Summary of “Less Tweeting, More Doing”

So we spew forth on social media as if those words-whether vitriolic or rational-are a replacement for doing.
Unless you count rifting, tweeting isn’t doing.
As an antidote to my own spewing, both as a columnist whose essays about climate change are as invisible as methane and as a social media user, I’ve been making an effort to do more doing lately.
The public land that we’re etching the trail on is also the result of doing.
Today, college kids and retirees raise hoppy beers and float through the same downtown where the doing began.
The federal-level doing doesn’t get done, and all we’re left with is the governance of deconstruction-each administration dismantling what the prior administration merely reinstated through executive orders.
Writer and activist Rick Bass calls such local doing “Knife fighting.” I reached out to him after he and the Save the Yellowstone Grizzly movement, along with a battalion of scientists and activists and Native peoples, were able to win a delay in the scheduled grizzly hunts in Wyoming and Idaho.
Could a global knife fight of doing follow that trajectory, with local actors changing the course of a community of nations? On a whim, I attended a climate change action march in September.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Feral Horses, Fierce Controversy”

That’s some of the fallout from the problem on Dancer’s mind: too much competition for land among ranchers like him, the feral horses protected by the government, and native wildlife.
About a third of the nearly 90 million acres of public land on which free-roaming horses reside, as well as the horses themselves, are under the purview of the Bureau of Land Management, though some horses, including the Devil’s Garden herd, fall under the management of the U.S. Forest Service.
“I think everybody would agree that removing only horses that have a chance for adoption”-and leaving the rest of the excess horses on the range rather than transferring them into captivity-“Is the way to go,” says Ginger Kathrens, executive director of the Cloud Foundation, a wild horse advocacy group.
CHARLES POST RIGHT SOLUTION, WRONG ENVIRONMENT While people do not want to see horses sent to slaughter, they also find the thought of thousands of starving horses unpalatable.
The feral horses overseen by the National Park Service on the islands of North Carolina’s Shackleford Banks have been successfully managed using a contraceptive vaccine called PZP. The required multiple treatments and annual boosters are relatively simple to administer on these islands, where every last animal can easily be found and darted.
Once the on-range AML was achieved-which would reduce the total number of horses from nearly 72,000 to fewer than 26,690-it would be practical to manage the expected population increase of some 5,000 horses per year through a combination of adoption and contraception, Norris argues.
From a political perspective, members of Congress-especially those from eastern states, whose constituents love horses but aren’t directly faced with their ecological and economic impacts-have little reason to support a vote to kill horses.
At this point, the impacts of horses on western ecosystems are fairly clear: Hungry horses eat grasses down to their roots, which cripples their ability to regrow.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Mississippi Delta’s History of Black Land Theft”

Around the turn of the century, in Leflore County, a black farm organizer and proponent of self-sufficiency-referred to as a “Notoriously bad Negro” in the local newspapers-led a black populist awakening, marching defiantly and by some accounts bringing boycotts against white merchants.
According to the Census of Agriculture, the racial disparity in farm acreage increased in Mississippi from 1950 to 1964, when black farmers lost almost 800,000 acres of land.
In the 1950s and ’60s, Norman Weathersby, a Holmes County Chevrolet dealer who enjoyed a local monopoly on trucks and heavy farm equipment, required black farmers to put up land as collateral for loans on equipment.
Lynchings, police brutality, and other forms of intimidation were sometimes used to dispossess black farmers, and even when land wasn’t a motivation for such actions, much of the violence left land without an owner.
According to The New York Times, TIAA and its subsidiaries also appear to have acquired land titles from Euclides de Carli, a businessman often described in Brazil as a big-time grileiro-a member of a class of landlords and land grabbers who use a mix of legitimate means, fraud, and violence to force small farmers off their land.
Asked about TIAA’s record, a spokesperson for Nuveen maintained that the company has built its Delta portfolio following ethical-investment guidelines: “We have a long history of investing responsibly in farmland, in keeping with our corporate values and the UN-backed Principles for Responsible Investment. As a long-term owner, we bring capital, professional expertise, and sustainable farming practices to each farm we own, and we are always looking to partner with expansion-minded tenants who will embrace that approach and act as good stewards of the land.” The company did not comment on the history of any individual tract in its Delta portfolio.
We know that the vast majority of black farmland in the country is no longer in black hands, and that black farmers have suffered far more hardships than white farmers have.
Even as the U.S. government invested billions in white farmers, it continued to extract wealth from black farmers in the Delta.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Plant-based diet can fight climate change”

