Summary of “The Evolution of Pleasure and Pain”

The nervous systems are in constant interaction and cooperation with the rest of the organism.
The reason why nervous systems exist in the first place is to assist the rest of the organism.
Organisms with nervous systems can image these states.
It’s important to understand that nervous systems serve the organism and not the other way around.
Once organisms got to the point of being so complex that they had an endocrine system, immune system, circulation, and central metabolism, they needed a device to coordinate all that activity.
Now, in the process of doing that, over millions of years, we have developed nervous systems that do plenty of other things that do not necessarily result in coordination of the organism’s interior, but happen to be very good at coordinating the internal world in relation to the outside world.
You do not invent a moral system or a government system alone or for yourself alone.
When the natural systems do not succeed at improved regulation, guess what? They are weeded out by evolution because they promote illness.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Want to Raise Successful Kids? Do This to Help them be Strong, Confident and Resilient”

Here are her words on how to help children build what she calls Transformative Resilience-or a “Type R” personality-to not only survive but thrive in a turbulent and rapidly changing world.
Parents are the architects of the family-they set the tone, particularly when children are young.
Children, especially young children learn by example.
Increasing Transformative Resilience in children requires showing them that the adults in their lives are consistently able to pick themselves up in the face of setbacks.
Learning to respond empathically to our children’s emotions is critical in helping raise Type R kids.
Teaching children to confront challenges and find solutions sets important precedents and cultivates skills that they will call upon throughout their lives.
Demonstrate to children how they can stand up for themselves as well as others, how to express empathy and understanding, how to take caring actions, and how to integrate service into their everyday lives.
As Gandhi said, “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” If the significant adults in children’s lives follow this notion, and act with kindness, thoughtfulness, and caring, kids will be more likely to follow the example.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Warframe built an ethical free-to-play economy”

The team realized the publisher model was going to end up costing them the studio, and began work on a strange, H.R. Giger-esque free-to-play multiplayer game that built on some of their ideas from Dark Sector, a game they developed and released in 2008 to middling reviews.
The story of Warframe “We kinda made the decision to do this game, and go out on our own and go from the publisher model that we realized was going to shut down the studio,” Geoff Crookes, the art director of Warframe told Polygon.
The narrative around Warframe is that the game was released, more or less failed, and then the team continued to work on the ashes until something new rose from the corpse.
The early days of constant communication and sharing from the developer to the players continued, and players saw how much impact they could have in the game’s development by sharing their own thoughts.
How to ask for money with style “Warframe is the game where essentially everything we have in the game that’s game effecting, you can earn it,” Carter explained.
If you want a specific weapon, the game will show you how to buy the blueprints or where to farm to get the materials you need.
“However, in the game you can look in the codex and see specifically which enemy drops that mod, so if there’s a specific mod you’re after you know how you can go after it. So then, even in the situations where there is some randomness in the game, there are ways to kind of understand where that is if that’s the thing you really care about. You can go hunt that enemy for awhile and you’re bound to get it.”
There may be a lot of grinding inherent to the game’s design, but Warframe feels good enough to play that it rarely becomes a problem.

The orginal article.

Summary of “6 Essential Weight Lifting Moves for Beginners”

When you are new to strength training, the weight room can feel really intimidating.
Whether you’re completely baffled about which weights to use for which exercises, or confused about how to contort your body to fit into a machine, there’s a lot of unknowns to figure out.
As a certified personal trainer, I’ve noticed that for many women, those unknowns are enough to send them running right back to their favorite indoor cycling class and give up on lifting weights altogether.
Shifting your focus from the weight on the scale to the weights you hold in your hands is empowering.
The best approach to weight lifting as a beginner is to start with a combination of functional exercises that mimic movements you use in everyday life and compound lifts, which are exercises that engage multiple large muscle groups at once.
When you’re just starting, choose a weight you can lift 10 to 12 times for 2 to 3 sets.
As a beginner, you will quickly outgrow these weights, and will know it’s time to move up when the last 2 to 3 repetitions feel easy to lift.
If you’ve never done bodyweight versions of the Goblet Squat, Romanian Deadlift, and Glute Bridge, start by mastering each movement first without weights.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to stop catastrophising”

Let us start by considering why some people catastrophise – that is, on hearing uncertain news, they imagine the worst possible outcome.
High levels of anxiety are extremely unpleasant, so we look for ways to discharge those unpleasant feelings as quickly as possible.
If a catastrophiser is told something inconclusive – for example, if they go to a GP and are asked to have tests – they look for a way to feel in control again immediately.
In this way, catastrophising soon becomes a well-entrenched habit.
There is always another source to check or another opinion to be had; as a result, catastrophisers feel anxious again increasingly quickly.
If you are a catastrophiser and you would rather not be, how do you go about making changes?
Anxiety is energy: if you are an anxious person, celebrate! However, why waste that energy feeling uncomfortable and preparing yourself for circumstances that will almost certainly never occur? Look for enjoyable ways to challenge yourself and use your energy more positively: taking regular aerobic exercise; learning something new; taking up a creative passion.
Whenever you are overwhelmed by anxiety and feel you must seek reassurance, give yourself permission to do so – but not straight away.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Only Way to Keep Your Resolutions”

