Summary of “Child marriage in the U.S. is surprisingly prevalent. Now states are passing laws to make it harder.”

Even in an era when the median age of marrying has climbed higher and higher, unions like Phil and Maria’s remain surprisingly prevalent in the United States.
“What do you think, Mama?” Phil finally asked, but his mother only shook her head. Maria wandered away with her son to play at the lake’s edge.
Phil met Maria on Feb. 25, 2017, in a trailer on the other side of Everett, where a buddy from jail was living.
A boy who would always and only know him as dad – not as Phil, or stepdad, but simply dad. So he’d been talking to Maria about it.
Maria? Maria had always been her responsible child, the one she could count on.
Lines blurred, family roles shifted: Was Maria the adult she often seemed, or the girl who still thought about prom, loved video games and sometimes needed mothering? And was Phil a “Pervert,” as she’d initially worried, or a husband who seemed to genuinely love Maria and was nothing but decent every time Michelle saw him?
Expression softening with sympathy, Michelle leaned forward, and, as her cigarette burned down to nothing and her other girls disappeared into the house, she stayed focused on the phone call, speaking not with Maria the mother, or Maria the wife, but Maria, her 16-year-old daughter.
Early one Friday morning, those concerns seemed remote, as Douglas and Phil slept side by side in the bedroom, and Michelle wrote her a Facebook message, telling her she was proud of her, and Maria headed out by herself for school, the child bride who didn’t drop out.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Rise and Fall of Affirmative Action”

Winifred Kao, a lawyer at the Asian Law Caucus, said that Blum was not “a champion for Asian-Americans, by any means.” Rather, he was “Using Asian-Americans as a wedge, as we’ve often been used, throughout our racial and civil-rights history.” Many of Blum’s critics point to a video in which he admits that he “Needed” Asian plaintiffs to pursue this latest challenge to affirmative action.
In the early nineties, Glynn Custred, an anthropologist at California State University, Hayward, who had told the Washington Post that affirmative action was like “Reversed Jim Crow,” met Tom Wood, a Ph.D. recipient who believed that affirmative action was the reason he could not find a professorship.
A survey from 2012 showed that Asian-Americans supported affirmative action by a three-to-one margin.
In 2016, OiYan Poon, an assistant professor of higher education at Colorado State University, interviewed thirty-six Asian-Americans who disagreed about affirmative action.
The opponents of affirmative action had so thoroughly dominated the terms of the debate that supporters were often unconsciously perpetuating a distorted vision of what actually happens-repeating claims that Harvard undervalued Asian students’ “Personalities,” for example, an argument that ignores the complexities of the “Personal” category.
Vincent Pan, the co-head of Chinese for Affirmative Action, told me that when he describes affirmative action in terms of employment opportunities, or hiring more Asian-American judges or college faculty, people overwhelmingly support it.
For previous generations of Asian-American activists, affirmative action was a key component in the struggle for multiracial justice.
The claims had been lodged by young, largely progressive Asian-American activists, for whom affirmative action was the solution to the problems they were identifying, not the cause.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Lessons from the Last Swiss Finishing School”

Housed in a traditional chalet, built in 1911 for a Dutch baroness, the institute bills itself as the last finishing school in Switzerland.
“It’s the same as the watch industry,” Neri’s son, who tends to the school’s business matters, has said.
Though invited to spend a week attending classes, I was scolded on more than one occasion for photographing the chalet’s interior, for recording lectures, and for attempting to ascertain basic biographical facts about the school’s students, a group that Neri claims has included the daughters of Presidents and Prime Ministers.
One afternoon in an upstairs classroom, Neri told me, “My mother never liked the term ‘finishing school.’ It just means so many things to so many different people. The British, for example, think it’s a place for women too stupid to go to university.” Neri’s mother, Dorette Faillettaz, who never attended a finishing school, founded what became I.V.P. in 1954 with a loan from her parents, as no Swiss bank at the time would lend to a woman.
A translator of the Brothers Grimm and, according to Neri, “One of the first women to dare to ask for a divorce in Zurich,” Faillettaz established a school that was, for its time, a kind of proto-feminist alternative to the tea-party training occurring elsewhere around the canton.
“They would maybe go to England, because it’s a kingdom, but not to a peasant country.” Every so often, the school received what Neri referred to as “An exotic student”-once, she said, the school hosted a cousin of the Emperor of Japan.
Neri grew up in Zurich, attended school in England, moved to Montreux after her mother’s divorce, and then to California, where she majored in Latin-American studies at U.C.L.A. She returned to Switzerland after graduation and married the director of a textile-machine company.
In 1971, women in Switzerland gained the right to vote, and the following year Neri’s mother retired and Neri assumed leadership of I.V.P. “It was 1972!” she exclaimed.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The American Dream Is Harder To Find In Some Neighborhoods”

