Summary of “The Real Roots of Midlife Crisis”

Part of the answer likely involves what researchers call selection bias: unhappier people tend to die sooner, removing themselves from the sample.
A common hypothesis, and one that seems right to me, is alluded to by Carstensen and her colleagues in their 2011 paper: “As people age and time horizons grow shorter,” they write, “People invest in what is most important, typically meaningful relationships, and derive increasingly greater satisfaction from these investments.” Midlife is, for many people, a time of recalibration, when they begin to evaluate their lives less in terms of social competition and more in terms of social connectedness.
In my 40s, I found I was obsessively comparing my life with other people’s: scoring and judging myself, and counting up the ways in which I had fallen behind in a race.
Carstensen told me, “When the future becomes less distant, more constrained, people focus on the present, and we think that’s better for emotional experience. The goals that are chronically activated in old age are ones about meaning and savoring and living for the moment.” These are exactly the changes that K. and others in my own informal research sample reported.
“As people perceive the future as increasingly constrained, they set goals that are more realistic and easy to pursue.” For me, the expectation of scaling ever greater heights has faded, and with it my sense of disappointment and failure.
He used a German longitudinal survey, with data from 1991 to 2004, that, unusually, asked people about both their current life satisfaction and their expected satisfaction five years hence.
To his own surprise, he found the same result regardless of respondents’ economic status, generation, and even whether they lived in western or eastern Germany: younger people consistently and markedly overestimated how satisfied they would be five years later, while older people underestimated future satisfaction.
What’s more, Schwandt found that in between those two periods, during middle age, people experienced a sort of double whammy: satisfaction with life was declining, but expectations were also by then declining.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why willpower is overrated”

People with a lot of self-control – people who, when they happen upon a delicious food they don’t think they should eat, seemingly grin and bear the temptation until it passes – have it easy.
For many years, Inzlicht explains, psychologists assumed that the self-control measured by the questionnaire measured the same thing as the behavioral tests of willpower.
Inzlicht and his collaborators wanted to answer a simple question with rigorous methods: Do these two measurements of self-control relate to each other? That is, are people who say they are good at self-control in the broad sense actually good at summoning willpower in the moment?
The paper stumbled on a paradox: The people who were the best at self-control – the ones who most readily agreed to survey statements like “I am good at resisting temptations” – reported fewer temptations throughout the study period.
What’s more, the people who exercised more effortful self-control also reported feeling more depleted.
2) People who are good at self-control have learned better habits.
In 2015, psychologists Brian Galla and Angela Duckworth published a paper in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, finding across six studies and more than 2,000 participants that people who are good at self-control also tend to have good habits – like exercising regularly, eating healthy, sleeping well, and studying.
“People who are good at self-control seem to be structuring their lives in a way to avoid having to make a self-control decision in the first place,” Galla tells me.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Living in a Poor Neighborhood Can Change Your Biology”

The people who did move to better neighborhoods didn’t change their diets or daily lifestyles.
The people who moved out of poor neighborhoods were healthier.
The HUD study, and subsequent research, have shown that something more than race, individual behavior, or genetics is taking a toll on the health of people who live in poor neighborhoods: stress.
In its early stages, drugs that increase sensitivity to insulin, along with diet and exercise, can restore some cell function in people with Type 2; later, people with Type 2 diabetes need insulin injections to keep high blood sugar in check.
A recent Pew Charitable Trusts study found that 66 percent of African Americans born between 1985 and 2000 lived in neighborhoods where at least 20 percent of people were poor.
African-Americans and whites living at or near the poverty line had higher rates of diabetes than their wealthier peers.
That’s not the case: Black Africans have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and depression than their distant cousins in the U.S. And Hasson says Type 2 diabetes among blacks and Hispanics drops just as fast as among whites in response to changes in exercise or diet-powerful evidence that there’s no inherent physiological difference at play.
“Hasson, of the University of Michigan, praises Obama.”She’s bringing attention to the fact that people need to get out and start moving, and people are starting to ask: “How can we motivate people to start moving again?” Hasson says.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Humans Could Halt Climate Change By 2050”

