Summary of “The Dunning-Kruger effect, and how to fight it, explained by psychologist David Dunning”

David Dunning If there is a psychological principle that I think people should know more about, it’s the principle of naive realism.
Brian Resnick Something that I think is both funny and instructive about your work is that people often get the Dunning-Kruger effect wrong, and take away the wrong conclusions from it.
David Dunning There are some clues, I think, that come from the work of Philip Tetlock and his “Superforecasters” – which is that people who think not in terms of certainties but in terms of probabilities tend to do much better in forecasting and anticipating what is going to happen in the world than people who think in certainties.
David Dunning One of the things that really concerns me is that people really don’t make the distinction between facts and opinion.
What’s impressed me in the past few years is how much people not only author their opinions but author their factual beliefs about the world.
Brian Resnick Is there any insight at how you can get people more comfortable saying, “I don’t know?”.
David Dunning That’s an interesting question, because people seem to be uncomfortable about saying, “I don’t know.” That’s one thing we’ve never been able to get people to do.
How do you get people to say, “I don’t know”? I don’t know.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Make Friends in a New City”

Whether you’ve been promoted, taken a new job, or just needed to make a change – moving to a new city can be a scary endeavor.
For working adults, making new friends can be tough.
By teaching ourselves to understand how networks function, most of us can build, at least, a basic new network much faster than we built our old one.
You may find that you already know someone who lives in your new city.
This one may sound obvious, but many of us only reach out to our closest friends when we need help making new connections.
Take the time to ask many friends and colleagues if they know anyone worth meeting in your new city.
Once you land in your new city, it may be tempting to seek out meetups, networking events, and the like.
These are just a few steps you can take to build a network in your new city, and they’re certainly not the only thing you’ll be doing when you land.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Don’t Know What You Want? Improve These 7 Universal Skills”

What does success look like? What do you want from life? What career do you want?
We think it’s the worst thing in the world if you don’t know what you want to do in life.
One of the biggest thinking errors that I’ve made was that I thought I needed to know what I exactly wanted to do with my life.
The truth is that no one knows what they truly want.
So it’s not important to know exactly what you want to do with your life.
It’s not even realistic to boldly claim “I know what I want!”.
If you can’t decide what direction you want to go in life, that’s automatically your #1 goal in life – to figure out where you want to go.
Persuasion: Learn how to get what you want in an ethical way.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What It’s Like to Be Allergic to Corn”

Becca, who writes Corn Allergy Girl, also gets a lot of her produce from local farms.
The diet of someone with a severe corn allergy is in some ways the ideal diet for a certain type of foodie: fresh, local, free of preservatives and processed foods, the provenance of every ingredient intensely cataloged.
Knowing how to avoid foods with corn is one thing; knowing how to navigate social situations where danger lurks in every corner is another.
Cassandra Wiselka, whose 5-year-old is allergic to corn, has written about the problem of Halloween.
Virtually all mass-produced candy contains high-fructose corn syrup.
It’s hard to say exactly why, but Wiselka noticed that “In Germany, things are a lot less processed, food-wise. At least not processed as much with things like corn.”
When she dives, she has to watch out for a few specific things-that her wetsuit has not been washed with a corn-containing detergent, that her dive partners have not been eating corn chips.
Sure, scuba diving can kill you if you aren’t careful, but she can be sure there is no corn in water.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Secret Algorithm Behind Learning”

Feynman stumbled upon a formula for learning that ensured he understood something better than everyone else.
Not your smart adult friend but rather an 8-year-old who has just enough vocabulary and attention span to understand basic concepts and relationships.
A lot of people tend to use complicated vocabulary and jargon to mask when they don’t understand something.
The problem is we only fool ourselves because we don’t know that we don’t understand.
If you struggle, you have a clear understanding of where you have some gaps.
Identifying the boundaries of your understanding also limits the mistakes you’re liable to make and increases your chance of success when applying knowledge.
If the explanation isn’t simple or sounds confusing that’s a good indication that your understanding in that area still needs some work.
If you really want to be sure of your understanding, run it past someone.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Robert De Niro Is Always Doing Something”

Did you know those people growing up in Greenwich Village?
What do you think about the idea that, even if “The Irishman” is given a theatrical release, probably a lot of people would see it on a small screen? Is that a trade-off for having it funded?
Did you ever have actress friends confide in you over the years about something that happened to them or some quid-pro-quo scenario that you, in hindsight, think, “Well, that might have been more widespread than I thought it was”?
Nothing too graphic, nothing that would warrant my saying, “Well, they shouldn’t have done that, let me say something about it.” Because people didn’t want to bring it up or they were embarrassed or they didn’t want to start something.
What I think of, automatically, is that somebody would do something where they use me as the get-to person in order to get what they want, or something like that.
People can infer things, but a lot of times people don’t like to talk about that too much to me, so I don’t hear it.
Then the other people follow the bully, and they might take the liberty to do something that they wouldn’t do if the bully set a good example.
People would ask me from time to time, “Where do you think Travis Bickle is now?” And I’d say, “That’s a good question.” And I remember asking Marty, “What do you think?” So he said, “Yeah, let’s ask Paul, let’s talk about it.” So we did, and Paul came up with something, but it never was quite-we never could get to something that we felt would be right.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Leo Tolstoy on Finding Meaning in a Meaningless World”

