Summary of “America’s Defining Divide Isn’t Left vs. Right. It’s Old vs. Young.”

Older Americans are more likely to vote than millennials and Gen Xers, particularly.
Older voters have unique characteristics and specific interests that transcend the Democratic-Republican divide.
From their economic circumstances to their demographic makeup, the concerns of older voters are only going to become more prominent as the baby boom generation enters retirement.
Older voters have strikingly different wealth and income profiles than younger voters.
The widening gap between the economic realities of older and younger voters could become an even more prominent feature of American politics.
The largest gap between older and younger voters is on the issue of race.
From the existence of prejudice against whites to the necessity of affirmative action, older voters score higher on measures of racial resentment and are more likely to be persuaded by explicit appeals to whiteness.
“The baby boom generation is the most educated ever to reach old age. They lived through the civil rights movement and put more women into the workforce than any previous generation. If anyone can adjust to changing times, it’s them.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Real Roots of Midlife Crisis”

Part of the answer likely involves what researchers call selection bias: unhappier people tend to die sooner, removing themselves from the sample.
A common hypothesis, and one that seems right to me, is alluded to by Carstensen and her colleagues in their 2011 paper: “As people age and time horizons grow shorter,” they write, “People invest in what is most important, typically meaningful relationships, and derive increasingly greater satisfaction from these investments.” Midlife is, for many people, a time of recalibration, when they begin to evaluate their lives less in terms of social competition and more in terms of social connectedness.
In my 40s, I found I was obsessively comparing my life with other people’s: scoring and judging myself, and counting up the ways in which I had fallen behind in a race.
Carstensen told me, “When the future becomes less distant, more constrained, people focus on the present, and we think that’s better for emotional experience. The goals that are chronically activated in old age are ones about meaning and savoring and living for the moment.” These are exactly the changes that K. and others in my own informal research sample reported.
“As people perceive the future as increasingly constrained, they set goals that are more realistic and easy to pursue.” For me, the expectation of scaling ever greater heights has faded, and with it my sense of disappointment and failure.
He used a German longitudinal survey, with data from 1991 to 2004, that, unusually, asked people about both their current life satisfaction and their expected satisfaction five years hence.
To his own surprise, he found the same result regardless of respondents’ economic status, generation, and even whether they lived in western or eastern Germany: younger people consistently and markedly overestimated how satisfied they would be five years later, while older people underestimated future satisfaction.
What’s more, Schwandt found that in between those two periods, during middle age, people experienced a sort of double whammy: satisfaction with life was declining, but expectations were also by then declining.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What Are Dreams? Here Are the Predominant Theories.”

For all the commonalities dreams exhibit, they vary across time-people who grew up watching black-and-white TV are more likely to dream in black and white -and culture.
A 1958 study determined that compared with Japanese people, Americans dreamed more about being locked up, losing a loved one, finding money, being inappropriately dressed or nude, or encountering an insane person.
Japanese people were more likely to dream about school, trying repeatedly to do something, being paralyzed with fear, or “Wild, violent beasts.”
If human dreams sound bleak, bear in mind that even negative ones can have positive effects.
In a study of students taking a French medical-school entrance exam, 60 percent of the dreams they had beforehand involved a problem with the exam, such as being late or leaving an answer blank.
Those who reported dreams about the exam, even bad ones, did better on it than those who didn’t.
So the next time you dream about an education-related sexual experience in which you are both falling and being chased, don’t worry: It’s probably totally meaningless.
This article appears in the April 2019 print edition with the headline “Study of Studies: Bad Dreams Are Good.”.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Women Do Ask for More Money at Work. They Just Don’t Get It.”

