Summary of “How to Reshape Your Brain and Learn Anything, Based on the Most Popular Coursera Class Ever”

What’s the best way to make sure you learn and don’t forget? After all, you can fish all day, but you won’t eat if your fish all jump out and wriggle back out of the boat.
In partnership with the University of California and neuroscientist Terrence Sejnowski, Oakley’s compiled the best of the best scientifically supported learning strategies into “Learning How to Learn,” the most popular class ever on Coursera.
Repeating and practicing what you want to learn essentially builds a stronger bridge, so that it’s easier for the electrical impulses to move from cell to cell.
Spaced repetition is the most efficient way to build the synaptic connections and learn fast.
How far you need to chunk and drill down will depend on what you’re trying to learn and how complex it is, but the general process is always the same.
Most people who want to learn from a text just reread it over and over without taking time to test what they remember.
If you know what kind of learner you are, you can pick learning strategies that feel natural to you and you don’t have to feel embarrassed or incompetent next to anyone else.
How people learn best might be somewhat predictable, but what you learn compared to someone else is not.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A New Kind of Classroom: No Grades, No Failing, No Hurry”

More than 40 schools in New York City – home to the largest school district in the country, with 1.1 million students – have adopted the program.
In communities where the shift was mandated – high schools in and around Portland, Me., for example – the method faced considerable resistance from parents and teachers annoyed that the time-consuming, and sometimes confusing, change has come from top-tier school administrators.
To date, there are eight lab schools, whose practices are being tested, honed and highlighted for transitioning schools.
It’s no surprise that schools adopting the method are often the same to have invested heavily in education software; computers are often ubiquitous inside their classrooms.
Joy Nolan, one of the directors of New York’s Mastery Collaborative, said the method gives students more agency and allows them to gain traction, no matter their level.
Some of the schools she assists – like the North Queens Community High School – came to mastery-based learning as a way to help disillusioned and at-risk students.
In New York, where students speak more than 200 languages and arrive in classrooms with varying degrees of proficiency, some schools adopted the method out of necessity.
At Flushing International High School, whose student body is dominated by recent immigrants, mastery-based learning lets students concentrate on learning English.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Successful People Spend 10 Hours A Week On “Compound Time””

Each morning, Benjamin Franklin asked himself, “What good shall I do this day?” and each evening, “What good have I done today?” Steve Jobs stood at the mirror each day and asked, “If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do?” Both billionaire Jean Paul DeJoria and media maven Arianna Huffington takes a few minutes each morning to count their blessings.
Pulling from the results of more than a decade of experiments, nap researcher Sara Mednick of the University of California, San Diego, boldly states: “With naps of an hour to an hour and a half you get close to the same benefits in learning consolidation that you would from a full eight hour night’s sleep.” People who study in the morning do about 30% better on an evening test if they’ve had an hour-long nap than if they haven’t.
Winston Churchill spent several hours a day reading biographies, history, philosophy, and economics.
Theodore Roosevelt read one book a day when busy, and two to three a day when he had a free evening.
Hack #6: Success is a direct result of the number of experiments you performThere’s a reason that Jeff Bezos says, “Our success at Amazon is a function of how many experiments we do per year, per month, per week, per day.”
“Given a ten percent chance of a 100 times payoff, you should take that bet every time. But you’re still going to be wrong nine times out of ten. We all know that if you swing for the fences, you’re going to strike out a lot, but you’re also going to hit some home runs. The difference between baseball and business is that baseball has a truncated outcome distribution. When you swing, no matter how well you connect with the ball, the most runs you can get is four. In business, every once in awhile, when you step up to the plate, you can score 1,000 runs.”No matter how much you read and discuss, you’re still going to have to spend some time making your own mistakes.
Spend almost all of his time on compound time, things that create the most long-term value.
To get started, follow the 5-hour rule: for an hour a day, invest in compound time: take that nap, enjoy that walk, read that book, have that conversation.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Good Leaders Are Good Learners”

