Summary of “The Dunning-Kruger effect, and how to fight it, explained by psychologist David Dunning”

David Dunning If there is a psychological principle that I think people should know more about, it’s the principle of naive realism.
Brian Resnick Something that I think is both funny and instructive about your work is that people often get the Dunning-Kruger effect wrong, and take away the wrong conclusions from it.
David Dunning There are some clues, I think, that come from the work of Philip Tetlock and his “Superforecasters” – which is that people who think not in terms of certainties but in terms of probabilities tend to do much better in forecasting and anticipating what is going to happen in the world than people who think in certainties.
David Dunning One of the things that really concerns me is that people really don’t make the distinction between facts and opinion.
What’s impressed me in the past few years is how much people not only author their opinions but author their factual beliefs about the world.
Brian Resnick Is there any insight at how you can get people more comfortable saying, “I don’t know?”.
David Dunning That’s an interesting question, because people seem to be uncomfortable about saying, “I don’t know.” That’s one thing we’ve never been able to get people to do.
How do you get people to say, “I don’t know”? I don’t know.

The orginal article.

Summary of “If You Want A Dream Career, Ask Yourself These 3 Questions”

Have you ever thought about how long your career actually lasts? If you ask me, your career ends when your life ends.
You want to pick a career that gives you a good outlook.
The last thing you want to become is an unfulfilled career hopper.
A person who likes everything and picks a different career every two years.
That’s why you want to make a smart decision about what kind of career you pursue.
I’ve personally used the advice from the renowned management consultant, Peter Drucker, to create a career that’s fulfilling.
Answering these questions have helped me to create my dream career.
When you answer these three questions, I’m sure you will find your dream career.

The orginal article.

Summary of “from practical primers to sci-fi short stories”

Experts are already building a future world brimming with artificial intelligence, but here in the present most of us are still trying to figure out what AI even is.
Questions like, “What is the nature of creativity?” and “How do we define consciousness?” Posing the question “How can I understand AI?” is nearly as daunting as asking “What is the meaning of life?”.
In order to help, The Verge has assembled a reading list: a brief but diverse compendium of books, short stories, and blogs, all chosen by leading figures in the AI world to help you better understand artificial intelligence.
It’s an eclectic selection that ranges from practical primers to Golden Age sci-fi, and while reading everything listed below won’t get you a job at Google, it will give you much-needed context for this confusing and exciting time.
Superintelligence is the book about the threat posed by artificial general intelligence, or AGI, written by Oxford philosophy professor Bostrom.
It’s inspired some questionable pronouncements from tech leaders on the threat from killer robots, but is the best introduction I’ve read to the problem of making smart machines safe; a problem which applies whether they’re super-smart or actually quite dumb.
Despite the gloomy topic, this non-fiction book is a surprisingly fun read, feeling closer to science fiction at times.
The Master Algorithm is a broader read that provides an excellent introduction to the technical aspects of AI. It walks you through all the basic components and concepts, from evolutionary algorithms to Bayesian probability, while showing how machine learning as a field cross-pollinates with disciplines like neuroscience and psychology.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Shortness of Life: Seneca on Busyness and the Art of Living Wide Rather Than Living Long”

It is unsurprising that the best treatment of the subject is also among the oldest: Roman philosopher Seneca’s spectacular 2,000-year-old treatise On the Shortness of Life – a poignant reminder of what we so deeply intuit yet so easily forget and so chronically fail to put into practice.
Life is long enough, and a sufficiently generous amount has been given to us for the highest achievements if it were all well invested.
So it is: we are not given a short life but we make it short, and we are not ill-supplied but wasteful of it Life is long if you know how to use it.
You act like mortals in all that you fear, and like immortals in all that you desire How late it is to begin really to live just when life must end! How stupid to forget our mortality, and put off sensible plans to our fiftieth and sixtieth years, aiming to begin life from a point at which few have arrived!
Living is the least important activity of the preoccupied man; yet there is nothing which is harder to learn Learning how to live takes a whole life, and, which may surprise you more, it takes a whole life to learn how to die.
So you must not think a man has lived long because he has white hair and wrinkles: he has not lived long, just existed long.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, given his own occupation, Seneca points to the study of philosophy as the only worthwhile occupation of the mind and spirit – an invaluable teacher that helps us learn how to inhabit our own selves fully in this “Brief and transient spell” of existence and expands our short lives sideways, so that we may live wide rather than long.
On the Shortness of Life is a sublime read in its pithy totality.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What Happens When You Drink a Gallon of Water a Day?”

In an effort to overcompensate my way to better life habits, I decided to slosh through a feat known across the internet as the Water Gallon Challenge: drinking a gallon per day for a month, with the promise of glowing skin and a lot more energy.
Day 5: Yes! Water is life! I no longer hobble into my day with my feet and spine curled up like dry leaves.
Day 7: Can we talk about how good I am at yoga right now? My hamstrings are much more flexible, and my back bends with ease.
Day 10: A switch to water that’s been ultrapurified by reverse osmosis has proved revelatory.
Day 14: I crave water first thing in the morning instead of coffee.
Day 19: The peeing has decreased to ten times per day.
Day 32: Oops, the month is over and I didn’t even notice-hydration is routine, and I’m loving it.
How much: “Proper hydration means 85 ounces of water a day from food and beverages, plus more to replenish what you lose when exercising.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey: The Rolling Stone Interview – Rolling Stone”

