Summary of “The Evolution of Pleasure and Pain”

The nervous systems are in constant interaction and cooperation with the rest of the organism.
The reason why nervous systems exist in the first place is to assist the rest of the organism.
Organisms with nervous systems can image these states.
It’s important to understand that nervous systems serve the organism and not the other way around.
Once organisms got to the point of being so complex that they had an endocrine system, immune system, circulation, and central metabolism, they needed a device to coordinate all that activity.
Now, in the process of doing that, over millions of years, we have developed nervous systems that do plenty of other things that do not necessarily result in coordination of the organism’s interior, but happen to be very good at coordinating the internal world in relation to the outside world.
You do not invent a moral system or a government system alone or for yourself alone.
When the natural systems do not succeed at improved regulation, guess what? They are weeded out by evolution because they promote illness.

The orginal article.

Summary of “It’s Time for Apple to Build a Less Addictive iPhone”

The same company that always seems to turn up when it’s time to cross into a new era of technology: Apple.
There’s another, more important reason for Apple to take on tech addiction: because it would probably do an elegant job of addressing the problem.
Every tech company needs a presence on the iPhone or iPad; this means that Apple can set the rules for everyone.
With a single update to its operating system and its app store, Apple could curb some of the worst excesses in how apps monitor and notify you to keep you hooked.
For starters, Apple could give people a lot more feedback about how they’re using their devices.
Mr. Harris suggested that Apple could require apps to assign a kind of priority level to their notifications.
Apple could set rules for what kind of notifications were allowed in each bucket – for instance, the medium bucket might allow notifications generated by other people but not those from the app itself.
Apple released a statement last week saying it cared deeply “About how our products are used and the impact they have on users and the people around them,” adding that it had a few features on addiction in the works.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Changing These 4 Beliefs Will Make You Surprisingly Happy”

Albert says your beliefs are what cause the majority of unhappiness, anger, and anxiety you experience.
So what are some of the most common problematic beliefs Albert identified – and how do we fix them?
What beliefs about your own behavior does Ellis say regularly cause you problems?
You just don’t have to hold silly beliefs that drive you nuts.
Okay, you’re disputing and replacing irrational beliefs.
So you can finally get that worry song to stop playing in your head. But how do we deal with those beliefs about our past that have shaped us? The beliefs that we feel make us who we are?
Because of how our filters are set up, we often notice instances that support the unhealthy beliefs more than we notice those that may support our opposite, healthy beliefs; however, that “Evidence” almost always exists as well.
One valuable tool involves forcing ourselves to look back over those very same periods of life purposefully looking to see the evidence that supports our healthy beliefs.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Want to Raise Successful Kids? Do This to Help them be Strong, Confident and Resilient”

Here are her words on how to help children build what she calls Transformative Resilience-or a “Type R” personality-to not only survive but thrive in a turbulent and rapidly changing world.
Parents are the architects of the family-they set the tone, particularly when children are young.
Children, especially young children learn by example.
Increasing Transformative Resilience in children requires showing them that the adults in their lives are consistently able to pick themselves up in the face of setbacks.
Learning to respond empathically to our children’s emotions is critical in helping raise Type R kids.
Teaching children to confront challenges and find solutions sets important precedents and cultivates skills that they will call upon throughout their lives.
Demonstrate to children how they can stand up for themselves as well as others, how to express empathy and understanding, how to take caring actions, and how to integrate service into their everyday lives.
As Gandhi said, “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” If the significant adults in children’s lives follow this notion, and act with kindness, thoughtfulness, and caring, kids will be more likely to follow the example.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Finally Starting Your Business This Year? Here’s Your Ultimate 12-Point Checklist”

You are finally launching a business.
Where do you start? We asked some of the top business minds what you should do in the first 90 days, a crucial time in your business’s life.
Get these early steps right and you’ll create a sound foundation for a profitable, growing business.
“At the very least, you’ll want an experienced eye to look over your business plan, if you decide to do one. At Sweetgreen, our mentors asked a lot of tough, helpful questions-about our financial model, our brand positioning, our restaurant design, and more.”
“When I began, I didn’t know anything about business. I was excited about starting Student magazine, and then we had the idea to use the publication to sell music, too. I didn’t create a formal business plan. That seemed really boring to me. I just thought about the high cost of records and the sort of people who bought Student; we believed we could sell cheap mail-order records through the magazine. We made enough money from mail-order to open a record shop.”
More important, in the very beginning, are insights about your own proposed business that you achieve by stress-testing your assumptions.
“You and your spouse must determine on day one how much you can afford to invest and how you’ll make up lost income and maybe benefits. Schedule regular business meetings between the two of you. And when the business needs more money than expected, you should resist pushing too far beyond your spouse’s comfort level. Another $25,000? OK. A second mortgage? No.”.
It’s important to build your 12- or 18-month projection and build a spreadsheet that shows a driver of the business, but ultimately the only thing that’s certain is that that spreadsheet probably won’t be right, so the only thing they’re betting on is you as the founder.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Star Treknology: Imagining The Future Into Being”

These early-generation cell-phones were directly inspired by that paragon of science-fiction Star Trek.
From “Communicators” to “Warp drives” to “Transporters”, Star Trek laid out a future that continues to inspire scientists and engineers.
Given just a 30-year distance between Captain Kirk and his “Communicator” and you and your flip-phone, how realistic is the rest of Star Trek’s vision of future technology?
That’s the question astrophysicist Ethan Siegel takes on with his delightful new book Star Trek Treknology.
How about that most Star Trek of Star Trek transport modalities – the transporter? Siegel manages to be both concise and complete in his discussion of the various ways a transporter might work.
From its first appearance, Star Trek has always been hopeful about the relationship between society and technology.
“Our desire to push the boundaries of what we’re capable of knowing, inventing and accomplishing is placed front and center in Star Trek,” Siegel writes, “Right alongside the importance of remaining true to the very things that make us human.”
It’s that spirit that always made Star Trek worth paying attention to in terms of how the show imagined the future.

