Summary of “What Separates Champions from ‘Almost Champions’?”

Whereas super champions were playing in premiere leagues and/or competing on national teams, almost champions had achieved well at the youth level but were playing in less prestigious leagues as adults.
The researchers found that super champions were characterized by an almost fanatical reaction to challenge.
Almost champions also loved the thrill of competition, but they remembered having an aversion toward practice and at times felt forced to pursue their respective sport.
As one almost champion put it: “I loved fighting, but the training was just a chore.
Almost champions were focused on external benchmarks, like national rankings or how they compared to rivals, a mind-set the researchers speculate explains why almost champions got discouraged during rough patches.
The parents of almost champions were an ever-present factor, hovering over their every move.
“My parents, my dad especially, was always there, shouting instructions from the touchline, pushing me to practice at home,” remembers an almost champion.
” No surprise that almost champions changed coaches frequently whereas super champions maintained long-term relationships.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How CEOs’ Childhoods Shape Their Careers”

One pattern that emerged from Henderson and Hutton’s data was that firstborn and only children seemed to have better odds of becoming CEOs than latter-borns did: Nearly half of the CEOs they studied were the oldest sibling or an only child, which is, the researchers note, higher than this group’s share of the population born between 1920 and 1959, when most of these CEOs entered the world.
Other research has also found firstborns to have a professional edge: They’re more likely to hold managerial positions, and they tend to make more money.
“Firstborns are more likely to have college degrees, and even before that get lots of mom-and-dad time early on, which might make them more successful later,” Henderson said.
Children with higher socioeconomic backgrounds have been shown to be more risk-averse, and indeed, Henderson and Hutton find that CEOs who grew up well-off seem to be more cautious executives, investing less money in higher-payoff corporate initiatives and spending less on research and development.
CEOs from less affluent backgrounds were more willing to take risks with company spending.
“CEOs who grew up with successful parents may feel that they have access to winning formulas; therefore they may feel less need to alter their blueprint for success,” Sharna Olfman, a developmental psychologist at Point Park University, wrote to me in an email.
“CEOs who are the first in their family to achieve significant economic success are by definition charting their own paths and do not have a surefire path to follow, freeing them up to be more original and creative in their approach.”
The former types of experiences were linked to more conservative corporate leadership, while the latter seemed to induce an amount of risk-taking that was good for the bottom line.

The orginal article.

Summary of “We’ve Reached Peak Wellness. Most of It Is Nonsense.”

Emotional: Don’t Hide Your Feelings, Get Help When You Need It. Another big issue with what passes for modern-day wellness is that it creates the impression that everyone is happy all the time and that you should be, too.
A recent poll from the market research company YouGov found that 30 percent of millennials say they feel lonely and 22 percent said they have zero friends.
People with fit mindsets tend to overemphasize their initial feelings, search for perfection, and quit when the going gets tough.
An app called Track Your Happiness has allowed thousands of people to report their feelings in real time.
A study published earlier this year in JAMA Network Open found that people without a strong life purpose-defined as a sense of feeling rooted in your life and taking actions toward meaningful goals-were more than twice as likely to die between the years of the study compared with people who had one, even after controlling for things like gender, race, wealth, and education level.
The work of Dacher Keltner, a professor of psychology at the University of California at Berkeley, has shown time and time again that experiencing awe-watching a beautiful sunset, listening to moving music, witnessing a master at their craft-leads to self-transcendence and feelings of spiritual connection.
Worship your own body and beauty and sexual allure, and you will always feel ugly, and when time and age start showing, you will die a million deaths before they finally plant you.
On a macro level, ask yourself these questions: Do I live in a place that feels unlivable? Does my commute totally suck my soul? I’m aware that I’ve got a lot of privilege to suggest moving geographically, but the kind of move I’m suggesting is one away from crazily expensive, competitive, and congested cities.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why speaking to yourself in the third person makes you wiser”