Although organizations spend more than $24 billion annually on leadership development, many leaders who have attended leadership programs struggle to implement what they’ve learned.
Our research on leadership development shows that leaders who are in learning mode develop stronger leadership skills than their peers.
Building on Susan Ashford and Scott DeRue’s mindful engagement experiential learning cycle, we found that leaders who exhibit a growth mindset diligently work through each of the following three phases of the experiential learning cycle.
First, leaders set challenging learning goals in the form of “I need to learn how to” For some leaders, the goal might be to become more persuasive or to be more approachable.
Finally, leaders who are in learning mode conduct fearless after-action reviews, determined to glean useful insights from the results of their experimentation.
How can leaders enter learning mode? Leaders can construe setbacks as meaning they have not yet developed the required capabilities, rather than them being just not cut out for the task at hand.
How can organizations help leaders enter and remain in learning mode? Organizational leaders can help rising leaders focus more on being progressively better than they were in the past, rather than on constantly benchmarking themselves against others.
The bottom line is that by supporting leaders being in learning mode, organizations can develop the capabilities that leaders need to anticipate, respond to, and continually learn from the stream of emerging challenges to organizational prosperity.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Andrew Ng’s Next Trick: Training a Million AI Experts”

Rew Ng, one of the world’s best-known artificial-intelligence experts, is launching an online effort to create millions more AI experts across a range of industries.
Ng, an early pioneer in online learning, hopes his new deep-learning course on Coursera will train people to use the most powerful idea to have emerged in AI in recent years.
Deep learning involves teaching a machine to perform a complex task using large amounts of data along with a large simulated neural network.
Several years ago, Ng was also the founding director of the Google Brain project, an effort to deploy deep learning across the company.
Even though a lot of the buzz in AI has been around large tech companies-and clearly the large tech companies are creating huge amounts of value with AI through better Web search, online advertising, better maps, better payment systems, and so on-if you look across an entire economy, really any Fortune 500 company can create a lot of value with AI as well.
Even though universities are ramping up their teaching capacity, there are so many people who are already out of the university system that need to learn these new systems.
Could deep learning help automate education itself?
One is just bringing a lot more people into deep learning.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to learn anything faster: Don’t read books.”

Now I’m not saying you should completely cut out books from your life.
If books are your only way for learning a new skill - be it cooking, building relationships, displaying leadership, marketing - you’re learning too slow.
I’d relied on books too much, to the point where I failed to realize my own greatest tool: my intuition and my taste buds.
After just a few short weeks, I’d learned how to fix up a dish if it turned out too spicy.
Human error > bookWhen you learn a skill through human error, you learn at an accelerated pace.
Want to learn how to talk to people? Walk up to them and start talking.
Want to learn about the culture of (country)? Book a trip there for 3 weeks.
Want to learn how to build a business? Try selling something first.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Learning to Learn: You, Too, Can Rewire Your Brain”

Dr. Oakley is not the only person teaching students how to use tools drawn from neuroscience to enhance learning.
Many of her online students are 25 to 44 years old, likely to be facing career changes in an unforgiving economy and seeking better ways to climb new learning curves.
Sitting in the Oakleys’ comfortable living room, with its solid Mission furniture and mementos of their world travels, Dr. Oakley said she believes that just about anyone can train himself to learn.
Dr. Oakley recounts her journey in both of her best-selling books: “A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science” and, out this past spring, “Mindshift: Break Through Obstacles to Learning and Discover Your Hidden Potential.” The new book is about learning new skills, with a focus on career switchers.
Dr. Oakley is already planning her next book, another guide to learning how to learn but aimed at 10- to 13-year-olds.
“We don’t have learning clubs. I just think that teaching kids how to learn is one of the greatest things we can possibly do.”
Four Techniques to Help You LearnFOCUS/DON’T The brain has two modes of thinking that Dr. Oakley simplifies as “Focused,” in which learners concentrate on the material, and “Diffuse,” a neural resting state in which consolidation occurs – that is, the new information can settle into the brain.
Dr. Oakley teaches that even thinking about doing things we dislike activates the pain centers of the brain.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Kids Can’t Write”