Last year, the world’s climate scientists put out a report showing what it will take to limit global warming to 1.5 °C by the end of this century, averting the worst consequences of climate change.
Sally Benson, director of the Climate and Energy Project at Stanford, is so ready to take the leap and imagine this zero-carbon world 2050, it’s a little startling.
Different guides to this 2050 world show me slightly different things.
“You know, it’s like a historical artifact, but you know, they find it very touching. They are appreciative, because they’re living in a world where they don’t need to worry about climate change anymore.”
Years ago, he wrote a big report on cities and climate change for the World Bank.
We’re looking at an essential part of a world without climate change.
In a world without climate change, this is what cattle grazing looks like, all over the tropics.
It’s 2050 and there are almost ten billion people in the world.

The orginal article.

Summary of “To Seem More Competent, Be More Confident”

One important reason this happens is that people are simply not great at assessing competence – a crucial trait for succeeding at work – and perceptions of competence are just as important for success as actual competence.
Because of this, people tend to evaluate competence based on other factors, meaning you have to do more than produce results to convince them of your expertise.
Lo and behold, the person’s prediction had a strong influence on how subjects perceived their competence: Observers evaluated those who made optimistic predictions as much more competent than their modest contemporaries – no matter how accurate those predictions were and how well they actually performed.
A negative forecast may lead you to be perceived as distinctly less competent – no matter how well you actually perform.
Why do people view confident others as more competent, even when their performance suggests otherwise? One explanation is that we have a tendency to believe what we are told, and to confirm our beliefs by selecting information that supports them.
To feel more authentic demonstrating confidence, you may first have to convince yourself.
Do you think they have a good sense of your competence and expertise? If not, could you be demonstrating more confidence in your tasks? This doesn’t necessarily mean praising yourself at every opportunity; rather it means projecting an optimistic attitude.
By displaying more confidence in your abilities, you set yourself up to be recognized for your competence and your contributions.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Samuel L. Jackson Discusses Captain Marvel, Donald Trump, Quentin Tarantino and How Long He’ll Act”

He has found his way into megafranchises like Star Wars and The Incredibles, and as former SHIELD director Nick Fury, Jackson has shot eleven different Marvel movies, including four Avengers films.
The Jackson-led M. Night Shyamalan sequel Glass opened the year atop the box office for multiple weeks, and between that and his Marvel commitments, the actor could spend the first year of his seventies with more weeks at number one than any other working actor in 2019-a remarkable feat for a man who is already the highest-grossing film actor of all time, with his movies accounting for an estimated $13 billion combined.
A scant thirty years and more than a hundred movies later, we are sitting in that country-club dining room and he is saying things like “Engage your core.” Glass, the much-awaited sequel to 2000’s gritty superhero epic Unbreakable, hit theaters in January; he is reprising his role as Nick Fury in the upcoming films Captain Marvel and Spider- Man: Far from Home; and the Brie Larson-directed Unicorn Store is slated for Netflix in April.
As a kid, did you look at movies and think, I want to do that!?We looked at movies and went home and redid the movies.
Quality movies are movies that make me happy, a movie I would’ve gone to see.
It’s a very different movie from the movie that I went there to do.
What do you think about all the controversy surrounding Quentin Tarantino’s use of the n-word in that movie? It’s some bullshit.
“I’m never going to see a Sam Jackson movie again.” Fuck I care? If you never went to another movie I did in my life, I’m not going to lose any money.

The orginal article.