Instead, the scientific research suggests that you should adopt an ancient rhetorical method favoured by the likes of Julius Caesar and known as ‘illeism’ – or speaking about yourself in the third person.
The findings are the brainchild of the psychologist Igor Grossmann at the University of Waterloo in Canada, whose work on the psychology of wisdom was one of the inspirations for my recent book on intelligence and how we can make wiser decisions.
In a series of laboratory experiments, they found that people tend to be humbler, and readier to consider other perspectives, when they are asked to describe problems in the third person.
This earlier research involved only short-term interventions, however – meaning it was far from clear whether wiser reasoning would become a long-term habit with regular practice at illeism.
To find out, Grossmann’s latest research team asked nearly 300 participants to describe a challenging social situation, while two independent psychologists scored them on the different aspects of wise reasoning.
Clearly, politicians might use illeism for purely rhetorical purposes but, when applied to genuine reflection, it appears to be a powerful tool for wiser reasoning.
As the researchers point out, it would be exciting to see whether the benefits apply to other forms of decision making besides the more personal dilemmas examined in Grossmann’s study.
In the meantime, Grossmann’s work continues to prove that the subject of wisdom is worthy of rigorous experimental study – with potential benefits for all of us.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What Self-Awareness Really Is”

A few years ago, my team of researchers and I embarked on a large-scale scientific study of self-awareness.
In 10 separate investigations with nearly 5,000 participants, we examined what self-awareness really is, why we need it, and how we can increase it.
Our research revealed many surprising roadblocks, myths, and truths about what self-awareness is and what it takes to improve it.
1: There Are Two Types of Self-Awareness For the last 50 years, researchers have used varying definitions of self-awareness.
The first, which we dubbed internal self-awareness, represents how clearly we see our own values, passions, aspirations, fit with our environment, reactions, and impact on others.
The second category, external self-awareness, means understanding how other people view us, in terms of those same factors listed above.
In our interviews, we found that people who improved their external self-awareness did so by seeking out feedback from loving critics – that is, people who have their best interests in mind and are willing to tell them the truth.
3: Introspection Doesn’t Always Improve Self-Awareness It is also widely assumed that introspection – examining the causes of our own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors – improves self-awareness.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Dark Patterns Online Manipulate Shoppers”

Dark patterns are the often unseen web-design choices that trick users into handing over more time, money, or attention than they realize.
The research builds on the work of Harry Brignull, a London-based cognitive scientist who coined the term dark pattern in 2010, and the authors Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, whose work on “Nudges” explores how default options influence behavior.
Just over one in 10 websites contain at least one type of dark pattern, the Princeton research finds.
The most common dark pattern is scarcity bias: Put an item in your cart, and you’ll be served a message claiming “Only eight left in stock!” thereby urging you to buy immediately before the item is gone.
This theater of numbers is also key to the second most popular dark pattern: the flash sale.
The third most frequent pattern, “Social proof,” has to do with the pop-up messages displayed on the sidebar of some sites: “90 people have viewed this item!”; “Joanne from Florida just saved on a sweater!” The tactic harnesses the power of both bandwagon thinking and scarcity.
After analyzing the sites, researchers again found that the pop-ups come from random number generators and selections of stock messages.
That assurance that we can outwit the dark pattern is, naturally, a dark pattern of its own.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Want To Be Happier and More Successful? Learn To Like Other People”

Much of the time, the same outcomes you’re trying to achieve by changing your own habits, attitudes, and behaviors depend on how you view other people.
It sounds paradoxical, but according to University of Georgia researcher Jason Colquitt and his colleagues, people who tend to trust others at work score higher on a range of measure than those who don’t, from job performance to commitment to the team.
Instead of, “How can I improve?” the better question might be, “How can I start seeing more of the good in people, more often?”.
Why The Benefit Of The Doubt Is So Hard To Give.It can be difficult to believe that others generally have the best intentions; that just isn’t many people’s default assumption.
We’re socialized from a young age to be critical of others’ motives, if not downright suspicious.
Finally, while research on optimism-including assuming the best of others-almost universally shows its benefits for success and satisfaction in both work and life, people tend to fear being seen as an unrealistic “Pollyanna.” Just think of how many words there are in English to describe the experience of too-readily trusting others: gullible, ingenuous, credulous, unwary; imbecile, dimwit, stooge, dunderhead, idiot, fool; beguiled, duped, tricked, betrayed, fleeced, deceived, defrauded, double-crossed, deluded, swindled, conned, rooked, cozened, hoodwinked, bamboozled, flimflammed … you get the idea.
The Self-Help Approach That’s Not About YouTo be sure, there are risks to assuming the best in others, but the benefits may far outweigh the potential costs, especially in the workplace.
Simply assuming the best in others can lay the foundation for managers and their team members alike to learn and improve without wounding egos.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Want To Be Happier and More Successful? Learn To Like Other People”