In the delusion of my pride of intellect it seemed to me so indubitable that I and Solomon and Schopenhauer had stated the question so truly and exactly that nothing else was possible – so indubitable did it seem that all those milliards consisted of men who had not yet arrived at an apprehension of all the profundity of the question – that I sought for the meaning of my life without it once occurring to me to ask: “But what meaning is and has been given to their lives by all the milliards of common folk who live and have lived in the world?”.
Thanks either to the strange physical affection I have for the real laboring people, which compelled me to understand them and to see that they are not so stupid as we suppose, or thanks to the sincerity of my conviction that I could know nothing beyond the fact that the best I could do was to hang myself, at any rate I instinctively felt that if I wished to live and understand the meaning of life, I must seek this meaning not among those who have lost it and wish to kill themselves, but among those milliards of the past and the present who make life and who support the burden of their own lives and of ours also.
Rational knowledge presented by the learned and wise, denies the meaning of life, but the enormous masses of men, the whole of mankind receive that meaning in irrational knowledge.
I asked: “What is the meaning of my life, beyond time, cause, and space?” And I replied to quite another question: “What is the meaning of my life within time, cause, and space?” With the result that, after long efforts of thought, the answer I reached was: “None.”.
Is not a revelation; it is not only agreement with what has been told one, but faith is a knowledge of the meaning of human life in consequence of which man does not destroy himself but lives.
For man to be able to live he must either not see the infinite, or have such an explanation of the meaning of life as will connect the finite with the infinite.
In contradistinction to us, who the wiser we are the less we understand the meaning of life, and see some evil irony in the fact that we suffer and die, these folk live and suffer, and they approach death and suffering with tranquility and in most cases gladly.
In complete contrast to my ignorance, [they] knew the meaning of life and death, labored quietly, endured deprivations and sufferings, and lived and died seeing therein not vanity but good.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Future According to the Author of Sapiens”

One of the most important forces in history is human stupidity.
Experiments are already under way to augment the human immune system with an inorganic, bionic system.
Almost all traffic accidents are because of humans making bad decisions.
That’s not impossible because human beings very often make terrible mistakes, even in the most important decisions of their lives.
Then the question is, “What is human life all about?” For thousands of years we have constructed this idea of human life as a drama of decision-making.
The liberal story is based on the ideal and the notion of free will, that the free will of individual humans is the ultimate source of authority in the world.
Yes, the way that Cambridge Analytica and all these companies and bots behaved is they hacked humans.
One of the most important forces in human history is human stupidity.

The orginal article.

Summary of “This 12-Word Quote Entirely Explains How To Be Successful”

You need to 1) know what you want and 2) know that what you want is already yours.
You have to know that what you want is not only attainable but inevitable.
You actually learn to love being in the place of not knowing how things will turn out.
You don’t know exactly how things will turn out, but you know they will turn out.
Conclusion”Hope looks forward. Faith knows it has already received and acts accordingly.” - Florence ShinnHope sustains you while you pursue something bigger in your life.
As Dr. Stephen Covey put it, “To learn and not to do is really not to learn. To know and not to do is really not to know.”
If you aren’t acting according to your highest goals, then you still don’t know.
If you don’t know, you need to start acting more boldly.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why driving is hard-even for AIs”

So I’ve been analyzing the way I drive: How did I know that the other driver was going to turn left ahead of me? Why am I paying attention to the unleashed dog on the sidewalk but not the branches of the trees overhead? What subconscious cues tell me that a light is about to change to red or that the door of a parked car is about to open?
The car itself already takes care of a million details that make the car go, stop, and steer, and that process was complex enough when I was young and cars were essentially mechanical and electric.
Uber suspended its autonomous car program early in 2018 when one of its cars struck and killed a bicyclist.
The commercially available car currently considered the most autonomous-the Cadillac CT6 with Super Cruise-makes it to Level 2… but only on the 130,000 miles that its maps know.
As fast as a car’s onboard computer may be, it must also be able to learn and understand its surroundings, then make immediate decisions on its own-and it must know when to consult with remote resources when necessary.
If there are other cars around when your car takes action to avoid the cat, your car should be able to communicate with them, too, so they can understand instantly whether they need to brake, swerve, or accelerate; otherwise, your car might hit them instead of the cat.
For your car to understand all those hazards, it needs a bit of infrastructure called V2X-“Vehicle to everything” or V2I. And, since it will be a good long time before every vehicle on the road is self-driving and safe, your car will have to take into account bad driving by the considerable number of meat-piloted vehicles still on the road. That’s a lot of resources just to keep you and grandma happy.
Maybe someday, in order to drive in rural areas, you’ll still need to operate a car on your own-just as it’s still handy today to know how to use a stick shift.

The orginal article.