Studying about 300 teenagers from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds, Professor Miller found that those who were better at using self-control did have more success when it came to resisting temptations, but at a cost to their health.
It’s far more likely that what led to success was strong social bonds – relationships that would encourage people to cooperate and lend support to one another, which helped to ensure that their sacrifices would be returned time and again when required in the future.
I’m sure I’m not alone in saying that I’ve moved more couches and spent more time making gifts for friends than I thought possible when I felt gratitude toward them and wanted to show appreciation.
Making people feel proud – not arrogant, but proud of the skills they have – makes them more willing to wait for future rewards and more willing to take on leadership roles in groups and work longer and harder to help a team solve a difficult problem.
By making us value the future more, they ease the way to patience and perseverance.
Today, more than half of all Americans report feeling lonely, especially in their professional lives.
In nudging the mind to be more patient and more selfless, they benefit everyone whom our decisions impact, including our own future selves.
Doing so will help ensure that every future New Year’s Eve will have more to celebrate than to regret.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Customers Won’t Pay as Much for Digital Goods”

Despite the many advantageous features of digital goods, physical goods appear to retain greater allure.
Despite the many advantages conferred by digital goods, comparable versions of physical goods are valued more.
Because we cannot touch, and hold, and control digital goods in the way that we interact with physical goods, we feel an impaired sense of ownership for digital goods.
In additional experiments we ran with online samples and business students, we found that the tendency to value digital goods less than physical goods extends to a variety of products, from popular films to novels to course textbooks.
We observed the same effect whether we measured value by allowing research participants to pay whatever they wanted for goods, having them report the most they were willing to pay, or by measuring their likelihood of buying a digital or physical copy of a good when both were sold at the same price.
Plausible alternative explanations, such as physical goods lasting longer or being more enjoyable to use than digital goods, also failed to explain this difference.
We found that people with little need to feel in control over their environment reported no preference for physical relative to digital goods, whereas people with strong need to feel in control reported a substantial preference for physical relative to digital goods.
Because perceived ownership is impaired for digital goods, people may not feel that their piracy causes the same harm to their owners as does the comparable theft of physical goods.

The orginal article.

Summary of “9 Beliefs You Have to Let Go If You Want to Find Inner Peace”

I let go of trying be happy, I let go of trying to be sad. I let go of problem solving, and I let go of ideas of procrastination.
I’ve come to realize since then that the real change happens when you let go of ideas, as opposed to following new ones.
When I started to let go of these ideas, the inner peace became the background, and the noise became what would visit and leave.
Though our ego tricks us into believing we need this feeling to get things done, when we can let it go we see a lot of our anxiety dissolves and our relaxation deepens.
Many of us feel that we are far from inner peace, and we idolize those who seem to have found it.
Because of this, we unconsciously believe that it’s a long way away from where we are in our lives, and we need to go on a long journey to find it.
When we let go of the deep feeling of debt and obligation, we can then really start to give people what we have to offer.
These beliefs took a lifetime of conditioning to cement themselves in our minds, so it’s only right they should take a little time and effort before they’re able to be completely let go.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A Sports Titan’s Strange and Sudden Abdication”

Heightening the mystery, the resignation came on the heels of a whirlwind week in which a buoyant and energetic Skipper rallied his troops and assured broadcast partners that after a bumpy year, ESPN would retain its position as sports broadcasting’s dominant power.
Skipper, who came to Disney’s magazine division after working at Rolling Stone, was also a champion of rigorous journalism.
Justin Connolly, an ESPN executive, described cross-country plane flights where Skipper would speed read through a novel while simultaneously watching sports on an iPad. Keith Olbermann, whom Skipper hired back to the network in 2013 to head a news and opinion show, said Skipper described how he would read a dozen or more books at the same time.
Wright Thompson, a writer for the network’s magazine and a friend of Skipper’s, said he believed that it was Skipper’s Southern upbringing that led him to champion diversity throughout the company.
Skipper signed a contract extension, through 2021, a few months before his resignation.
Despite massive changes in media consumption, Skipper’s will to spend enormous sums on broadcast rights had begun to result in a loss of revenue for the company.
Over the last two years, Skipper oversaw three rounds of layoffs in which about 550 employees lost their jobs.
Skipper tried to position ESPN for a digital future that would not rely so heavily on monthly fees from pay-television distributors – a revenue stream that has slowed.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Combat Your Anxiety, One Step at a Time”

“Think about how you can contribute, do things, make progress. Just walk outside – even that does wonders.”
“If you’re drinking with people you like and enjoy,” she said, “I think that’s a good thing.” Keep in mind that there’s an increased association between anxiety and alcohol and other substance abuse, Dr. Simon pointed out.
Dr. Simon recommended “Going to nature and attending to the trees and beautiful weather, taking your attention away from the worries and appreciating and noticing something around you.” You might also try “Volunteering in your community or donating to fund-raising” as a way to do something positive while accepting that some things can’t be controlled, she said.
It’s generally the first thing I look at in the morning, and the last thing I look at before I go to bed.
Say yes to the right things”I think self care has become a bad word because it’s often a marketing strategy for things that feel frivolous,” Ms. Mehlman Petrzela said.
Spend quality time with friends, both furry and humanSarah Miller, a writer in Nevada City, Calif., said one of her anxiety releases is to sob into the soft fur of her elderly blue heeler, Merle.
Maris Kreizman, an author and a pug owner, told me, “When we adopted Bizzy, I didn’t even think about how ironic it would be to rely on an animal who is very anxious herself to help allay my own anxiety.”
As Dr. Simon said, “Spending time with people who you find supportive is one of the most protective things.”

The orginal article.