Summary of “A Blockchain Explainer”

Write a message with a very difficult mathematical problem on it-a problem so hard that it would take a month of concentration to solve.
To know something is one thing; but to know it with others, know that others know it, and know that they know that you know it, and all the way up the tower-this is another thing altogether.
What do you know now? Well, as before, you know that a large number of people saw the second problem.
Since the problem included the message from the first problem, you know that everyone saw that as well, and can reason in a similar fashion.
If someone wants to reply to you, they can add the solution to your problem to their message.
Now you know that the message really is responding to yours, since it couldn’t have been written by someone until your message was shared and solved, and when the problem is solved, you know others know it too.
The use of these problems to solve the common knowledge problem is called “Proof of Work.” And the string of messages threaded from one problem to the next is the blockchain.
In the world of blockchains, that’s called a “Fork”: when sufficiently many members of the chain want to change the rules, they can go rogue, publicizing a new set of rules and attempting to lure others to divert their computer power to solving proof-of-work problems for their new republic.

The orginal article.

Summary of “AI’s brightest minds are still figuring out how to understand their creations”

“We don’t want to accept arbitrary decisions by entities, people or AIs, that we don’t understand,” said Uber AI researcher Jason Yosinkski, co-organizer of the Interpretable AI workshop.
As these artificial neural networks are starting to be used in law enforcement, healthcare, scientific research, and determining which news you see on Facebook, researchers are saying there’s a problem with what some have called AI’s “Black box.” Previous research has shown that algorithms amplify biases in the data from which they learn, and make inadvertent connections between ideas.
“We need to understand what’s going on inside them and how they are being used.”
While he got the answer he was looking for, Wilson says that understanding the internal rules the algorithm had built to understand how light indicated the position of the particle could have opened a new avenue of research.
“In a way, a model is a theory for our observation, and we can use the model not just to make predictions but also to better understand why the predictions are good and how these natural processes are working,” Wilson said.
Does interpretability mean that AI experts know why Facebook’s algorithm is showing you a specific post, or that you understand yourself? Does a doctor using an AI-powered treatment recommendation system need to know why a specific regimen was suggested, or is that another role- like an AI overseer- that needs to be created in a hospital?
Understanding an algorithm isn’t just to fend against bias or make sure your rover won’t fall off a Martian cliff; knowing how a system fails can help AI researchers build more accurate systems.
To figure out how one of its algorithms thinks, Google is trying to sift through the millions of computations made every time the algorithm processes an image.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Introvert’s Hate/Hate Relationship With Spontaneity”

“I’ve just sat down to catch up on Friends.” Watch it another time, I’d be told.
I wanted to tell them the truth, but can you imagine what they’d have said? “Oh, thanks for the invite guys, but I’m an introvert and I can’t stand being spontaneous. Maybe another time, assuming you give me seven days notice in writing.”
What’s more, my friends knew when I was and was not going to accept their invitations, so they stopped knocking when they knew it was a waste of their time.
There are few things less enjoyable for an introvert than being coerced into some random activity at some unplanned time with unfamiliar people.
Social activity drains us, but spontaneous social activity burns through our energy reserves in double-quick time because of how much we have to think, react, and absorb when we’re not mentally ready for it.
If there’s no clear time at which things will draw to a close, we panic, knowing we’ll be utterly spent in the not-too-distant future.
Suggest a date and a time that feels comfortable for you.
A few days time, next week, in a fortnight; it doesn’t matter as long as it gives you enough time to prepare mentally.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Christmas blues: 4 ways we mess up comforting friends: Sheryl Sandberg”

Hilary went to a toy store, bought a stuffed animal, and sent an email: “I’m coming to the hospital with a package for your daughter. I don’t want to invade your privacy or hers. If you don’t feel like coming down I’ll leave it at the front desk. No pressure.” The teacher replied immediately, inviting her up.
The holidays are supposed to be a time of celebration – but if you’re dealing with illness, divorce, incarceration or grief, that festive spirit can feel like salt being poured on a wound.
If you have a loved one who’s suffering, phrases you’ve used a thousand times without a second thought -“Happy holidays! Season’s greetings!” – can feel like a cruel joke.
Pressuring people to be happy is a surefire way to make them sad; feeling bad about feeling bad just makes us feel worse.
For bereaved parents and spouses, the most helpful help came from people who invited them to express their feelings.
Your brother is sick from chemo? I totally know how you feel – my cat was throwing up recently.
Odds are you don’t actually know how they feel.
Fourth: We’ve tried to show support by saying, “Let me know if there’s anything I can do.” We meant it, but it put the burden on others to know what they needed and feel comfortable asking.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The 55 Best Questions To Ask To Break The Ice And Really Get To Know Someone”

