Summary of “One space between each sentence, they said. Science just proved them wrong.”

Letters of uniform width looked cramped without extra space after the period.
Anything more than a single space between sentences was too much.
The original printing of the U.S. Declaration of Independence used extra long spaces between sentences.
Reading speed only improved marginally, the paper found, and only for the 21 “Two-spacers,” who naturally typed with two spaces between sentences.
Everyone tended to spend fewer milliseconds staring at periods when a little extra blank space followed it.
The study’s authors concluded that two-spacers in the digital age actually have science on their side, and more research should be done to “Investigate why reading is facilitated when periods are followed by two spaces.”
No sooner did the paper publish than the researchers discovered that science doesn’t necessarily govern matters of the space bar.
Johnson told Lifehacker that she and her co-authors submitted the paper with two spaces after each period – as was proper.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A farewell to free journalism”

The open Internet literally gave me my career, and for years, I’ve repaid that gift by seeking out employers that kept my writing free to readers.
Traditional media can survive competition for readers just fine.
For more than a century, magazines and newspapers were what’s known as a “Two-sided market”: We sold subscriptions to you, our readers, and once you’d subscribed, we sold your eyeballs to our advertisers.
Some journalism can function as a sort of a loss leader for a conference business, or another associated product, like books or package tours.
Outside of the “Loss leader model,” there are a few other options: Some reporting can be financed by donors as a philanthropic project; some consumer product journalism can support itself through affiliate programs that provide rewards for selling merchandise; and some writing can be supported by “Native advertising” sprinkled among the journalism so that it’s hard to tell them apart.
Philanthropic journalism can take up some of that slack, but it will be narrow in another way: Donor-funded journalism tends to largely be ideological, with donors looking for stories that flatter their opinions and produce measurable political “Impact” beyond just keeping readers informed.
If you don’t like those options, then you, dear reader, are going to have to step up to the plate.
At the end of the day, however much information wants to be free, writers still want to get paid.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Reading Aloud to Young Children Has Benefits for Behavior and Attention”

The children whose families had participated in the intervention when they were younger were still less likely to manifest those behavior problems – aggression, hyperactivity, difficulty with attention – that can so often make it hard for children to do well and learn and prosper when they get to school.
Some children were enrolled in a second stage of the project, and the books and toys and videotaping continued as they visited the clinic from age 3 to 5; they showed additional “Dose-response” effects; more exposure to the “Positive parenting” promotion meant stronger positive impacts on the children’s behavior.
“We may be helping some children so they don’t need to have certain kinds of evaluations.” Children who grow up in poverty are at much higher risk of behavior problems in school, so reducing the risk of those attention and behavior problems is one important strategy for reducing educational disparities – as is improving children’s language skills, another source of school problems for poor children.
All parents should appreciate the ways that reading and playing can shape cognitive as well as social and emotional development, and the power of parental attention to help children flourish.
Dr. Weisleder said that in reading and playing, children can encounter situations a little more challenging than what they usually come across in everyday life, and adults can help them think about how to manage those situations.
“We think when parents read with their children more, when they play with their children more, the children have an opportunity to think about characters, to think about the feelings of those characters,” he said.
“The key take-home message to me is that when parents read and play with their children when their children are very young – we’re talking about birth to 3 year olds – it has really large impacts on their children’s behavior,” Dr. Mendelsohn said.
“All families need to know when they read, when they play with their children, they’re helping them learn to control their own behavior,” he said, so that they will come to school able to manage the business of paying attention and learning.

The orginal article.

Summary of “21 books you should read this spring”

With so many great books coming out in 2018, it can be hard to figure out just which ones you should pick up.
This week on the MashReads Podcast, we are joined by Cristina Arreola, books editor at Bustle, to chat about spring reading.
Join us in the episode below as we talk about the books we’ve read recently, the books that’ve been on our spring reading wishlist, the classic books we’ve been revisiting, and the upcoming books you need to know about.
Here’s the podcast – read on for our list of 21 books you should check out this spring further down the page.
Be sure to check out more of Cristina’s work by checking out Bustle’s books coverage.
If you’re looking to revisit a book this spring, check out James Baldwin’s portrait of New Yorkers in the ’50s Another Country.
If you’re looking for a deep dive into love this spring, make sure to revisit Maggie Nelson’s 2015 book, The Argonauts.
Recommended by: MJ. “He has an essay called ‘After Peter,’ and it is easily one of the most affecting essays I’ve ever read in my life. I read this book a little while ago and I’ve just been waiting for it to come out so I can talk to people about it. It’s so good.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “Schools Are Failing to Teach Kids How to Read”

On Tuesday, a panel of experts in Washington, D.C., convened by the federally appointed officials who oversee the NAEP concluded that the root of the problem is the way schools teach reading.
The statute required states to administer annual reading and math tests to students in grades three through eight and once in high school, and attached hefty consequences if schools failed to boost scores.
Since 2001, the curriculum in many elementary schools has narrowed to little more than a steady diet of reading and math.
Rarely do the topics connect: Students might read a book about bridges one day, zebras the next, and clouds the day after that.
A sixth-grader at one of his schools was frustrated that a passage on a reading test she’d taken kept repeating a word she didn’t understand: roog-bye.
The best way to boost students’ reading comprehension is to expand their knowledge and vocabulary by teaching them history, science, literature, and the arts, using curricula that that guide kids through a logical sequence from one year to the next: for example, Native Americans and Columbus in kindergarten; the colonial era and the American Revolution in first grade; the War of 1812 and the Civil War in second grade, and so on.
What struggling students need is guidance from a teacher in how to make sense of texts designed for kids at their respective grade levels-the kinds of texts those kids may otherwise see only on standardized tests, when they have to grapple with them on their own.
Poorer kids with less-educated parents tend to rely on school to acquire the kind of knowledge that is needed to succeed academically-and because their schools often focus exclusively on reading and math, in an effort to raise low test scores, they’re less likely to acquire it there.