Switching to a plant-based diet can help fight climate change, UN experts have said.
A major report on land use and climate change says the West’s high consumption of meat and dairy produce is fuelling global warming.
Twelve years to save Earth? Make that 18 months…. Meat, veg, nuts – a diet designed to feed 10bn. What is climate change?
“We’re not telling people to stop eating meat. In some places people have no other choice. But it’s obvious that in the West we’re eating far too much,” said Prof Pete Smith, an environmental scientist from Aberdeen University, UK. The report calls for vigorous action to halt soil damage and desertification – both of which contribute to climate change.
How the land responds to human-induced climate change is a vital concern for the future.
Climate change poses a threat to the security of our food supply.
Climate change food calculator: What’s your diet’s carbon footprint?
“It’s really clear that the land’s being degraded through over-exploitation – and that’s making climate change worse,” said Prof Smith.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Polio Inspired the Creation of Candy Land”

The Milton Bradley executive Mel Taft said that Abbott, the inventor of Candy Land, was “a real sweetheart” whom he liked immediately.
According to Walsh, the toy historian, the two met when Abbott brought Milton Bradley a Candy Land prototype sketched on butcher paper.
According to some accounts, she gave much of the royalties she earned from Candy Land to children’s charities.
Abbott recuperated in the polio ward of a San Diego hospital, spending her convalescence primarily among children.
Read: What America looked like: Polio children paralyzed in iron lungs.
Seeing children suffer around her, Abbott set out to concoct some escapist entertainment for her young wardmates, a game that left behind the strictures of the hospital ward for an adventure that spoke to their wants: the desire to move freely in the pursuit of delights, an easy privilege polio had stolen from them.
From today’s perspective, it’s tempting to see Candy Land as a tool of quarantine, an excuse to keep kids inside in the way Shepherd remembers.
“The point of Candy Land is to pass the time,” she writes, “Certainly a virtue when one’s days are spent in the boring confines of the hospital and an appealing feature as well of a game used to pass the time indoors for children confined to the house.” For Kawash, Candy Land justifies and extends the imprisonment of the hospital, becoming another means of restriction.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Difference Between National Parks and Monuments”

To laypeople, the distinction between lands designated as national parks and national monuments can appear finite.
The primary difference lies in the reason for preserving the land: National parks are protected due to their scenic, inspirational, education, and recreational value.
National monuments protect wilderness areas, fossil sites, military forts, ruins, and buildings.
On the bureaucratic bent, the National Parks Service oversees all parks and some monuments.
Congress designates national parks; in general, presidential proclamations establish national monuments.
Although some national parks are quite small-the smallest is Pennsylvania’s Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial at 0.02 acres-the minimum size today is 1,000 hectares.
The largest national park is the 13.2-million-acre Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in Alaska.
Popular National Monuments Because various agencies administrate national monuments, nailing down a list of the most popular is challenging.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Tree planting ‘has mind-blowing potential’ to tackle climate crisis”

Planting billions of trees across the world is by far the biggest and cheapest way to tackle the climate crisis, according to scientists, who have made the first calculation of how many more trees could be planted without encroaching on crop land or urban areas.
Tropical areas could have 100% tree cover, while others would be more sparsely covered, meaning that on average about half the area would be under tree canopy.
Tree planting is “a climate change solution that doesn’t require President Trump to immediately start believing in climate change, or scientists to come up with technological solutions to draw carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere”, Crowther said.
Trees draw carbon dioxide back out of the atmosphere as they grow, and planting trees will need to play an important part in ending the climate emergency.
The study, published in the journal Science, determines the potential for tree planting but does not address how a global tree planting programme would be paid for and delivered.
Crowther said: “The most effective projects are doing restoration for 30 US cents a tree. That means we could restore the 1tn trees for $300bn , though obviously that means immense efficiency and effectiveness. But it is by far the cheapest solution that has ever been proposed.” He said financial incentives to land owners for tree planting are the only way he sees it happening, but he thinks $300bn would be within reach of a coalition of billionaire philanthropists and the public.
Tree planting initiatives already exist, including the Bonn Challenge, backed by 48 nations, aimed at restoring 350m hectares of forest by 2030.
Prof Simon Lewis, at University College London, said the carbon already in the land before tree planting was not accounted for and that it takes hundreds of years to achieve maximum storage.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were lost on the Moon. Really”

