Summary of “AI Gaydar and Other Stories of the Death of Ignorance”

AI can find patterns and make inferences using relatively little data.
While medical data is strongly regulated, data used by AI is often in the hands of the notoriously unregulated for-profit tech sector.
The types of data that AI deals with are also much broader, so that any corresponding laws require a broader scope of understanding of what a right to ignorance means.
The more radical-and potentially more effective-approach to protecting the right to ignorance is to prevent data from being gathered in the first place.
In line with this way of thinking, the European Union’s new General Data Protection Regulation, which became effective in May 2018, states that companies are permitted to collect and store only the minimum amount of user data needed to provide a specific, stated service, and to get customers’ consent for how their data will be used.
GPDR’s focus on the alignment between data and a given service does not exclude categories of data we find morally questionable, nor completely stop companies from buying excluded data from a data broker as long as the user has consented-and many people consent to sharing their data even with relatively meager incentives.
Second, putting economic value on personal data may coerce people to share their data and make data privacy a privilege of the rich.
As a first step, taking profit out of data provides the space we need to create and maintain ethical standards that can survive the coming of AI, and pave the way for managing collective ignorance.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Understanding Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization”

Self-actualization is typically discussed in conjunction with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which posits that self-actualization sits at the top of a hierarchy above four “Lower” needs.
Humanistic psychologists claimed that people are driven by higher needs, particularly the need to actualize the self.
Maslow contextualized his theory of self-actualization within a hierarchy of needs.
Esteem needs: The need to feel both self-esteem based on one’s achievements and abilities and recognition and respect from others.
Self-actualization needs: The need to pursue and fulfill one’s unique potentials.
When Maslow originally explained the hierarchy in 1943, he stated that higher needs generally won’t be pursued until lower needs are met.
Maslow included caveats in order to explain why certain individuals might pursue higher needs before lower ones.
The theory of self-actualization has been criticized for its lack of empirical support and for its suggestion that lower needs must be met before self-actualization is possible.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Pain Plus Reflection Equals Progress”

Rather than run from pain, we need to identify it, accept it, and learn how to use it to better ourselves.
Our images of learning are filled with positive thoughts about how we learn from others.
Ray Dalio, the longtime leader of Bridgewater, the largest hedge fund in the world, argues that pain “Is a signal that you need to find solutions so you can progress.” Only by exploring it and reflecting on it can we start to learn and evolve.
We’ve known about this problem for a long time: We’ve watched others make mistakes and fail to learn from them.
They run from the pain that could be the source of learning.
For us to adapt, we need to learn from the uncomfortable moments.
It’s easy and comfortable to convince yourself that the world should work differently than it does, that you have nothing to learn from the pain.
If we don’t learn to embrace being uncomfortable, we will need to learn how to embrace irrelevance, and that will be much harder.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The little-known behavioral scientist who transformed cities all over”

Of course, many parts of many cities still seem optimized for buildings and cars.
Through his design firm, these ideas have transformed cities all over the world.
Behavioral scientists and designers who work together can create cities that make life better for the people in them.
How we design our cities shapes life even for people who never see one.
Every year, three New York Cities worth of people have their lives upended by droughts, rising sea levels, storms, and other effects of climate change.
More than half of worldwide climate changing emissions can be traced to energy used for transportation and in buildings, much of which occurs in cities.
Designing cities to reverse climate change is only possible with a mindset shift away from creating new roads, buildings, or even solar panels.
By working with Jan, Ingrid magnified her influence as a behavioral scientist, shaping a future with cities that better meet human needs.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Truth, Lies, and Literature”

“What, art thou mad? Art thou mad?” Falstaff demands of Prince Hal, in Shakespeare’s “Henry IV, Part 1.” “Is not the truth the truth?” The joke, of course, is that he has been lying his head off, and the prince is in the process of exposing him as a liar.
In a time like the present, when reality itself seems everywhere under attack, Falstaff’s duplicitous notion of the truth seems to be shared by many powerful leaders.
In the three countries I’ve spent my life caring about-India, the U.K., and the United States-self-serving falsehoods are regularly presented as facts, while more reliable information is denigrated as “Fake news.” However, the defenders of the real, attempting to dam the torrent of disinformation flooding over us all, often make the mistake of yearning for a golden age when truth was uncontested and universally accepted, and of arguing that what we need is to return to that blissful consensus.
The truth is that truth has always been a contested idea.
There is some truth in the idea that in the West in the nineteenth century there was a fairly widespread consensus about the character of reality.
At first, some of the greatest literary artists sought to chronicle the changing reality by using the methods of the realist novel-as Thomas Mann did in “Buddenbrooks,” or Junichiro Tanizaki in “The Makioka Sisters”-but gradually the realist novel seemed more and more problematic, and writers from Franz Kafka to Ralph Ellison and Gabriel García Márquez created stranger, more surreal texts, telling the truth by means of obvious untruth, creating a new kind of reality, as if by magic.
We stand once again, though for different reasons, in the midst of the rubble of the truth.
It is for us-writers, thinkers, journalists, philosophers-to undertake the task of rebuilding our readers’ belief in reality, their faith in the truth.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Stop Making Bad Coleslaw”

It’s almost Memorial Day weekend, and you know what that means: somebody is going to bring a bowl of terrible coleslaw to your home, and you’re going to have to pretend you like it.
Too often, coleslaw is the last item claimed on a potluck spreadsheet and the only buffet-table offering still untouched at sundown; in other words, a total afterthought.
With over-sugared, under-salted coleslaw is everywhere, my number one coleslaw tip is to use more salt than you think you need.
Grated carrots are wet, they’re gross, and they have no place in coleslaw.
Coleslaw needs a lot of seasoning in order to taste good, and bottled dressing never quite gets the job done.
A list of tips is nice and all, but the easiest way to make coleslaw that doesn’t suck is to use a good recipe-so I finally transcribed mine, just for you.
If you’re serving the coleslaw immediately, stir in the dressing little by little until everything is nicely coated; chopsticks work great for this.
If you’re not serving the coleslaw for a few hours, turn the vegetables out onto a rimmed baking sheet lined with kitchen or paper towels.