The orginal article.

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On top of the basic information collected by your smartphone and beamed back to the company that made your handset, there’s all the information collected by the apps you run too-the data that gets recorded and saved is down to an individual app’s privacy policies and the permissions you give it.
If you want to know exactly what an app is allowed to track on your Android phone, open the Settings app then go to Apps & notifications, choose an app, and select Permissions.
Google recently said it would be cracking down on apps without user data policies, but you’re still largely at the mercy of app developers in terms of how your data gets used.
Using the app on your phone? Airbnb can track your location, get information about the device you’re using, and log the times you use the app.
Just when you think you know what an app is and isn’t tracking, you find out that Uber was secretly recording iPhone screen activity, supposedly to improve functionality with the Apple Watch app.
We’ve already spoken about editing individual app permissions, either through the Apps & permissions menu in Android Settings, or by tapping on an app name in iOS Settings.
Most of these permissions are self-explanatory, such as access to your calendars and contacts, but you can also control whether or not apps can pull data from the motion sensors in your phone-this is labelled Body sensors in Android and Motion & Fitness in iOS. As far as Google is concerned, you’ve got a whole host of options to manage, covering Google’s apps on Android, iOS, and everywhere else.
Individual apps may have specific settings and privacy options you can take advantage of, though most won’t, and few app developers will be as interested in collecting data about you as Google.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Counter the Circus of Pseudoscience”

In hospitals we hold morbidity and mortality meetings trying to show where we have failed, what we need to change, how we can do better.
In the face of such doubt, it is not surprising that some individuals, even those who are intelligent and well educated, are swept away by the breezy confidence of health gurus, who are full of passionate intensity while the qualified lack all conviction, to borrow from Yeats.
In short, the less you know, the less able you are to recognize how little you know, so the less likely you are to recognize your errors and shortcomings.
For the highly skilled, like trained scientists, the opposite is true: The more you know, the more likely you are to see how little you know.
This may explain how an Australian celebrity chef named Pete Evans cannot only promote the health benefits of a Paleo diet but also feel knowledgeable enough to make pronouncements on fluoride, sunscreen and vaccinations.
How can an aerodynamics engineer speak with authority on the matter when he or she has not even bothered to research the events at Roswell and is not even aware that there are alien dissection videos freely available on the internet?
Countering the online health gurus is especially difficult when they offer the irresistible cocktail of medical language muddled with a much more pleasing aesthetic than medicine, far from the clinical world of linoleum and antiseptic, a better place where patients’ conditions are diagnosed with metaphors and treated with poetry.
Of course what they say is always half right, which is how pseudoscience works.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Trae Young Has Broken the NCAA Machine”

You are going to get sick of hearing about Trae Young before this season ends.
I’m assuming that you’re reading this because you aren’t sick of Young just yet, but trust me when I say that by March you’ll be complaining about how the media thinks Young is God’s gift to basketball and you’ll be swearing that the best player on your favorite team is just as good as Young.
There can’t be enough Trae Young coverage this season.
If every conversation on the planet for the next three months focused solely on how great Young is, it still wouldn’t be overkill.
Through 12 games, Young is averaging 29.6 points, 10.7 assists, and 1.8 steals while shooting 47.5 percent from the field and 41.3 percent from the 3-point line.
Truth be told, Texas Tech and Texas have the only Big 12 defenses I trust right now; Young putting up 30 and 10 every night in conference play is somehow completely feasible.
The obvious comparison for Young is Curry, but the only comps that fully capture Young’s game are of the mash-up variety.
Waiting for Young to prove it on the proverbial big stage means not appreciating in the moment what will likely be the bulk of his collegiate career.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How You Promote People Can Make or Break Company Culture”

We surveyed over 400,000 U.S. workers in the past year and found that when people believe promotions are managed effectively, they’re more than twice as likely to give extra effort at work and to plan a long-term future with their company.
A solid promotions process allows leaders to elevate each employee to their full potential – while showing the company what type of results and behaviors are valued.
If promotions aren’t managed well, one person’s success can foster feelings of resentment in others, and the career aspirations of employees across the company can be left unrealized.
Setting the stage for effective promotions starts with defining each team member’s long-term aspirations, so you both know how they will contribute as the business grows – and how you can best support them.
A common complaint employees have about their company’s promotions practice is a sense that by the time the job is posted, “The fix is already in.” Regardless of how transparent the opportunity is, they believe there is already a preferred candidate who will get the position.
Rather than rehash criteria from the job description, share inspiring stories and examples of how the individual consistently met the criteria, and also, how their promotion benefits the broader team.
He went on to share how he routinely anchors promotions announcements with recognition of people on the team who strengthened the business’ ability invest in a new role.
By systematically empowering leaders at every level to use these principles within their teams, results will be remarkable as more people across the company re-connect with their aspirations, feel a sense of sponsorship, extend trust to leaders when promotions decisions are made, and get excited about what’s possible as a valued member of a winning team.

The orginal article.