Much of the time, the same outcomes you’re trying to achieve by changing your own habits, attitudes, and behaviors depend on how you view other people.
It sounds paradoxical, but according to University of Georgia researcher Jason Colquitt and his colleagues, people who tend to trust others at work score higher on a range of measure than those who don’t, from job performance to commitment to the team.
Instead of, “How can I improve?” the better question might be, “How can I start seeing more of the good in people, more often?”.
Why The Benefit Of The Doubt Is So Hard To Give.It can be difficult to believe that others generally have the best intentions; that just isn’t many people’s default assumption.
We’re socialized from a young age to be critical of others’ motives, if not downright suspicious.
Finally, while research on optimism-including assuming the best of others-almost universally shows its benefits for success and satisfaction in both work and life, people tend to fear being seen as an unrealistic “Pollyanna.” Just think of how many words there are in English to describe the experience of too-readily trusting others: gullible, ingenuous, credulous, unwary; imbecile, dimwit, stooge, dunderhead, idiot, fool; beguiled, duped, tricked, betrayed, fleeced, deceived, defrauded, double-crossed, deluded, swindled, conned, rooked, cozened, hoodwinked, bamboozled, flimflammed … you get the idea.
The Self-Help Approach That’s Not About YouTo be sure, there are risks to assuming the best in others, but the benefits may far outweigh the potential costs, especially in the workplace.
Simply assuming the best in others can lay the foundation for managers and their team members alike to learn and improve without wounding egos.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Bending the spoon, and other secrets of ESP – Experience Magazine”

On a recent Friday night, the Rhine hosted one of its semi-annual community outreach events, Psi Games, in which the curious can spend an evening getting tested for latent psychic powers.
That’s never particularly bothered folks at the Rhine, who have been conducting paranormal research since founder J.B. Rhine established the Parapsychology Lab at Duke University in 1935.
Initially trained as a biologist, Rhine was a legitimate man of science and is credited with more-or-less inventing the methodologies and laboratory protocols for ESP testing.
Though the Rhine Research Center is no longer affiliated with the university, it still draws independent researchers and rogue academics from around the world, hosting conferences and presentations, and publishing the peer-reviewed Journal of Parapsychology, in publication since 1937.
The Friday night testing program is held at Rhine’s modest two-story offices near the Duke campus.
At the other end of the library, the ESP testing session is facilitated by Steve Barrell, research fellow with the Rhine and lead investigator with Haunted North Carolina, Inc. Barrell looks like the actor Liam Neeson, except somehow even more intense.
Psychic testing is a little J.B. Rhine, sure.
As if on cue, Kruth wraps up the spoon bending party with an announcement about the Rhine’s latest membership drive.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The forgotten part of memory”

“What is memory without forgetting?” asks Oliver Hardt, a cognitive psychologist studying the neurobiology of memory at McGill University in Montreal, Canada.
“To have proper memory function, you have to have forgetting.”
Researchers are still pinpointing the details, but they know that autobiographical memories – those of events experienced personally – begin to take lasting form in a part of the brain called the hippocampus, in the hours and days that follow the event.
Much is still unknown about how memories are created and accessed, and addressing such mysteries has consumed a lot of memory researchers’ time.
It’s a remarkable oversight, says Michael Anderson, who studies cognitive neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, UK. “Every species that has a memory forgets. Full stop, without exception. It doesn’t matter how simple the organism is: if they can acquire lessons of experience, the lessons can be lost,” he says.
Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, is involved in moderating a host of behaviours in the fly brain, and Davis proposed that this chemical messenger might also play a part in memory.
If forgetting is truly a well-regulated, innate part of the memory process, he says, it makes sense that dysregulation of that process could have negative effects.
More memory researchers are shifting their focus to examine how the brain forgets, as well as how it remembers.

The orginal article.