The orginal article.

Summary of “We don’t need nearly as much protein as we consume”

His early experiments are some of the few recorded cases of high protein intake having extreme adverse effects – but despite soaring sales of protein supplements, many of us are still unsure how much protein we need, how best to consume it, and if too much, or too little, is dangerous.
Taking centre stage in our health kick is protein, with protein balls, bars and enhanced protein versions of staple products, from cereals to soup, dominating supermarket shelves.
With the global protein supplements market valued at $12.4bn in 2016, it’s clear we’re buying into the idea that we need as much protein as possible.
Protein bars are really just candy bars with a bit of extra protein.
“There’s no need for anyone to have supplements. They’re a convenient way to get protein, but there’s nothing in supplements you can’t get in food. Protein bars are really just candy bars with a bit of extra protein.”
While protein itself isn’t harmful, many protein supplements are high in carbohydrates called FODMAPs that trigger digestive symptoms like bloating, gas and stomach pain.
The risk of consuming too much protein is small, but the bigger risk might just be falling for overpriced products offering us more protein than we need.
“Some products labelled as high protein aren’t, and they’re quite expensive. Anyway, consuming more protein than need is wasteful in terms of money, and it’s paid down the toilet,” says Johnstone.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Is Your Emotional Intelligence Authentic, or Self-Serving?”

Plenty of research has documented manipulative misuses of emotional intelligence – the intentionally subtle regulating of one’s emotions to engineer responses from others that might not be in their best interest.
The capacity to understand and share others’ feelings creates authentic connection and deepens trust.
Being attuned to the spoken and unspoken concerns of others demonstrates an openness to their views, a willingness to engage ideas different from ours, and honors the courage of others to express divergent perspectives.
Unaware of the tension between a genuine desire to take in others’ views and a need to be right, leaders can feign listening while actually trying to lure others to their side without realizing they’re doing it.
Keenly self-aware leaders detect how others experience them, actively solicit critical feedback from others, and accurately acknowledge their strengths and shortfalls.
Genuinely self-aware leaders face that insecurity head on, and don’t put the burden of soothing it on others.
Our ability to express emotional intelligence is sometimes impaired by unacknowledged, unhealthy, emotional needs.
If you want to genuinely employ effective emotional intelligence skills, pay attention to the unaddressed scars and voids lurking beneath the surface of your inner emotional landscape.

The orginal article.

Summary of “5 Behaviors of Leaders Who Embrace Change”

Part of the issue is how organizations view the human aspect of the closing date, which is usually treated as the end of the transaction, when it’s really just the start of change.
Leaders in the M&A environment are managing an organization that hasn’t existed before.
In this environment, change agility needs to be part of the new organization’s and leaders’ DNA. It can’t just exist in a few people in the organization; it needs to be the way business gets done.
Successful change-agile leaders at all levels in the organization respond to changes in the business environment by seizing opportunities, including throwing out old models and developing new ways of doing business.
Change-agile leaders demonstrate five integrated behaviors that, together, create a competitive advantage for the organization.
Promote calculated risk-taking and experimentation: Robert Kennedy, paraphrasing George Bernard Shaw, said, “There are those who look at things the way they are, and ask why. I dream of things that never were, and ask why not?” Too often, our traditional organizations’ first response to a risk is to ask, “Why?” Change agility requires leaders to ask “Why not?” and to establish opportunities for pilots, prototypes, and experimentation.
Change-agile leaders and organizations are replacing functional silos with formal and informal organizations that allow for the rapid flow of information and decision-making around a product, customer, or region.
Seeing the opportunity to improve the employee experience and create cost efficiencies across the learning organizations, she brought together her fellow learning leaders.

The orginal article.

Summary of “24 life skills every adult should master before turning 30”

We’ve put together our own handbook of sorts for anyone transitioning from their 20s to their 30s, which lists many of the skills you’ll need to survive as an adult in the modern world.
Many of us fear the word “No” because we don’t want to let other people down.
People who lack the ability to empathize and take an interest in other people are often narcissists.
“Sometimes your body language tells people everything they need to know before you ever open your mouth,” writes Dean Bokhari.
Another, surprisingly simple, tactic is to simply spend more time with the people you’d like to befriend.
“It’s amazing how many people can’t do the simplest of things – like balance a checkbook, fill out a tax form, make sure that there’s more coming in than going out, [set] aside reserves for contingencies,” writes Miles Fidelman.
“[T]he ability to speak confidently to a large mass of people is a skill to be learnt,” writes Ramachandra Bhakta in a since-deleted answer.
Very few people in the study said they preferred standard pick-up lines – so it’s best to avoid those, no matter how clever you think you are.

The orginal article.