Summary of “Why grandmasters like Magnus Carlsen and Fabiano Caruana lose weight playing chess”

Caruana is an American grandmaster in chess, the No. 2 player in the world.
In October 2018, Polar, a U.S.-based company that tracks heart rates, monitored chess players during a tournament and found that 21-year-old Russian grandmaster Mikhail Antipov had burned 560 calories in two hours of sitting and playing chess – or roughly what Roger Federer would burn in an hour of singles tennis.
Robert Sapolsky, who studies stress in primates at Stanford University, says a chess player can burn up to 6,000 calories a day while playing in a tournament, three times what an average person consumes in a day.
In the 1980s and ’90s, smoking, drinking and late-night parties were common on the chess circuit – that’s right, chess had a “Boogie Nights” phase – but that scene has all but disappeared.
“A chess player can develop chronic neck and upper back pain, as well as sore shoulders and backaches,” says Overland, who has worked with the New York Mets and the U.S. Olympic Training Center.
“This is particularly concerning considering how much energy they are exerting on playing a competitive game of chess at the highest level.”
Although the average elite player will play 12 to 14 events a year to maintain his ranking and earn money, Carlsen has typically reduced his schedule to six to eight tournaments, taking months off to recuperate after each one.
Carlsen’s wobble on the eve of the Chess World Cup, however slight, is the opening Caruana has been waiting for.

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Summary of “7 Side Hustles You Can Start From Your Couch”

Excited yet? Here are seven side hustles you can start from your couch.
They’re often hired by the hour, which means you can work as many or few hours per week as you’d like.
As the website’s audience grows over months and years, and more readers begin to purchase items through the website’s affiliate links, the website owner can begin to earn hundreds and even thousands of dollars per month.
The passive income blog Income School expects a well-built niche site to earn an average of 2.5¢ per page view, per month, and bring in an average of 30,000 monthly page views by the end of the first year.
If you have a knack for finding mistakes in your native language, you could get paid to proofread. Freelancing websites like Upwork and Fiverr have a steady stream of proofreading jobs, or you can start asking your friends and business connections to help them eliminate errors in their writing.
Proofreaders who charge per word can command rates from 2¢ to 7¢ per word, or anywhere from $10 to $90 per hour.
Translators generally charge between 10¢ and 25¢ per word or $30 to $50 per hour.
Cambly pays $10 per hour, VIPKID, Qkids, and Englishunt pay between $13 and $22 per hour, and iTalki allows teachers to set their own price.

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Summary of “How I Finally Learned to Sleep”

I had learned how to calm myself, but not how to sleep.
The details described a guide to “Rediscovering your innate ability to sleep without pills, potions or external sleep aids.”
Two solid arguments for getting enough hours of proper sleep – somewhere between six and eight for we mere mortals, according to experts in the burgeoning field that is sleep science.
Professor of sleep medicine at Oxford University’s Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, he argues that sleep deprivation is nothing new.
South Koreans sleep 40 minutes less than the global average, according to the OECD and, in 2015, 721,000 of them were suffering sleep disorders, up from 325,000 in 2011.
Sleep deprivation, he explains, falls into two categories: lack of sleep caused by lack of opportunity – simply too much to do in waking hours; and the inability to sleep when the opportunity arises.
“The brain does some of its most important work during sleep: repairing, regulating, laying down memory and managing growth. Sleep is a varied and productive time. Saying that you do not need sleep is like saying you do not need clean air, water and nutrition.”
Sleepio aims to teach you how much sleep you as an individual require, and how to establish a healthy sleep pattern with techniques like thought-blocking, which helps banish recurring anxious thoughts.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Six Hours Of Sleep Is As Bad As None At All”

