Summary of “Mansa Musa: The richest man who ever lived”

“Contemporary accounts of Musa’s wealth are so breathless that it’s almost impossible to get a sense of just how wealthy and powerful he truly was,” Rudolph Butch Ware, associate professor of history at the University of California, told the BBC. Mansa Musa was “Richer than anyone could describe”, Jacob Davidson wrote about the African king for Money.com in 2015.
The 10 richest men of all time Mansa Musa wealth incomprehensible.
Mansa Musa left such a memorable impression on Cairo that al-Umari, who visited the city 12 years after the Malian king, recounted how highly the people of Cairo were speaking of him.
On his way back home, Mansa Musa passed through Egypt again, and according to some, tried to help the country’s economy by removing some of the gold from circulation by borrowing it back at extortionate interest rates from Egyptian lenders.
There is no doubt that Mansa Musa spent, or wasted, a lot of gold during his pilgrimage.
Mansa Musa had put Mali and himself on the map, quite literally.
After Mansa Musa died in 1337, aged 57, the empire was inherited by his sons who could not hold the empire together.
“The history of the medieval period is still largely seen only as a Western history,” says Lisa Corrin Graziose, director of the Block Museum of Art, explaining why the story of Mansa Musa is not widely known.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The real Goldfinger: the London banker who broke the world”

This is the story of how their dream failed and how a London banker’s bright idea broke the world.
City banks, which could no longer use sterling in the way they were accustomed, began to use dollars instead, and they obtained those dollars from the Soviet Union, which was keeping them in London and Paris so as to avoid becoming vulnerable to American pressure.
In the US, there were limits on how much interest banks could charge on dollar loans – but not so in London.
In 1962, Warburg learned from a friend at the World Bank that some $3bn was circulating outside the US – sloshing around and ready to be put to use.
Warburg’s new bond issue – these bonds became known as “Eurobonds”, after the example set by eurodollars – was led by Ian Fraser, a Scottish war hero turned journalist turned banker.
The US Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, who administered the federal banking system, opened a permanent office in London to inspect what the British branches of American banks were up to.
If you had money, thanks to the accommodating bankers of London and Switzerland, you could now do what you wanted with it and governments could not stop you.
Countries have chased after the business they have lost offshore, thus making the onshore world ever more similar to the offshore piratical world that Warburg’s bankers created.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Gateway and the Gatekeeper: In Memory of Jonathan Gold”

You knew when you were reading a Jonathan Gold restaurant review, because, well, you were in it.
Perhaps the closest we’ve ever gotten to finding that core is the vision of L.A. through the eyes, ears, and stomach of Jonathan Gold.
Nearly two decades earlier, in the introduction to Counter Intelligence, Gold alluded to that rewarding sense of disorientation that can be had all across L.A. “The most authentic Los Angeles experiences tend to involve a mild sense of dislocation, of tripping into a rabbit hole and popping up in some wholly unexpected location,” he wrote.
There is a striking visual in City of Gold, a 2015 documentary about Gold and his influence on Los Angeles writ large.
Gold denied Los Angeles’s high-end dining the preferential treatment it would have gotten in any other city, which not only broadened Gold’s purview but changed the parameters of his purpose entirely.
In early April, Gold waxed poetic about Nature Pagoda, a tiny, unassuming San Gabriel restaurant that specializes in Cantonese clay pot rice; it was a place I used to frequent back in high school, which was mere blocks away from the establishment.
Every native Angeleno who has read Gold has their favorite siren song, the one review that made them drop everything and assemble an army.
Jonathan Gold was our Robin Hood in suspenders, ensuring the multifaceted stories of immigrant culture were never buried beneath Los Angeles’s dominant narrative.

The orginal article.

Summary of “From Game of Thrones to The Crown: the woman who turns actors into stars”