What’s the first question most people ask you when you meet?
Why does it have to be like this? And why do we care so much about what someone does, anyway? Hopefully, we respect ourselves enough to know that we are dynamic people who can’t be described adequately in one sentence.
We also know that we can’t get someone to feel invested in us, or our work, in a quick transactional conversation.
Isn’t there a better way? Yes, but you may have to break a few norms to bust up the status quo to really get to know someone.
A ‘hot’ one is typically best if reserved until after you’ve warmed someone up a bit, so they feel comfortable enough to open up.
Knowing what you know now, what advice would you give your 18-year-old self?
Most importantly, don’t attack someone with questions.
You will eventually get to know what someone does.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Get Your Mind to Read”

These examples help us understand why readers might decode well but score poorly on a test; they lack the knowledge the writer assumed in the audience.
If a text concerned a familiar topic, habitually poor readers ought to read like good readers.
In one experiment, third graders – some identified by a reading test as good readers, some as poor – were asked to read a passage about soccer.
The poor readers who knew a lot about soccer were three times as likely to make accurate inferences about the passage as the good readers who didn’t know much about the game.
Why test her reading with a passage about spiders, or the Titanic? If topics are random, the test weights knowledge learned outside the classroom – knowledge that wealthy children have greater opportunity to pick up.
The Common Core Standards for reading specify nearly nothing by way of content that children are supposed to know – the document valorizes reading skills.
Turning the tide will require profound changes in how reading is taught, in standardized testing and in school curriculums.
Underlying all these changes must be a better understanding of how the mind comprehends what it reads.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The 55 Best Questions To Ask To Break The Ice And Really Get To Know Someone”

What’s the first question most people ask you when you meet?
Why does it have to be like this? And why do we care so much about what someone does, anyway? Hopefully, we respect ourselves enough to know that we are dynamic people who can’t be described adequately in one sentence.
We also know that we can’t get someone to feel invested in us, or our work, in a quick transactional conversation.
Isn’t there a better way? Yes, but you may have to break a few norms to bust up the status quo to really get to know someone.
A ‘hot’ one is typically best if reserved until after you’ve warmed someone up a bit, so they feel comfortable enough to open up.
Knowing what you know now, what advice would you give your 18-year-old self?
Most importantly, don’t attack someone with questions.
You will eventually get to know what someone does.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why incompetent people often think they’re actually the best”

A new TED-Ed video, based on a lesson by psychologist David Dunning, dives into why this happens and why people are so bad at judging their skills in general, looking into the phenomenon known as the Dunning-Kruger effect.
So what’s going on here? There’s actually a reasonable explanation: “When psychologists Dunning and [Justin] Kruger first described the effect in 1999, they argued that people lacking knowledge and skill in particular areas suffer a double curse. First, they make mistakes and reach poor decisions. But second, those same knowledge gaps also prevent them from catching their errors. In other words, poor performers lack the very expertise needed to recognize how badly they’re doing.”
The good news is once people know they are bad at something – say, if they fail at a logic puzzle – they’ll typically admit to it.
“That may be why people with a moderate amount of experience or expertise often have less confidence in their abilities,” Addison said.
Knowledge can also lead to people overestimating others: “Experts tend to be aware of just how knowledgeable they are. But they often make a different mistake: They assume that everyone else is knowledgeable too.”
“The result is that people, whether they’re inept or highly skilled, are often caught in a bubble of inaccurate self-perception,” Addison explained.
There’s a way to prevent all of this: “First, ask for feedback from other people – and consider it, even if it’s hard to hear. Second, and more important, keep learning. The more knowledgeable we become, the less likely we are to have invisible holes in our competence.”
Keep in mind this is all just one explanation for why and how incompetent people may overestimate themselves.

The orginal article.

Summary of “These Are The 8 Friends You Need To Be Happy In Life”

Some of your friends are great listeners but they’re not always there when you need them.
What did these types of friends offer? How do they round out your life? What are those things we all want from a group of friends to feel truly fulfilled?
It turns out there are 8 types of “Vital friends.” Many of us don’t have all of them in our squad, and that’s why we often feel disappointed or like we’re not getting everything we need.
What if you’re a Builder? How can you be more helpful to your friends? Pay attention to what they’re up to and offer help.
If you’re a Champion, how can you improve? Ask your friends what they’ve been up to and how you can help.
They are the friends for whom you might literally put your life on the line.
If you’re a Connector, how can you better help your friends? Be proactive.
These friends broaden your perspective on life and make you a better person.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Charles Manson: 1970 RS Interview About Manson Family Murders”

Most of them are early members of Charlie’s three-year-old family.
Her real name is Susan Atkins, but the family calls her Sadie Glutz because that’s what Charlie named her.
Q. Mary, did you never see Charlie Manson or Bruce Davis hit Gary Hinman?
Porfiry shuts the folder: And then they also arrested Charlie Manson up there hiding in a little kitchen cabinet.
I don’t think there are 12 people in the world who could convict Charles Manson, if Charles Manson is talking for himself.
After the evening meal, the family usually gathers under Charlie’s picture on the living room wall, singing his music and feeling the good love energy that flows between them.
As a matter of fact, the interview wasn’t that valuable; Charlie had already said most of it.
Charlie himself agreed to a two-hour interview – the longest one yet – and asked nothing.

The orginal article.