The root of the problem, educators agree, is that teachers have little training in how to teach writing and are often weak or unconfident writers themselves.
A separate 2016 study of nearly 500 teachers in grades three through eight across the country, conducted by Gary Troia of Michigan State University and Steve Graham of Arizona State University, found that fewer than half had taken a college class that devoted significant time to the teaching of writing, while fewer than a third had taken a class solely devoted to how children learn to write.
“They’ve been successful in college, maybe even graduate school. But when you ask most teachers about their comfort with writing and their writing experiences, they don’t do very much or feel comfortable with it.”
Dr. Hochman’s strategy is radically different: a return to the basics of sentence construction, from combining fragments to fixing punctuation errors to learning how to deploy the powerful conjunctive adverbs that are common in academic writing but uncommon in speech, words like “Therefore” and “Nevertheless.” After all, the Snapchat generation may produce more writing than any group of teenagers before it, writing copious text messages and social media posts, but when it comes to the formal writing expected at school and work, they struggle with the mechanics of simple sentences.
The Common Core has provided a much-needed “Wakeup call” on the importance of rigorous writing, said Lucy M. Calkins, founding director of the Reading and Writing Project at Teachers College, Columbia University, a leading center for training teachers in process-oriented literacy strategies.
She doesn’t believe that children learn to write well through plumbing their own experiences in a journal, and she applauds the fact that the Common Core asks students to do more writing about what they’ve read, and less about their own lives.
Her training session lacks the fun and interactivity of the Long Island Writing Project, because it is less about prompting teachers to write and chat with colleagues and more about the sometimes dry work of preparing worksheets and writing assignments that reinforce basic concepts.
There is a notable shortage of high-quality research on the teaching of writing, but studies that do exist point toward a few concrete strategies that help students perform better on writing tests.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A new study shows millennials are no better at using technology than their parents”

This group is supposedly a generation of early adopters under the age of about 35, uniquely adept at technology compared to their older counterparts.
Which concluded that “Information-savvy digital natives do not exist.” Despite assertions that younger generations learn differently and require specialized, multimedia teaching strategies because they grew up with smartphones and the web, the authors say that there is no evidence to suggest that digital natives are more tech-savvy or good at multi-tasking than older generations.
This idea of the digital native was born out of the a 2001 essay by educator Marc Prensky, who claimed that a new generation was especially skilled at processing multiple streams of information and using technology, reports Discover Magazine.
Co-author of the Teaching and Teacher Education study and a professor of educational psychology at the Open University in the Netherlands, argues that we hurt, rather than help, students learn when we assume that they have unique technological skills.
This idea is backed up by other research showing that millennials do not necessarily possess special skills at basic computer programs compared to older generations.
A better approach might be to rethink how we define generations.
Digital natives have not developed unique intellectual abilities from their proximity to technology because basic human cognition doesn’t change from generation to generation.
A professor of psychology at San Diego State University, argues that categorizing people into distinct generations can be useful for certain things.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Get Smarter Every Day”

Track what have you learnt so far to avoid getting complacent and help learn new things.
Charlie Munger once said, “I constantly see people rise in life who are not the smartest, sometimes not even the most diligent, but they are learning machines. They go to bed every night a little wiser than they were when they got up and boy does that help, particularly when you have a long run ahead of you”.
Learning is best when you connect it to things that you’ve already learned.
It doesn’t have to be pretty or long, but taking a few minutes each day to reflect in writing about what you learned is sure to boost your brainpower.
Write a few hundred words a day on things that you learned.
Mental strength requires that you continue building new neural pathways by learning new things.
Try to pick up one new thing every week, then continue working on it as you learn new things.
You will learn how to handle your limits and challenges in the process.

The orginal article.