Once Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed Eagle on the Moon, the Apollo 11 astronauts and their spaceship were actually lost.
NASA was never able to figure out where, exactly, on the Moon they had set down, while they were on the Moon.
As Armstrong and Aldrin flew down toward the Moon in their lunar module, Armstrong was looking out the window and the spot the autopilot was flying them toward was, as Armstrong described it, a crater the size of a football field, littered with boulders, some as large as cars.
In the end, he and Aldrin set down several miles from the original landing spot-on safe, level Moon ground, but not where they had planned to land.
Rew Chaikin, in his account of the Moon landings, A Man On the Moon, describes Armstrong’s reaction to landing in unfamiliar Moon terrain: “As he looked out, Armstrong wondered where he and Aldrin had landed …. searched the horizon for some feature he might be able to identify, but found none.”
The Moon was mapped, but not in anything like fine, up-close detail; there were no constellations of tracking satellites around the Moon in 1969.
In the 22½ hours Armstrong and Aldrin were on the Moon in Eagle, NASA never found them.
NASA was later able to figure out where Armstrong and Aldrin had been, and the Apollo 11 landing site at Tranquility Base has been photographed by orbiting Moon probes, including the bottom stage of the lunar module, along with the sites of the other five Moon landing bases.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Less Tweeting, More Doing”

So we spew forth on social media as if those words-whether vitriolic or rational-are a replacement for doing.
Unless you count rifting, tweeting isn’t doing.
As an antidote to my own spewing, both as a columnist whose essays about climate change are as invisible as methane and as a social media user, I’ve been making an effort to do more doing lately.
The public land that we’re etching the trail on is also the result of doing.
Today, college kids and retirees raise hoppy beers and float through the same downtown where the doing began.
The federal-level doing doesn’t get done, and all we’re left with is the governance of deconstruction-each administration dismantling what the prior administration merely reinstated through executive orders.
Writer and activist Rick Bass calls such local doing “Knife fighting.” I reached out to him after he and the Save the Yellowstone Grizzly movement, along with a battalion of scientists and activists and Native peoples, were able to win a delay in the scheduled grizzly hunts in Wyoming and Idaho.
Could a global knife fight of doing follow that trajectory, with local actors changing the course of a community of nations? On a whim, I attended a climate change action march in September.

The orginal article.

Summary of “‘American Soil’ Is Increasingly Foreign Owned”

‘American Soil’ Is Increasingly Foreign Owned The number of acres of U.S. farmland held by foreign-owned investors has doubled in the past two decades, raising alarm bells in farming communities.
With the median age of U.S. farmers at 55, many face retirement with no prospect of family members willing to take over.
The National Young Farmers Coalition anticipates that two-thirds of the nation’s farmland will change hands in the next few decades.
“Texas is kind of a free-for-all, so they don’t have a limit on how much land can be owned,” say’s Ohio Farm Bureau’s Ty Higgins, “You look at Iowa and they restrict it – no land in Iowa is owned by a foreign entity.”
In the northwestern corner of the state, below Toledo, companies from the Netherlands alone have purchased 64,000 acres for wind farms.
Angela Huffman is a 6th-generation farmer in Wyandot County, which, along with Paulding County, has over 41,000 acres of foreign-owned farmland.
To be fair, U.S. farmers and corporations also invest in overseas agriculture, owning billions of dollars of farmland from Australia to Brazil, but the Smithfield Food buyout has really raised concerns with American farmers.
“The last two farms we bought here, through an owner, her and her brothers and sisters inherited it from their mother, and none of them wanted to farm. None of them have an interest in the farm.” Trimmer explains that his German clients have established a reputation in the community for letting the tenants – often aging parents or grown children – continue to live in the houses on the farms they buy.

The orginal article.