The orginal article.

Summary of “I Read One Book 100 Times Over 10 Years Here Are 100 Life-Changing Lessons I Learned”

I would also become what Stephen Marche has referred to as a “Centireader,” reading Marcus Aurelius well over 100 times across multiple editions and copies.
In Book Four, Marcus reminds himself to think about all the doctors who “Died, after furrowing their brows over how many deathbeds, how many astrologers, after pompous forecasts about other’s ends.” In black pen - somewhat recently it looks like - I added “Or plotters, schemers and strategists, outsmarted, outmaneuvered and destroyed.” I suppose that was a dig at myself and other smart people.
In his excellent book The Inner Citadel about Marcus Aurelius and Stoicism, Hadot did original translations for the passages he quotes - but sadly he died without publishing a full translation of Marcus for wider consumption.
After I read Marcus, I immediately read Epictetus, then Seneca’s Letters from a Stoic, then back to the Penguin translation of Epictetus, then Seneca’s On The Shortness of Life.
Years later, one of my readers created and sent me two 3D printed busts of both Marcus and Seneca which sit in my library.
Explicitly setting standards for himself in Book 10, Marcus extolls himself to be: “Upright. Modest. Straightforward. Sane. Cooperative. Disinterested.” In a blog post in 2007, I added the following for myself: Empathetic.
In the first book of Meditations, Marcus thanks Rusticus for teaching him “To read carefully and not be satisfied with a rough understanding of the whole, and not to agree too quickly with those who have a lot to say about something.” It’s a reminder for us in this busy media world of liars and bullshit artists.
In Book Six we find one of the strongest encouragements that Marcus gives himself.

The orginal article.

Summary of “to the family’s happiness”

In most of the studies – which involved more than 3,000 families – the parents were assessed as well as their kids, and reading aloud appeared to strengthen parents’ feelings of competence, improve the quality of their relationships with their children and even reduce parental stress or depression.
In Australia, more than a third of children aged 6 to 11 whose parents had stopped reading to them wanted to continue.
“If you are going to get anywhere in life,” Roald Dahl is credited with saying, “You have to read a lot of books.”
Because reading aloud is pleasurable, parents and teachers reinforce a child’s habit of reading because they create a positive association with it.
Turning book reading into a ritual is as simple as repetition paired with a certain time or situation.
We want to read to them as much as they want to be read to.
If you’ve stopped reading to your kids and it feels like that era is over, don’t close the book on it forever.
Maybe wait until they’re sick and read them the book they’re reading to themselves for pleasure or school.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Scientific Speed Reading: How to Read 300% Faster in 20 Minutes”

While on an airplane in China two weeks ago, I helped Glenn McElhose increase his reading speed 34% in less than 5 minutes.
The PX ProjectThe PX Project, a single 3-hour cognitive experiment, produced an average increase in reading speed of 386%.It was tested with speakers of five languages, and even dyslexics were conditioned to read technical material at more than 3,000 words-per-minute, or 10 pages per minute.
As a general rule, you will need to practice technique at 3x the speed of your ultimate target reading speed.
Thus, if you currently read at 300 wpm and your target reading speed is 900 wpm, you will need to practice technique at 1,800 words-per-minute, or 6 pages per minute.
Mark your first line and read with a timer for 1 minute exactly-do not read faster than normal, and read for comprehension.
To illustrate, let us take the hypothetical one line: “Once upon a time, students enjoyed reading four hours a day.” If you were able to begin your reading at “Time” and finish the line at “Four”, you would eliminate 6 of 11 words, more than doubling your reading speed.
Fourth - Calculate New WPM Reading SpeedMark your first line and read with a timer for 1 minute exactly- Read at your fastest comprehension rate.
Final recommendations: If used for study, it is recommended that you not read 3 assignments in the time it would take you to read one, but rather, read the same assignment 3 times for exposure and recall improvement, depending on relevancy to testing.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Reading Books Should be Your Priority, According to Science”

More than a quarter-26 percent-of American adults admit to not having read even part of a book within the last year.
If you’re part of this group, know that science supports the idea that reading is good for you on several levels.
Reading fiction can help you be more open-minded and creative.
According to research conducted at the University of Toronto, study participants who read short story fiction experienced far less need for “Cognitive closure” compared with counterparts who read non-fiction essays.
“Although nonfiction reading allows students to learn the subject matter, it may not always help them in thinking about it,” the authors write.
That’s according to Yale researchers who studied 3,635 people older than 50 and found that those who read books for 30 minutes daily lived an average of 23 months longer than non-readers or magazine readers.
Apparently, the practice of reading books creates cognitive engagement which improves lots of things, including vocabulary, thinking skills and concentration.
Reading 50 books a year is something you can actually accomplish.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Retain More of Every Book You Read”

For most people, the ultimate goal of reading a nonfiction book is to actually improve your life by learning a new skill, understanding an important problem, or looking at the world in a new way.
It’s important to read books, but it is just as important to remember what you read and put it to good use.
Having searchable book notes is essential for returning to ideas easily.
Typing notes while reading a print book can be annoying because you are always putting the book down and picking it back up.
I like to place the book on a book stand, which makes it much easier to type out a long quote or keep my hands free while reading.
As I read Mastery by George Leonard, I realized that while this book was about the process of improvement, it also shed some light on the connection between genetics and performance.
How would I describe the book to a friend? What are the main ideas? If I was going to implement one idea from the book right now, which one would it be?
In many cases, I find that I can usually get just as much useful information from reading my one-paragraph summary and reviewing my notes as I would if I read the entire book again.

The orginal article.