Having grown up on go-get-’em-girls magazine articles and legal dramas fronted by high-powered career women, I just assumed that the next step for me was to stride into my boss’ office and ask for more money.
In a 2017 study titled Do Women Ask?, researchers were surprised to find that women actually do ask for raises as often as men – we’re just more likely to be turned down.
In 2003, Babcock co-authored an era-defining book called Women Don’t Ask.
Her book and the studies underpinning it have been cited ever since as evidence of women’s reticence to ask for more in the workplace.
Unlike other studies that have been carried out in this area, the Do Women Ask? researchers had more detailed data that revealed a crucial fact: Women are far more likely than men to work in jobs where salary negotiation isn’t necessarily possible, such as low-skilled hourly wage jobs or part-time roles.
Previous studies that reached the “Women don’t ask” conclusion often failed to account for certain types of jobs being dominated by one gender, focusing instead on the overall number of men or women who’d reported salary negotiations, which – given the number of women who work jobs with “Non-negotiable” salaries – skewed their findings.
The Do Women Ask? study, on the other hand, found that when comparing men and women who do similar jobs, women actually ask for raises at the same rates as men.
Now for the bad news: Both McKinsey’s research and the Do Women Ask? study found that while men and women ask for pay raises at broadly similar rates, women are more likely to be refused or suffer blowback for daring to broach the topic.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why willpower is overrated”

People with a lot of self-control – people who, when they happen upon a delicious food they don’t think they should eat, seemingly grin and bear the temptation until it passes – have it easy.
For many years, Inzlicht explains, psychologists assumed that the self-control measured by the questionnaire measured the same thing as the behavioral tests of willpower.
Inzlicht and his collaborators wanted to answer a simple question with rigorous methods: Do these two measurements of self-control relate to each other? That is, are people who say they are good at self-control in the broad sense actually good at summoning willpower in the moment?
The paper stumbled on a paradox: The people who were the best at self-control – the ones who most readily agreed to survey statements like “I am good at resisting temptations” – reported fewer temptations throughout the study period.
What’s more, the people who exercised more effortful self-control also reported feeling more depleted.
2) People who are good at self-control have learned better habits.
In 2015, psychologists Brian Galla and Angela Duckworth published a paper in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, finding across six studies and more than 2,000 participants that people who are good at self-control also tend to have good habits – like exercising regularly, eating healthy, sleeping well, and studying.
“People who are good at self-control seem to be structuring their lives in a way to avoid having to make a self-control decision in the first place,” Galla tells me.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Living in a Poor Neighborhood Can Change Your Biology”

The people who did move to better neighborhoods didn’t change their diets or daily lifestyles.
The people who moved out of poor neighborhoods were healthier.
The HUD study, and subsequent research, have shown that something more than race, individual behavior, or genetics is taking a toll on the health of people who live in poor neighborhoods: stress.
In its early stages, drugs that increase sensitivity to insulin, along with diet and exercise, can restore some cell function in people with Type 2; later, people with Type 2 diabetes need insulin injections to keep high blood sugar in check.
A recent Pew Charitable Trusts study found that 66 percent of African Americans born between 1985 and 2000 lived in neighborhoods where at least 20 percent of people were poor.
African-Americans and whites living at or near the poverty line had higher rates of diabetes than their wealthier peers.
That’s not the case: Black Africans have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and depression than their distant cousins in the U.S. And Hasson says Type 2 diabetes among blacks and Hispanics drops just as fast as among whites in response to changes in exercise or diet-powerful evidence that there’s no inherent physiological difference at play.
“Hasson, of the University of Michigan, praises Obama.”She’s bringing attention to the fact that people need to get out and start moving, and people are starting to ask: “How can we motivate people to start moving again?” Hasson says.

The orginal article.

Summary of “This is what it’s like waking up during surgery”