Summary of “When Solving Problems, Think About What You Could Do, Not What You Should Do”

Palmieri turned to the younger boy and asked, “What would you like to have?” He answered: “Pizza!”.
A taxi showed up not long after with the pizza, and Palmieri delivered it to the table.
As Palmieri told me, “It simply took a change of course, and one pizza.”
We’ve all had colleagues who annoy us or deviate from the script with no heads-up, causing conflict or wasting time: jerks and show-offs who seem to be difficult for no good reason and people who break rules just for the sake of it and make others worse off in the process.
Sully had 155 people on board and very little time to find a place to land in a city of tall buildings.
Another problem people have with rebels at work is the conflict that sometimes results.
Some tension is a positive thing, because it can help get people to move past should to could.
We then asked another group of people to evaluate all the products the three groups created on their originality.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Harvard Business Review”

How do you know it’s ripe for a breakthrough question? It’s probably a good candidate if it “Makes your heart beat fast,” as Intuit’s chairman and CEO, Brad Smith, put it to me.
The question burst methodology, by design, reverses many of those destructive dynamics by prompting people to depart from their usual habits of social interaction.
Not All Questions Are Created Equal Often, as I’m outlining the rules for a question burst, people ask what kinds of questions they should contribute-or how they can be confident that a question is a good one for further pursuit.
The more surprising and provocative the questions are, the better.
Is there some magic about precisely four minutes and 15 questions? No, but the time pressure helps participants stick to the “Questions only” rule.
After poring over survey data from more than 1,500 global leaders, I’m convinced that part of the power of the question burst lies in its ability to alter a person’s view of the challenge, by dislodging-for most-that feeling of being stuck.
Of course, many business leaders, recognizing the imperative for constant innovation, do try to encourage questions.
In a recent interview he said: “When you’re a student, you’re judged by how well you answer questions. Somebody else asks the questions, and if you give good answers, you’ll get a good grade. But in life, you’re judged by how good your questions are.” As he mentors people, he explicitly focuses their attention on making this all-important transition, knowing “They’ll become great professors, great entrepreneurs-great something-if they ask good questions.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The 3 Minutes It Takes To Read This Will Improve Your Conversations Forever”

Following are the simplest tips I can give you to ask better questions, which will make your conversations more valuable to you and the people you engage with.
“Do you like movies?” You’ll get a more interesting answer if you ask, “Why do you like movies?”.
Example: If you ask a person why they like movies and they answer because it’s a good escape, you can follow up with, “Why do you feel like you need an escape?” If they answer because their job is stressful, you can follow up with “Why is your job stressful?” Repeated “Why” questions can turn a simple question about movies into a much deeper conversation.
When you ask a question, pay attention to the answer and ask a follow-up question about it to dig deeper.
If your goal is to learn from somebody, the easiest shortcut to do that is to ask them what they’ve learned.
The most interesting information is found in stories, so ask people to tell you one.
If you don’t fully understand something and want more clarity, ask a person how they would explain it to a kid or somebody with no experience on the subject.
“Am I missing anything? What’s the question nobody ever asks you but you wish they would?”.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Case for Getting Rid of Borders-Completely”

If the developed world were to take in enough immigrants to enlarge its labor force by a mere one percent, it is estimated that the additional economic value created would be worth more to the migrants than all of the world’s official foreign aid combined.
What moral theory justifies using wire, wall, and weapon to prevent people from moving to opportunity? What moral theory justifies using tools of exclusion to prevent people from exercising their right to vote with their feet?
“No standard moral framework, be it utilitarian, libertarian, egalitarian, Rawlsian, Christian, or any other well-developed perspective, regards people from foreign lands as less entitled to exercise their rights-or as inherently possessing less moral worth-than people lucky to have been born in the right place at the right time. Nationalism, of course, discounts the rights, interests, and moral value of”the Other, but this disposition is inconsistent with our fundamental moral teachings and beliefs.
Thus the Universal Declaration of Human Rights belies its name when it proclaims this right only “Within the borders of each state.” Human rights do not stop at the border.
Today, we treat as pariahs those governments that refuse to let their people exit.
Is there hope for the future? Closed borders are one of the world’s greatest moral failings but the opening of borders is the world’s greatest economic opportunity.
The grandest moral revolutions in history-the abolition of slavery, the securing of religious freedom, the recognition of the rights of women-yielded a world in which virtually everyone was better off.
A planet unscarred by iron curtains is not only a world of greater equality and justice.

The orginal article.