“You look at those kids, even the ones who weren’t that brilliant, and they were really giving it their all, weren’t they? They had to get up there. I mean, can you imagine?” Over 30-odd years, Gold has become the most powerful casting director in the UK, her taste shaping everything from Game of Thrones to Bridget Jones’s Baby, yet she can still be mystified by what actors do and why they do it.
There was a moment, somewhere in the nexus between Game of Thrones and The Crown, where it felt as if Gold’s name was gliding through the credits of every high-end show on TV. Her 167 credits include many grand British success stories – The King’s Speech, The Theory of Everything, the Paddington movies and every Mike Leigh film since Topsy-Turvy.
Gold is partly responsible for the impression that British actors have colonised Hollywood, sneaking unknown young pretenders, John Boyega and Daisy Ridley, into Star Wars, and concealing Gwendoline Christie beneath a silver helmet as a stormtrooper commander.
In the opening credits of one recent film – On Chesil Beach – “NINA GOLD” arrived, alone and vast across the Dorset coastline filling the screen, shortly after the lead actors.
Agents hound her with suggestions for parts, but Gold usually calls in a wide range of actors to “Get her head into it”, to figure out what she wants.
Trawl through Gold’s back catalogue and you see actors hopping from show to show on trajectories that look like the GDP-growth graph of a small developing country that has just discovered oil.
One busy morning in her office, Gold recalled some auditions she had held 15 years ago for parts in an unlikely sounding film about a pair of conjoined twins in a rock band, called Brothers in the Head. She had called in a group of young actors in their early 20s, then unknown: Redmayne, Ben Whishaw, Dominic Cooper, Andrew Garfield.
An email in late March: “I can tell you about Gorbachev.” The splodge, Gold could finally reveal, would adorn the face of David Dencik, a Swedish actor who Gold had previously cast in Jane Campion’s Top of the Lake.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Bloody Grab for Gold in Venezuela’s Most Dangerous Town”

The military has been fighting for months to master El Callao, the dangerous nation’s most dangerous town, and a beachhead in efforts to develop a mineral-rich region the government calls the Arco Minero del Orinoco.
The Arco Minero produced 8.5 tons in 2017, while Maduro hopes to raise production to 24 tons by year-end, according to mining minister Victor Cano.
Gold processing ground to a halt amid neglect and mismanagement after late President Hugo Chavez nationalized the industry in 2011, and gangs imposed themselves over illegal miners who descended by the thousands.
Maduro granted the armed forces wide-ranging security powers and let them create a company that would provide mining services.
In a gang-run mine tunnel hundreds of feet below the outskirts of El Callao, Gregorio Aguilar was working a 36-hour shift lugging sacks of rocks and rust-colored soil.
There’s the official business: The Venezuelan central bank purchases gold in El Callao from select brokers, mill associations and groups of registered miners, dubbed “Mining brigades.” State gold processor Minerven melts the ore into bars, which military aircraft take to airbases around Caracas.
The Feb. 10 army raid that killed the civilians happened at a mine called Cicapra, about 25 miles from El Callao, according to a military communique seen by Bloomberg.
Cano, the mining minister, said in an interview the armed forces respect human rights, but miners must put themselves on the right side of the law.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Miami’s gold trade fuels drug trafficking in Latin America”

The United States depends on Latin American gold to feed insatiable demand from its jewelry, bullion and electronics industries.
Much of the metal comes from outlaw operations controlled by gangsters who use gold to launder their profits from cocaine sales.
Located deep in the jungle, these mines use dangerous chemicals that poison the rainforest – and the miners who labor there.
Once extracted, the dirty gold enters a pipeline that flows directly through Miami.
START. Using gold to launder drug dollars.

The orginal article.

Summary of “These Doomsday Preppers Are Starting to Switch From Gold to Bitcoin”

“People see bitcoin prices going to the moon. No one thinks gold is going to the moon”.
In addition to gold, silver and stocks, Martin invests in bitcoin and peers litecoin and steem because they’re easier to travel with, harder to steal and offer better protection in the event of the kind of societal breakdown that would unfold if a fiat currency like the dollar collapsed.
He’s among those confident that bitcoin can withstand even a complete blackout through the strength of the underlying blockchain, the anonymous public bookkeeping technology that records every single bitcoin transaction.
The buzz is starting to impinge on gold’s role as a store of value especially since, like the precious metal, there’s a finite supply of bitcoin, which proponents say gives it anti-inflationary qualities.
“People see bitcoin prices going to the moon. No one thinks gold is going to the moon.”
“I doubt bitcoin is a safe haven from an extreme-risk environment. In that sense, bitcoin isn’t gold,” said Charlie Morris, the London-based chief investment officer at Newscape Capital Advisors Ltd., which invests in cryptocurrencies and is building a price-discovery platform for them.
When Morris surveyed hundreds of executives attending the London Bullion Market Association’s annual conference last month, one in 10 said they’d rather own bitcoin than gold following a nuclear war.
“You can use bitcoin for economic transactions in a way that gold was never designed to do because it’s a physical thing-it’s heavy,” Matt Philips, the project’s president, said by phone.

The orginal article.