Subjects in a lab-based sleep study who were allowed to get only six hours of sleep a night for two weeks straight functioned as poorly as those who were forced to stay awake for two days straight.
This sleep deprivation study, published in the journal Sleep, took 48 adults and restricted their sleep to a maximum of four, six, or eight hours a night for two weeks; one unlucky subset was deprived of sleep for three days straight.
In the last few days of the experiment, the subjects who were restricted to a maximum of six hours of sleep per night showed cognitive performance that was as bad as the people who weren’t allowed to sleep at all.
Getting only six hours of shut-eye was as bad as not sleeping for two days straight.
Another sleep study published in Epidemiology, indicates people generally overestimate their nightly sleep by around 0.8 hours.
If you think you sleep seven hours a night, as one out of every three Americans does, it’s entirely possible you’re only getting six.
Even just a little bit of sleep deprivation, in this case, six rather than eight hours of sleep across two weeks, accumulates to jaw-dropping results.
Fixing bad sleep habits to get enough sleep is easier said than done.

The orginal article.

Summary of “‘Sleep Should Be Prescribed’: What Those Late Nights Out Could Be Costing You”

“It sinks down into every possible nook and cranny. And yet no one is doing anything about it. Things have to change: in the workplace and our communities, our homes and families. But when did you ever see an NHS poster urging sleep on people? When did a doctor prescribe, not sleeping pills, but sleep itself? It needs to be prioritised, even incentivised. Sleep loss costs the UK economy over £30bn a year in lost revenue, or 2% of GDP. I could double the NHS budget if only they would institute policies to mandate or powerfully encourage sleep.”
“Light is a profound degrader of our sleep. Second, there is the issue of work: not only the porous borders between when you start and finish, but longer commuter times, too. No one wants to give up time with their family or entertainment, so they give up sleep instead. And anxiety plays a part. We’re a lonelier, more depressed society. Alcohol and caffeine are more widely available. All these are the enemies of sleep.”
It described which parts of the brain were being attacked by these different types of dementia: “Some were attacking parts of the brain that had to do with controlled sleep, while other types left those sleep centres unaffected. I realised my mistake. I had been measuring the brainwave activity of my patients while they were awake, when I should have been doing so while they were asleep.” Over the next six months, Walker taught himself how to set up a sleep laboratory and, sure enough, the recordings he made in it subsequently spoke loudly of a clear difference between patients.
Sleep has a powerful effect on the immune system, which is why, when we have flu, our first instinct is to go to bed: our body is trying to sleep itself well.
If we sleep to remember, then we also sleep to forget.
What is it, exactly? We sleep in 90-minute cycles, and it’s only towards the end of each one of these that we go into deep sleep.
“There are so many. I would still like to know where we go, psychologically and physiologically, when we dream. Dreaming is the second state of human consciousness, and we have only scratched the surface so far. But I would also like to find out when sleep emerged. I like to posit a ridiculous theory, which is: perhaps sleep did not evolve. Perhaps it was the thing from which wakefulness emerged.” He laughs.
To successfully initiate sleep, your core temperature needs to drop about 1C. The time taken to reach physical exhaustion by athletes who obtain anything less than eight hours of sleep, and especially less than six hours, drops by 10-30%. There are now more than 100 diagnosed sleep disorders, of which insomnia is the most common.

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Summary of “This 3-Minute Habit Changed My Life”

Tracking my time has changed how I think about my time.
My time logs showed me that even in a full life there can still be space.
Knowing where the time goes allows you to redeploy time from the mundane to the meaningful, and from the forgettable to the memorable.
Everyone knows working moms don’t have time to read, right?
The result is that since I started tracking time, I have read War and Peace.
Since I mostly work out of a home office and don’t have a regular commute, I wasn’t building “Time in the car” into my mental model of life.
Time Tracking Helped Ease Working Parent Guilt I’d recommend time tracking to anyone prone to parental guilt.
With the time logs recording those sunsets, I simply cannot claim that I have no time.

