Summary of “The Pasta Sauce Hailed as the World’s Best Is Surprisingly Easy to Make at Home”

THE SCIENCE OF THE CALORIE. A calorie is a unit of heat energy that fuels your body, making it possible to move, breathe, think, sleep-and even digest food to make more energy.
The food calorie and a kilocalorie are technically the same thing, but we use the term calorie rather than kilocalorie because of an American chemist named Wilbur Olin Atwater.
Based on his experiments, Atwater created a system for calculating the calories that human bodies can get from our food.
Most significantly, especially in terms of human evolution, whenever we cook or process food, the body can get more calories as compared to that same food eaten raw.
Examples of higher calorie burning exercises include cycling and running, but almost every activity burns something, so you could potentially burn more calories throughout the day by consistently doing low-energy activities like gardening or pacing during a conference call than you would during 30 minutes of fast cycling.
CALORIES: A SCIENCE IN FLUX. We still use the Atwater system for calculating food calories, but it’s far from perfect.
For one thing, a USDA study found that people absorbed fewer calories from nuts than had been estimated under Atwater’s system-a serving of almonds, for example, provided not 170 calories, but 129.
Like McDonald’s, send their food to a lab for measurement, while others estimate the total by adding up the calorie count for each food component from the USDA’s massive food composition database.

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Summary of “Intermittent Fasting: What Should I Eat?”

There are restrictions on when you can eat, but not necessarily what you can eat.
Fast for 12 hours a day and eat within a 12-hour window.
Eat your daily food within an 8-hour window and fast for the remaining 16 hours.
“There are no specifications or restrictions about what type or how much food to eat while following intermittent fasting,” says Lauren Harris-Pincus, MS, RDN, author of The Protein-Packed Breakfast Club.
Purdy adds, “My recommendations wouldn’t be very different from foods that I might normally suggest for improved health-high-fiber, unprocessed, whole foods that offer variety and flavor.” In other words, eat plenty of the below foods and you won’t end up in a hangry rage while fasting.
A study even found that adding a half of an avocado to your lunch may keep you full for hours longer than if you didn’t eat the green gem.3.
That’s not even the best part-a recent study found that people who consumed a diet rich in flavonoids, like those in blueberries and strawberries, had smaller increases in BMI over a 14-year period than those who did not eat berries.
So go ahead and eat your whole grains and venture out of your comfort zone to try farro, bulgur, spelt, kamut, amaranth, millet, sorghum, or freekeh.

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Summary of “How the chicken nugget became the true symbol of our era”

Through hard work and prayer, those indigenous people, and enslaved Africans, might find divine redemption through work and perhaps even, one day long in the future, entry into society as equals.
Consider the etymology of the French travail and the Spanish trabajo, each a translation of the English noun “Work”: their Latin root is trepaliare, “To torture, to inflict suffering or agony.” But the way work works has changed.
Poultry workers are paid very little: in the US, two cents for every dollar spent on a fast-food chicken goes to poultry workers.
In Oklahoma, chicken company executives returned to a colonial fusion of work and faith, setting up an addiction treatment centre in 2007, Christian Alcoholics & Addicts in Recovery.
At CAAIR, prayer was supplemented with unpaid work on chicken production lines as part of a recovery therapy.
Just as autoworkers on the line assemble simplified, interchangeable parts and fast-food workers manufacture standardised burgers, so did African slaves work specialised jobs in a simplified landscape of sugar monoculture.
Managers of factories were salaried more than the workers, who worked with raw materials acquired through various kinds of peonage and natural resource exploitation, and all of them depended on free domestic labour, usually from women.
Hegemony over workers has been aided by cheap food, and the promise of a chicken in every pot.

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Summary of “What is the true cost of eating meat?”

