Summary of “Study: Two Spaces After a Period May Be Better Than One”

As Johnson told me, “Our data suggest that all readers benefit from having two spaces after periods.”
“Increased spacing has been shown to help facilitate processing in a number of other reading studies,” Johnson explained to me by email, using two spaces after each period.
In the Skidmore study, among people who write with two spaces after periods-“Two-spacers”-there was an increase in reading speed of 3 percent when reading text with two spaces following periods, as compared to one.
Nicholas Christakis, a professor at Yale University, wrote: “Hurray! Science vindicates my longstanding practice, learned at age 12, of using TWO SPACES after periods in text. NOT ONE SPACE. Text is easier to read that way. Of course, on Twitter, I use one space, given 280 characters.”
I find two spaces after a period unsettling, like seeing a person who never blinks or still has their phone’s keyboard sound effects on.
I plan to teach my kids never to reply to messages from people who put two spaces after a period.
The new American Psychological Association style guidelines came out recently, and they had changed from one space to two spaces following periods because they claimed it “Increased the readability of the text.” This galled Johnson: “Here we had a manual written to teach us how to write scientifically that was making claims that were not backed with empirical evidence!”.
In the current study, when text was presented with two spaces after periods, some readers’ eyes were more likely to jump over the “Punctuation region” and spend less unnecessary time fixated on it.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Two spaces after period are better than one, except maybe they aren’t, study finds”

In what may be one of the most controversial studies of the year, researchers at Skidmore College-clearly triggered by a change in the American Psychological Association style book-sought to quantify the benefits of two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence.
After conducting an eye-tracking experiment with 60 Skidmore students, Rebecca L. Johnson, Becky Bui, and Lindsay L. Schmitt found that two spaces at the end of a period slightly improved the processing of text during reading.
While modern style, based on the fallacy that computer typography makes such double-spaces redundant and Paleolithic, has demanded the deprecation of the second tap of the space bar after a punctuation full-stop, many have openly resisted this heresy, believing that the extra space is a courtesy to the reader and enhances the legibility of the text.
Some research has suggested closer spacing of the beginning of a new sentence may allow a reader to capture more characters in their parafoveal vision-the area of the retina just outside the area of focus, or fovea-and thus start processing the information sooner.
Having identified subjects’ proclivities, the researchers then gave them 21 paragraphs to read on a computer screen and tracked their eye movement as they read using an Eyelink 1000 video-based eye tracking system.
Two spaces after periods, one space after commas; and.
The “One-spacers” were, as a group, slower readers across the board, and they showed statistically insignificant variation across all four spacing practices.
“Two-spacers” saw a three-percent increase in reading speed for paragraphs in their own favored spacing scheme.

The orginal article.

Summary of “One space between each sentence, they said. Science just proved them wrong.”

Letters of uniform width looked cramped without extra space after the period.
Anything more than a single space between sentences was too much.
The original printing of the U.S. Declaration of Independence used extra long spaces between sentences.
Reading speed only improved marginally, the paper found, and only for the 21 “Two-spacers,” who naturally typed with two spaces between sentences.
Everyone tended to spend fewer milliseconds staring at periods when a little extra blank space followed it.
The study’s authors concluded that two-spacers in the digital age actually have science on their side, and more research should be done to “Investigate why reading is facilitated when periods are followed by two spaces.”
No sooner did the paper publish than the researchers discovered that science doesn’t necessarily govern matters of the space bar.
Johnson told Lifehacker that she and her co-authors submitted the paper with two spaces after each period – as was proper.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Here’s why a period in a text message makes you sound angry”

Though periods can still signal the end of a sentence in a text message, many users will omit them.
Because text messaging is a conversation that involves a lot of back-and-forth, people add fillers as a way to mimic spoken language.
In 2016, psychologist Danielle Gunraj tested how people perceived one-sentence text messages that used a period at the end of the sentence.
Participants thought these text messages were more insincere than those that didn’t have a period.
In a 2007 study by linguists Naomi Baron and Rich Ling, multi-sentence text messages often had punctuation to indicate where the sentences stopped, but only 29% of these texts had punctuation at the very end of the message.
Of all the things to feel when seeing a period at the end of a text message-why insincerity?
The use of the period is one example of situational code-switching: When using one in a text message, it’s perceived as overly formal.
It’s a bit counterintuitive, but using formal language may undermine the sincerity of the apology; in order to convey the “Right” message, it’s important to know the proper protocols.

The orginal article.