left eye were going to quit on me, it would probably do so then.
In the middle of the night, when my bladder screamed, I hesitated before opening my eyes.
Despite my eye disorder, I’m in clover: economic security; access to good health care; a durable relationship with a man whose face will delight me for as long as I’m able to gaze at it, after which his voice, which I also adore, will do.

The orginal article.

Summary of “When Your Eyes Move, So Do Your Eardrums”

Keep flicking your eyes back and forth, left and right.
As your eyes flitted right, both eardrums bulged to the left, one inward and one outward.
These wobbles happen every time you move your eyes, whether or not there’s external noise.
Groh has long been interested in how the brain connects information from our eyes and ears.
That’s easier said than done, because our ears are obviously fixed on our heads but our eyes are constantly moving.
They also found that the eardrums start to wobble about 10 milliseconds before the eyes.
Instead, Groh says, “The brain is saying: I am about to move the eyes; ears, get ready.”
Still, it’s clear that something is happening to the ears, and it’s intimately connected to what the eyes are doing.

The orginal article.

Summary of “This Is The Fascinating Way Blue Eyes Get Their Colour”

Your eyes aren’t blue because they contain pigmented cells.
Fascinatingly, it’s these two factors that control your eye colour.
Brown eyes, for example, contain a high concentration of melanin in their stroma, which absorbs most of the light entering the eye regardless of collagen deposits, giving them their dark colour.
Green eyes don’t have much melanin in them, but they also have no collagen deposits.
Blue eyes are potentially the most fascinating, as their colour is entirely structural.
People with blue eyes have a completely colourless stroma with no pigment at all, and it also contains no excess collagen deposits.
Interestingly, this means that blue eyes don’t actually have a set colour – it all depends on the amount of light available when you look at them.
Check out Van Slembrouck’s great story to find out how hazel and grey eyes get their colour, and also to check out his beautiful diagrams that explain structural colouring.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Cataract Surgery May Prolong Your Life”

Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed operation in the United States, with more than three million Americans having cataracts removed each year, according to the organization Prevent Blindness America.
“Not only can cataract surgery give people a better life while they’re living it, they can also live more of it,” Dr. Coleman said in an interview.
The women in the study who underwent cataract surgery lived longer even though, over all, they were sicker to begin with – as a group, they had more heart attacks, chronic pulmonary disease, peptic ulcers and glaucoma than those who did not have surgery.
Previous studies had shown a lower mortality risk in men as well as women following cataract surgery, Dr. Coleman said.
Those who had cataract surgery subsequently had reduced risks of death from cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological and infectious diseases, as well as cancer and accidents.
There have also been extraordinary advances in cataract surgery since the 1980s.
Specialists now also recognize the wisdom of not waiting until a cataract is “Ripe” and vision seriously diminished before urging patients to consider surgery.
Ms. Quinn, a social service administrator, has sage advice for anyone needing cataract surgery: “Do your homework. I encourage people to become well-informed about the operation, its aftermath and the various lens options now available.” Also important, she said, is having research-based confidence in your doctor.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Scallop Sees With Space-Age Eyes”

Earlier studies had given scientists hints that the scallop eye was weirdly complex.
Benjamin A. Palmer, a postdoctoral researcher at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, and his colleagues recently used a powerful new tool known as a cryo-electron microscope to look at scallop eyes.
Researchers have long known that the mirror in a scallop eye is made from a molecule called guanine.
Dr. Palmer and his colleagues took X-rays of the scallop eyes to determine that these layers form a flat-bottomed bowl.
What’s more, the hundreds of eyes on a scallop all deliver signals to a single cluster of neurons, which may combine that information to create a rich picture of the outside world.
Dr. Palmer said that scallop eyes may provide inspirations for new inventions.
There’s certainly precedent: NASA has built X-ray detectors to study black holes that mimic lobster eyes.
Perhaps an artificial scallop eye could take pictures in dim seawater.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Scallops Have Eyes, and Each One Has a Living Mirror”

For millions of years, scallops have been gazing at the world using dozens of eyes, each of which has a segmented mirror that’s uncannily similar to those in our grandest telescopes.
Look at a full, living scallop, and you’ll see a very different animal.
He identified the mirror, he showed that it consists of layered crystals, and he suggested that the crystals are made of guanine-one of the building blocks of DNA. “It’s very impressive how Land was right about pretty much everything from some pretty simple approaches,” says Daniel Speiser from the University of South Carolina, who also studies scallop eyes.
The mirror consists of flat, square guanine crystals, each a millionth of a meter wide.
Guanine crystals grow in layers, and Addadi thinks that the scallop somehow shifts the orientation of each layer by 90 degrees relative to the ones above and below it.
The mirror is not an inanimate structure within the eye.
As a result, the mirror focuses light from the center of the animal’s visual field onto the upper retina, and light from the periphery onto the lower one.
They probably allow it to scan a wide area, but does it consider the information from each eye separately, or combine them all into a single image? After centuries of study, scientists finally know how each individual eye sees.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Oversize Eyedrops Waste Medicine And Money”

Drugmakers have long known that their drops of medicine exceed the capacity of the human eye.
The bad news is that medicine you wiped off your face is wasted by design – and it’s well-known to the drug companies that make the drops.
Eyedrops overflow our eyes because drug companies make the typical drop – from glaucoma drugs that cost hundreds of dollars to cheap over-the-counter bottles – larger than a human eye can hold.
The waste frustrates glaucoma specialists like Dr. Alan Robin, whose patients struggle to make pricey bottles of drops last.
Crucial eye medications to treat conditions like glaucoma can cost hundreds of dollars for a small bottle that lasts only a month, making the waste of even a drop a problem for low-income patients.
Last year, drug companies brought in about $3.4 billion in the U.S. alone on drops for dry eyes and glaucoma drops, according to the research firm Market Scope.
Second, if Alcon reduced the drop size on this product, would it have to do the same on the company’s other eyedrops?
Even a drug industry consultant, Gary Novack, said it would be ideal to have a smaller drop with a higher concentration of medicine.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Dyslexia: scientists claim cause of condition may lie in the eyes”

French scientists claim they may have found a physiological, and seemingly treatable, cause for dyslexia hidden in tiny light-receptor cells in the human eye.
In people with the condition, the cells were arranged in matching patterns in both eyes, which may be to blame for confusing the brain by producing “Mirror” images, the co-authors wrote in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. In non-dyslexic people, the cells are arranged asymmetrically, allowing signals from the one eye to be overridden by the other to create a single image in the brain.
It offers a “Relatively simple” method of diagnosis, he added, by simply looking into a subject’s eyes.
As most of us have two eyes, which record slightly different versions of the same image, the brain has to select one of the two, creating a “Non-symmetry”.
In the newstudy, Ropars and colleague Albert le Floch spotted a major difference between the arrangement of cones between the eyes of dyslexic and non-dyslexic people enrolled in an experiment.
In non-dyslexic people, the blue cone-free spot in one eye – the dominant one, was round and in the other eye unevenly shaped.
In dyslexic people, both eyes have the same, round spot, which translates into neither eye being dominant, they found.
Dyslexic people make so-called “Mirror errors” in reading, for example confusing the letters “b” and “d”. “For dyslexic students their two eyes are equivalent and their brain has to successively rely on the two slightly different versions of a given visual scene,” they added.

The orginal article.