Throughout human history the hunting and farming of meat has been part of our stories and mythologies and some of our legal and religious systems; the fatted calf for the prodigal son; the medieval forest laws that created areas where no one but English royalty could hunt; the sacrifical sheep to mark the beginning of Eid Al-Adha; even the roasted wild boars consumed at the end of every adventure by Asterix and Obelix.
Many measurements look at agricultural impact without making a distinction between arable v livestock, or industrial v small farms.
An influential study in 2010 of the water footprints for meat estimated that while vegetables had a footprint of about 322 litres per kg, and fruits drank up 962, meat was far more thirsty: chicken came in at 4,325l/kg, pork at 5,988l/kg, sheep/goat meat at 8,763l/kg, and beef at a stupendous 15,415l/kg.
On some estimates farming accounts for about 70% of water used in the world today, but a 2013 study found that it uses up to 92% of our freshwater, with nearly one-third of that related to animal products.
Farms contribute to water pollution in a range of ways: some of those are associated more closely with arable farming, and some with livestock, but it’s worth remembering that one-third of the world’s grain is now fed to animals.
It’s hard to work out exactly what quantity of greenhouse gases is emitted by the meat industry from farm to fork; carbon emissions are not officially counted along entire chains in that way, and so a number of complicated studies and calculations have attempted to fill the gap.
Attempts to pick out the role of animal farming within that have come up with a huge range of numbers, from 6-32%: the difference, according to the Meat Atlas, “Depends on the basis of measurement”.
More recently some innovators have been fusing technology with environmental principles in the form of agroforestry, silvopasture, conservation farming, or regenerative agriculture to create farming methods which all encompass carbon sequestration, high biodiversity and good animal welfare.

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Summary of “The new food: meet the startups racing to reinvent the meal”

Winning is crucial, he says, with his company Just in the vanguard of a new sector with an ambitious mission: to use cutting-edge technologies to create food that will take down the meat and dairy industries.
The way it is produced for the burger shows how the new food tech companies are harnessing techniques first developed for biomedical uses.
We want to hear from people working in the farming and food production industry around the world as we begin a new investigative series.
Even if the technology does develop to produce delicious, affordable and sustainable food, the potential “Yuk factor” of tech-created food hangs heavy over the embryonic sector.
Food journalist Joanna Blythman recently criticised the Impossible Burger: “It’s the very antithesis of local food with a transparent provenance and backstory. It’s patently the brainchild of a technocratic mindset, one brought to us by food engineers and scientists whose natural environment is the laboratory and the factory – not the kitchen, farm or field.”
Vonnie Estes, is now an independent food industry consultant but worked for Monsanto in the 1990s, when the company was excited about its what its new technology could do.
GM food has been eaten by hundreds of millions of people since, but Estes says: “There is still a huge group of people who do not want GMOs in their food. Thirty years ago we thought people will get over this quickly – they didn’t.”
Just, whose methodology was independently certified, says its current mayo and cookie products cut carbon emissions by at least 25% and water use by 75%. Impossible Foods says its burger, which replaces the meat with the heaviest carbon hoofprint, cuts greenhouse gases by 87%. Could this food could end up being dominated by a few tech giants? All these new foods are produced using techniques that are then patented by the companies to protect their investments, leading some critics to suggest a creeping privatisation of livestock could occur.

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Summary of “An Advance Directive for Patients With Dementia”

When patients can no longer swallow what they are fed, they may choke and aspirate food or drink into the lungs, resulting in pneumonia that adds to their misery and hastens their death.
Dr. Schwarz’s advice: Complete her organization’s Advance Directive for Receiving Oral Food and Fluids in the Event of Dementia.
Dr. Anne Kenny, a geriatrician and palliative care specialist at the LiveWell Alliance in Plantsville, Conn., said, “With dementia, by the time you get to the point of having to decide what you want done, you’ve largely lost the capacity to do so. Many people don’t realize that making these choices in advance does not cause people to lose hope. It creates more hope because patients know their wishes would be heard and respected instead of deferring to the default position of the medical system, which is longevity at all costs.”Interviews with families have shown that 90 percent want comfort care at the end of life,” she said.
Dr. Kenny said three characteristics define the late stages of dementia, indicating that the patient is nearing the end of life: losing the ability to use the toilet, walk and swallow independently.
The patient, when completing the directive and appointing a health care agent, must be cognitively sound.
It offers two options for patients when they are no longer able to feed themselves or make informed decisions about their care.
Dr. Timothy E. Quill, professor of medicine in the Palliative Care Division of the University of Rochester School of Medicine, said that “if the directive leads to families and caregivers erring on the side of comfort and dignity for the patient, it’s a real step forward.
“If patients show a strong interest in eating and drinking, it should be given to them.