Co-founded Twitter in 2006, he had no idea he and his colleagues were creating what would become a universally accessible, global, seamless, 24/7 platform for tens of thousands of people to yell at him.
In two interview sessions – one over dinner at New York’s Blue Ribbon Brasserie, where he brought his own bottle of organic, low-alcohol wine; the other in a glass-doored conference room in Twitter’s bustling San Francisco headquarters – Dorsey addressed those challenges, and talked about his life, work, career and ideas.
After Dorsey was cast out of Twitter in 2008, he co-founded Square, the now-multibillion-dollar mobile-payment company – and his old company eventually pulled him back in.
It’s a sign of how the stakes have changed for you and for Twitter that no matter what you tweet, a fairly standard response is “Yeah, but get the Nazis off Twitter.”Yeah.
We built Twitter originally because we wanted to use it, and we fell in love with it.
Do you yourself have any degree of Twitter addiction? Do you compulsively check Twitter the way many of the rest of us do?In context, I do.
After you were removed as Twitter CEO in 2008, you came back in 2011, after founding another huge company, Square.
Did you come away from Twitter to Square with a newfound world-conquering ambition?No, I don’t want to conquer the world.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Marie Kondo, ‘Fyre Fraud,’ and TV’s Millennial Burnout”

Fyre Fraud, surprise-dropped by Hulu last Monday, takes a different approach.
Fyre Fraud includes parts of a taped interview with McFarland himself, but they’re the least revealing moments in the documentary.
More interesting is how Fyre Fraud uses the selling of the festival to consider the ways some Millennials understand identity, including their anxieties about affirming their existences online-literally, Pics or it didn’t happen.
Fyre Fraud posits that, for all the sloppiness of his grift, McFarland actually has a surprisingly intuitive sense of what Millennials want, and how to market it to them.
As preposterous as the Fyre Festival promotional video might seem now, it pings all the right dopamine receptors in an ongoing loop of stick and carrot.
Influencers, the New Yorker writer Jia Tolentino says in Fyre Fraud, are people who have refined and monetized the art of this “Performance of an attractive life.”
Even as they’re poorer, Millennials are more materialistic: 81 percent of Americans born during the 1980s say that accruing wealth is among their significant life goals, more than 20 percent higher than previous generations.
As a national belief in the collective has given way to an emphasis on the individual, Millennials have had to become less inhibited about the pursuit of self-gain, and more shrewd about how they define themselves.

The orginal article.

Summary of “You Make Or Break Your Life Between 5-7 AM”

How you spend your morning determines your success in life.
How you spend your morning is the difference between making tens of millions of dollars and making less than 100 grand.
“I frequently say to missionaries in the field, ‘You make or break your mission every morning of your life. You tell me how those morning hours go until you are on the street in your mission, whatever time it is; you tell me how those hours go, and I will tell you how your day will go, I will tell you how your month will go, I will tell you how your year will go and how your mission and your life will go.'” You Make Or Break Your Life Between 5 and 7 AM”Lose an hour in the morning, and you will spend all day looking for it.” - Richard WhatelyIf you lose an hour in your morning, you’ll spend your whole day looking for it.
If you spend your day looking for the most important time you’ve lost, you’ll be spending your whole life on a lower-level path than you could have had.If you don’t prioritize and maximize your morning hours, you’ll always be left wondering what your life could have been.
Without the morning routine, you will be far less equipped to deal with the challenges of life.
I dare you to take on the biggest growth, challenges, and risks of your life without having practices for clarity, creativity, and productivity DAILY.If you’re someone who dislikes or avoids evening and morning routines, then you simply are avoiding the greatest growth of your life.
What Do You Do Between 5 and 7 AM?If you could give yourself two hours, every morning, solely dedicated to learning, thinking, planning, meditating, praying, and writing in your journal, your life would change.
If you read good books every morning, visualize and strategize your goals, and write your insights in your journal, you’ll have an amazing life.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How artificial intelligence can help us make judges less biased”

Daniel L. Chen, a researcher at both the Toulouse School of Economics and University of Toulouse Faculty of Law, has a different idea: using AI to help correct the biased decisions of human judges.
Chen, who holds both a law degree and a doctorate in economics, has spent years collecting data on judges and US courts.
In a new working paper, Chen lays out a suggestion for how large datasets combined with artificial intelligence could help predict judges’ decisions and help us nudge them to make sentencing fairer.
It’s very well-known by now that judges’ decisions are often biased by factors that aren’t relevant to the case at hand.
That raises the question: why are the judges so predictable early before observing the facts? One interpretation is that maybe the judges are resorting to more snap judgments and heuristics to decide a case rather than the facts of it.
A big dataset can help us say that in these certain situations, the judge is more likely to be influenced in a given direction.
We have a paper showing that judges tend to be more lenient on defendant’s birthdays.
On the one hand, people might just get used to big data helping judges make decisions.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Four Books That Will Turn You Into A Practical Thinker”

One of the things that we never think about is the way we think.
Most people who meet me now think I’ve always been a practical thinker.
Practical thinking is a valuable skill that has helped me to solve complex problems in my life and career.
To learn practical thinking, you don’t have to study pragmatism because that’s boring.
Let’s get down to four books that helped me to become a practical thinker.
The reason I mention this book on this list is that life is not only about practical thinking.
From studying Steve Jobs, I learned how you can combine practical thinking with unpractical things like taste.
People without practical thinking remain starving artists.

The orginal article.