The American Dream Is Harder To Find In Some Neighborhoods A new data tool finds a strong correlation between where people grew up and their chances of climbing the economic ladder.
Does the neighborhood you grow up in determine how far you move up the economic ladder?
At first glance, it looks a lot like a Google map, where users can see the whole country, or zoom in to local neighborhoods.
The difference is in the amount of data that pops up when a neighborhood is highlighted.
It’s located in a majority white neighborhood not far from downtown Charlotte, but the school’s population doesn’t reflect the neighborhood.
That’s because many white students attend private schools or public schools outside their neighborhoods.
The Sedgefield neighborhood is more affluent than a nearby majority black neighborhood called Southside Park.
Harvard’s Chetty says he hopes the Opportunity Atlas will help communities across the country revive the American dream in their neighborhoods.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Girls Are Better at Reading Than Boys”

It’s not just a phenomenon in the U.K.: These trends in girls’ dominance in reading can be found pretty much anywhere in the developed world.
In 2009, a global study of the academic performance of 15-year-olds found that, in all but one of the 65 participating countries, more girls than boys said they read for pleasure.
On average across the countries, only about half of boys said they read for enjoyment, compared to roughly three-quarters of girls.
Boys tend to be more vulnerable than girls to peer pressure, and that could discourage them from activities like reading that are perceived to be “Uncool.”
David Reilly, a psychologist and Ph.D. candidate at Australia’s Griffith University who co-authored a recent analysis on gender disparities in reading in the U.S., echoed these arguments, pointing to the stereotype that liking and excelling at reading is a feminine trait.
“Give boys the right literature, that appeals to their tastes and interests, and you can quickly see changes in reading attitudes,” he says, citing comic books as an example.
Understanding why girls are so much more inclined to read might help eradicate what is proving to be a stubborn gender gap both in the U.S. and around the world: the lagging educational outcomes of boys and men.
“If girls are reading more outside of school”-if they’re doing so out of an intrinsic motivation rather than because they have to-“This provides them with thousands of hours of additional reading over the course of their development.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Schools Are Banning Yoga”

In reality, school-based yoga typically focuses on physical exercise or on relaxation and mindfulness.
Other schools adopt yoga as an in- or after-school elective, while some incorporate it into regular PE classes.
“Many original forms of yoga are practiced in a religious or spiritual manner,” acknowledges Marlynn Wei, a psychiatrist, therapist, and certified yoga teacher who’s written about yoga’s educational uses.
“The minute you put Sanskrit into a curriculum some parents are going to freak out,” agrees Jai Sugrim, a yoga instructor who’s taught in schools.
What’s more, much of the research on school-based yoga focuses on its benefits for “Urban youth,” a high percentage of whom contend with trauma such as poverty, community violence, and exposure to drug abuse that takes a toll on their ability to manage stress.
In a state like Alabama, where school-based yoga has long been banned and where according to that same survey just 10 percent of the population has taken a class, it’s conceivable that many might see yoga as bizarre and inappropriate in a school setting.
Notably, the same survey found that many people who hadn’t tried yoga before perceived it to be exclusive to young women or those who are already flexible, athletic, or spiritual.
Ironically, proponents argue that the value of yoga in schools is its inclusiveness -its promise to help boys who don’t know how to contain their outbursts, students with physical disabilities, children who struggle with obesity, and teens who lack direction.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Here’s How Millennials’ Lives Were Changed By Recession 10 Years Ago”

Many survived the foreclosure of homes, parents losing jobs, and years of fruitless job hunting after graduating school.
I’d say it’s impacted our lives in two ways: One, no matter how many times I took jobs that were outwardly vertical moves or increases in responsibility, my salary stayed pretty stagnant.
“Entry level” around here requires at minimum an associate’s degree and a couple years of experience – and that’s for jobs that literally anyone can do: office jobs, school support staffing, etc.
When the Great Recession hit 10 years ago, my clients were losing their jobs, homes, cars, etc.
My husband had a very difficult time finding a job out of college and worked internships and low-paying seasonal positions for years.
We struggled for three years to find a job that could feed us and lived off unemployment checks.
Once my dad had found a suitable job, it took us four years to get where we are today.
We have spent years working really low-wage jobs, sometimes multiple jobs.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Georgia’s Separate and Unequal Special-Education System”