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Summary of “The Best Nap for Weekend Recovery”

There isn’t a universal answer, but there are some useful parameters to consider for nap optimization purposes.
For one, pro athletes are onto something with the mid-afternoon nap schedule, which is linked to our circadian physiology.
Even at home, it’s possible you might get sleepy and want to take a nap in, say, the early evening.
If you feel said nap coming on, it’s okay to embrace it.
“In the West, the average nap is half an hour, in the studies I’ve seen,” Samson says.
That’s fine! Over the course of as little as 10 or 15 minutes of shut-eye, Samson says, you’re achieving the equivalent of a solid meditation session: “It’s enough time to slow the processing down to where you’re getting a brief break.” No two people’s perfect nap length will be the same, length, either, and even your own might vary from weekend to weekend.
All else equal, a nap starting around 3 p.m. and lasting around an hour might give you the best shot at rallying for a big night.
The point of a nap is to enjoy the rest and relaxation it provides, so take it in whatever form it comes.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Giving Up TV For A Month Changed My Brain And My Life”

The average adult watches 2.8 hours per day of television, according to the American Time Use survey from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The Dangers of TV A lot of research has been done around TV viewing and children, and Adam Lipson, a neurosurgeon with IGEA Brain & Spine, says one of the best studies is from Tohoku University in Japan.
Studies involving adults have tied television watching to Type 2 diabetes, depression, and even crime, adds Lipson.
“Many of the studies report adverse effects with television watching greater than one hour per day,” he says.
“There have been EEG studies that demonstrate that television watching converts the brain from beta wave activity to alpha waves, which are associated with a daydreaming state, and a reduced use of critical thinking skills.”
Television watching is a habit my husband and I started as kids; we both grew up spending “Family time” around programs like Love Boat and Fantasy Island.
It had been our routine to watch whatever is on TV after dinner, and suddenly we were both dumbstruck for ideas.
“If you work out for an hour, you can watch TV for an hour. Work out for two hours, and you can watch for two hours. Never watch more television than the amount of time you exercise.”

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Summary of “5 Steps for Teaching Your Child to Unplug”

First, middle schoolers are woefully unprepared for the addictive nature of smartphones and the complex ethics of social media.
Second, with guidance, kids can grow into healthy users of devices and have a positive influence on virtual communities.
Graber points to research suggesting that kids with no access to digital media suffer from some of the same negative impacts on their mental well-being as hyperactive device users-“Because they lack that connection with their peers,” she says.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for kids before 18 months, just an hour a day until age five, and consistent limits for kids over six.
Step 3: Set Ground Rules When you’re ready to give a kid their first device, establish how many hours a day they can use it, when they can use it, and which apps are off-limits.
Step 4: Delay Social Media Users must be at least 13 years old to legally use most social platforms-with good reason.
“Social media requires ethical thinking,” Graber says.
” Once your kid begins engaging with social media, monitor their activity and talk with them if they post something that makes you uncomfortable.

The orginal article.

Summary of “I Babysit for the One Percent in New York City”

I used to be a full-time nanny, and when I transitioned out of that job into a part-time one, I found myself dabbling in the world of babysitting apps, of which there are a few in New York.
Now, a few times a week, my phone pings with notifications for booking requests, which I frequently accept, trekking all up and down Manhattan and, if I’m lucky, closer to home in Brooklyn.
The people who hire me to babysit have enough disposable income to book me on a whim, sometimes with only a few hours’ notice.
A few days later, a small sum – I make between $17-21 an hour, depending on how many kids are present – shows up in my Venmo account, and I spend it on lunches the following week.
Despite my distinct lack of profound wealth, my experiences in child care have basically inured me to New York City affluence.
As much as I might want to rifle through closets and drawers, closely inspect photographs and linger at the books on the bookshelves, I am wary of being recorded in these homes – I often notice a small camera or two within seconds of entering – and therefore keep my snooping to a minimum.
One couple with an elevator that opened into their loft apartment informed me, a few minutes after I walked in, that they “Have their babysitters do the dishes,” and gestured toward a sink full of cups and plates that I spent a good part of an hour attempting to find rightful homes for.
Neither of them remembered, apparently, that I had already been in their home a few weeks before, the adult responsible for their only child.

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