Nearly all the patients included said they heard voices or other sounds under general anaesthesia.
Estimates of how often anaesthesia awareness happens have varied depending on the methods used, but those relying on patient reports had tended to suggest it was very rare indeed.
The results, published in 2014, found that the overall prevalence was just 1 in 19,000 patients undergoing anaesthesia.
During the induction of the anaesthesia, the staff place a cuff around the patient’s upper arm that delays the passage of the neuromuscular agent through the arm.
“My view is that the patient is expecting to be unconscious, and, as a researcher who wants to understand the mechanisms at play, but also a clinician who wants to deliver high-quality care and meet the expectations of the patient, we are duty-bound to understand this balance and to find out the true rates and the true impact of those events, whether they have any impact or not, and the ways we can curtail them.”
Having gained strength in the years following the trauma, Donna is now trying to remedy the problem, by working with Canadian universities to educate doctors about the risks of anaesthesia awareness and the best ways to treat patients.
Although widespread signalling across the brain appears to be impaired when people are under general anaesthesia, there is evidence that certain areas – including the auditory cortex – remain responsive, suggesting that medical staff might be able to send suggestions and encouragement, while a patient is unconscious, to reduce their pain after surgery.
Clearly, no one is suggesting that you would keep a patient fully aware on purpose, but perhaps one day more anaesthetists will be able to make use of the brain’s ability to absorb information on the operating table.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Who Wins in the Name Game?”

All else being equal, changing a candidate’s name from Sue to Cameron tripled a candidate’s likelihood of becoming a judge; a change from Sue to Bruce quintupled it.
Our names can even influence what cities we live in, who we befriend, and what products we buy since, we’re attracted to things and places that share similarities to our names.
A name is, after all, perhaps the most important identifier of a person.
Something as packed full of clues as a name tends to lead to all sorts of assumptions and expectations about a person, often before any face-to-face interaction has taken place.
A first name can imply race, age, socioeconomic status, and sometimes religion, so it’s an easy-or lazy-way to judge someone’s background, character, and intelligence.
Teachers tend to hold lower expectations for students with typically black-sounding names while they set high expectations for students with typically white- and Asian-sounding names.
One could imagine these students were given the advantage of high expectations and self-perception, whether or not they had the money and support that comes with the socioeconomic background associated with those names.
What if parents from disadvantaged circumstances gave their children “Advantaged” names? Could just a name really have that great of an effect on a person’s career and future?

The orginal article.

Summary of “Harvard Business Review”

How do you know it’s ripe for a breakthrough question? It’s probably a good candidate if it “Makes your heart beat fast,” as Intuit’s chairman and CEO, Brad Smith, put it to me.
The question burst methodology, by design, reverses many of those destructive dynamics by prompting people to depart from their usual habits of social interaction.
Not All Questions Are Created Equal Often, as I’m outlining the rules for a question burst, people ask what kinds of questions they should contribute-or how they can be confident that a question is a good one for further pursuit.
The more surprising and provocative the questions are, the better.
Is there some magic about precisely four minutes and 15 questions? No, but the time pressure helps participants stick to the “Questions only” rule.
After poring over survey data from more than 1,500 global leaders, I’m convinced that part of the power of the question burst lies in its ability to alter a person’s view of the challenge, by dislodging-for most-that feeling of being stuck.
Of course, many business leaders, recognizing the imperative for constant innovation, do try to encourage questions.
In a recent interview he said: “When you’re a student, you’re judged by how well you answer questions. Somebody else asks the questions, and if you give good answers, you’ll get a good grade. But in life, you’re judged by how good your questions are.” As he mentors people, he explicitly focuses their attention on making this all-important transition, knowing “They’ll become great professors, great entrepreneurs-great something-if they ask good questions.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The 3 Minutes It Takes To Read This Will Improve Your Conversations Forever”

Following are the simplest tips I can give you to ask better questions, which will make your conversations more valuable to you and the people you engage with.
“Do you like movies?” You’ll get a more interesting answer if you ask, “Why do you like movies?”.
Example: If you ask a person why they like movies and they answer because it’s a good escape, you can follow up with, “Why do you feel like you need an escape?” If they answer because their job is stressful, you can follow up with “Why is your job stressful?” Repeated “Why” questions can turn a simple question about movies into a much deeper conversation.
When you ask a question, pay attention to the answer and ask a follow-up question about it to dig deeper.
If your goal is to learn from somebody, the easiest shortcut to do that is to ask them what they’ve learned.
The most interesting information is found in stories, so ask people to tell you one.
If you don’t fully understand something and want more clarity, ask a person how they would explain it to a kid or somebody with no experience on the subject.
“Am I missing anything? What’s the question nobody ever asks you but you wish they would?”.

The orginal article.