Latoya was told that Seth would be sent to a school twenty minutes away, in the Georgia Network for Educational and Therapeutic Support, a constellation of schools, known as GNETS, attended by four thousand students with emotional and behavioral disabilities.
Her two older children rejoined their classes, but the school district said that Seth was now classified as a GNETS student.
Williams-Brown didn’t understand why Seth, who was eventually given a diagnosis of autism, couldn’t return to his neighborhood school, where there were more qualified teachers.
After Seth had been at Pathways for a few months, the school hired a new teacher, who was properly certified.
Once, after Seth took off his shoes, MaKenzie asked her teachers, “Seth is being bad, ain’t he?”.
“Something bad has already happened, and I am worried there might be more.” Kornegay admonished her, writing, “I believe we are failing to provide FAPE”-the right to a free appropriate public education, which is guaranteed by IDEA. A month earlier, the Georgia Advocacy Office, together with the Arc of the United States, a disability-rights organization, had filed a class-action lawsuit, alleging that the state “Discriminates against thousands of Georgia public school students with disabilities” by “Segregating them in a network of unequal and separate institutions.”
In January, 2018, shortly after the Georgia Advocacy Office requested Seth’s records, the district allowed him to return to his neighborhood school.
Leslie Lipson, the lawyer with the office, said that when she becomes involved in students’ cases, for possible inclusion in the class-action suit, the student is often transferred out of GNETS. Seth entered first grade at Seminole County Elementary School.

The orginal article.

Summary of “America’s Social Infrastructure Is Falling Apart”

A recent study by the Harvard sociologist Mario Small found that a day care center that encouraged parents to walk in and wait for their children, often inside the classroom and generally at the same time, fostered more social connections than one where parents came in on their own schedules and hurried through drop-off and pickup so they could quickly return to their private lives.
It’s extraordinary, Small observed, how quickly parents – even those with different backgrounds – began to trust and support one another when they had a place to gather.
Just as certain hard infrastructures, such as those for power and water, are “Lifeline systems” that make modern societies possible, so too are certain social infrastructures especially crucial for democratic life.
Good schools teach us how to get along; bad schools leave us ill-prepared for the challenges of civic life.
Libraries are not the kinds of institutions that social scientists, policy makers, and community leaders usually bring up when they discuss social capital and how to build it.
They’re among the most critical, and undervalued, forms of social infrastructure that we have.
Whether the libraries I visited were in tony suburbs like Palo Alto, California, cities like Austin, Texas, or small towns like Suffern, New York, I always saw a surprisingly diverse set of people: all ages, different races and ethnicities, a range of social classes and political persuasions.
Spending time in social infrastructures requires learning to deal with these differences in a civil manner.

The orginal article.

Summary of “In 1960, about a half-million teens took a test. Now it could predict the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.”

In 1960, Joan Levin, 15, took a test that turned out to be the largest survey of American teenagers ever conducted.
A study released this month found that subjects who did well on test questions as teenagers had a lower incidence of Alzheimer’s and related dementias in their 60s and 70s than those who scored poorly.
The study looked at how students scored on 17 areas of cognitive ability such as language, abstract reasoning, math, clerical skills, and visual and spatial prowess, and found that people with lower scores as teenagers were more prone to getting Alzheimer’s and related dementias in their 60s and early 70s. Specifically, those with lower mechanical reasoning and memory for words as teens had a higher likelihood of developing dementia in later life: Men in the lower-scoring half were 17 percent more likely, while women with lower scores were 16 percent more likely.
Worse performance on other components of the test also increased the risk for later-life dementia.
The 1960 test could have the potential to be like the groundbreaking Framingham study, a decades-long study of men in Massachusetts that led to reductions in heart disease in the 1970s, ’80s and ’90s, said Susan Lapham, director of Project Talent and a co-author of the JAMA study.
Earlier studies had suggested a relationship between cognitive abilities in youth and dementia in later life, including one that followed 800 nuns earlier in the 20th century and found that the complexity of sentences they used in writing personal essays at 21 correlated with their dementia risk in old age.
The number of minorities 65 and older is projected to grow faster than the general population, and by 2060 there will be about 3.2 million Hispanics and 2.2 million African Americans with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, according to a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published this week.
Cliff Jacobs, 75, of Arlington, Va., who took the Project Talent test as a high school junior in Tenafly, N.J., doesn’t remember hearing about any results.

The orginal article.