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Summary of “Whole30 Food List”

With so many diets out there today, it can be overwhelming choosing the right nutrition regimen for yourself.
If you’re not sure which one to go with, the Whole30 plan might be a good place to start since it’s only a 30-day commitment.
The goal of the Whole30 diet is to eliminate certain food groups that might have a negative effect on your health – not just weight – from mysterious aches to chronic fatigue.
After the 30 days are up, you’ll hopefully have a better idea of which foods you should permanently cut out and which ones you can reintroduce to your diet.
Unlike many diets that focus on eating less, the Whole30 diet emphasizes eating healthier, which might make it the most sustainable diet yet.

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Summary of “Romaine E. coli outbreak 2018: when is it safe to eat salad again?”

Officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with the Food and Drug Administration, are still searching for the source of E. coli-contaminated romaine lettuce, in what has become the largest multistate outbreak since 2006.
As sales of precut and bagged greens have boomed, one thing is becoming increasingly clear: They’re now one of the most common sources of food poisoning in the US. One in six Americans get sick from food – many of them from salads Some 48 million people get sick from the food every year.
A 2013 analysis by CDC of food poisoning cases between 1998 and 2008 found that leafy vegetables – salads and the like – caused almost a quarter of all food poisonings.
“Back in the ’90s and early 2000s, E. coli cases linked to hamburgers represented almost all that I did,” said Bill Marler, one of America’s leading food safety attorneys.
Michele Jay-Russell, a food safety researcher at the University of California Davis who has investigated salad-related poisoning outbreaks in the past, said the raw vegetables that are the most common culprits are basically all salad greens, but especially the chopped and bagged kind.
Why fresh produce is now a major source of food poisoning So more people are now sickened by leafy greens than by their hamburgers or sushi.
This prepackaging makes it harder to find the cause of a food poisoning outbreak.
Different lettuces grown at different farms get mixed into bags that are distributed at supermarkets and restaurants all over the country, so food safety officials need to search for the common link among suppliers.

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Summary of “Are G.M.O. Foods Safe?”

An analysis of 76 studies published in February in Scientific Reports by researchers in Pisa, Italy, found that genetically engineered corn has a significantly higher yield than non-genetically modified varieties and contains lower amounts of toxins commonly produced by fungi.
By engineering resistance to insect damage, farmers have been able to use fewer pesticides while increasing yields, which enhances safety for farmers and the environment while lowering the cost of food and increasing its availability.
Yields of corn, cotton and soybeans are said to have risen by 20 percent to 30 percent through the use of genetic engineering.
Wider adoption of genetic engineering, especially in African and Asian countries that still spurn the technology, could greatly increase the food supply in areas where climate change will increasingly require that crops can grow in dry and salty soils and tolerate temperature extremes.
Gene modification scientists are focusing increasingly on building health benefits into widely used foods.
In addition to pink pineapples containing the tomato-based antioxidant lycopene, tomatoes are being engineered to contain the antioxidant-rich purple pigment from blueberries.
The bottom line: Consumers concerned about the growing use of G.M.O.s in the foods they depend on might consider taking a more nuanced approach than blanket opposition.
Rather than wholesale rejection, take some time to learn about how genetic engineering works and the benefits it can offer now and in the future as climate change takes an ever greater toll on food supplies.

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Summary of “This Start-Up Says It Wants to Fight Poverty. A Food Stamp Giant Is Blocking It.”

The fight over the app is now affecting people like Brianna LaBelle, 25, of Augusta, Me., who has two young sons.
She has used Propel’s app to create shopping lists, track food purchases and budget.
Propel, Mr. Chen insisted, has tried to explain its business to state governments and to food stamp contractors.
The Propel app is a digital “Skin” that works on top of the websites of food stamp contractors, like Conduent.
Conduent’s entry, ConnectEBT, has significantly fewer reviews and lower ratings on the Google and Apple app stores than Propel’s FreshEBT. Conduent’s app is available in Utah, South Carolina and Oklahoma, and offers only basic information on account balances and purchases.
Propel’s predicament is magnified because the food-stamp system’s technology, like many government tech services, is outsourced to a relatively small number of companies.
Propel’s early success suggests there is opportunity for innovation in the low-income market, no matter how the start-up’s wrangling with Conduent turns out.
Propel is a fledgling company, with only 11 employees, two of them former food-stamp recipients.

The orginal article.