Summary of “Peter Scholze Becomes One of the Youngest Fields Medalists Ever”

The 22-year-old student, Peter Scholze, had found a way to sidestep one of the most complicated parts of the proof, which deals with a sweeping connection between number theory and geometry.
Mathematicians at the University of Bonn, who made Scholze a full professor just two years later, were already aware of his extraordinary mathematical mind.
Many mathematicians react to Scholze with “a mixture of awe and fear and exhilaration,” said Bhargav Bhatt, a mathematician at the University of Michigan who has written joint papers with Scholze.
Scholze started teaching himself college-level mathematics at the age of 14, while attending Heinrich Hertz Gymnasium, a Berlin high school specializing in mathematics and science.
At 16, Scholze learned that a decade earlier Andrew Wiles had proved the famous 17th-century problem known as Fermat’s Last Theorem, which says that the equation xn + yn = zn has no nonzero whole-number solutions if n is greater than two.
As Scholze burrowed into the proof, he became captivated by the mathematical objects involved – structures called modular forms and elliptic curves that mysteriously unify disparate areas of number theory, algebra, geometry and analysis.
Scholze began doing research in the field of arithmetic geometry, which uses geometric tools to understand whole-number solutions to polynomial equations – equations such as xy2 + 3y = 5 that involve only numbers, variables and exponents.
P-adic numbers are “Far removed from our everyday intuitions,” Scholze said.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Blood moon: Photos of the lunar eclipse taken by astronaut in space”

NASA/Bill Stafford, Josh Valcarcel and Norah Moran An astronaut in space captured haunting photographs of Friday’s total lunar eclipse , also called a blood moon because of its eerie orange-red color.
German astronaut Alexander Gerst, a geophysicist and spaceflight veteran, launched toward the International Space Station on June 6.
In the short time the European Space Agency astronaut has been in orbit, he’s done some stunning photography of Earth and the moon.
On Friday, Gerst watched and photographed the eclipse from his temporary home about 250 miles above the planet.
Here are a few pictures he snapped, plus some other share-worthy imagery he’s recorded over the past eight weeks.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Overparked States of America”

A new study documents the huge amount of space taken up by parking, and the astronomical costs it represents, in five U.S. cities.
Parking eats up an incredible amount of space and costs America’s cities an extraordinary amount of money.
It not only estimates the total number of parking spaces in these cities and their overall estimated replacement costs, but develops interesting metrics such as parking spaces per acre, parking spaces per household, and parking costs per household-as well as providing maps of parking densities across these cities.
Parking takes up a huge amount of space: Jackson has more than 50 parking spaces per acre, 25 times its residential density of just two households per acre.
Philadelphia has 25 parking spaces per acre, almost four times the city’s household density of 6.8 per acre.
New York is the only city in the study that has fewer parking spaces per acre than households: 10 spaces compared to 16 households.
America devotes far too many of its precious resources to parking.
Joni Mitchell famously sang: “They paved paradise and put up a parking lot.” It’s time we reclaim our cities from car storage and use the space for what we need more of, from housing and bike lanes to sidewalk cafes and parks.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Library Rules: How to make an open office plan work”

Ok, so given all that, if you do go open, how do you make open work?
One, they’re generally open spaces with a number of desks and surfaces scattered throughout - similar to an open floor plan office.
They’re called libraries! And the more you treat your office as a library of work - rather than a chaotic kitchen of work - the better an open floor plan is going to work.
Making an open floor plan work is a cultural decision.
So even if you’re fortunate enough to work remotely, or in an office with private rooms for everyone, if you’re forced to follow multiple real-time conversations all day long, you’re effectively working in open plan office too.
AcousticsWhat’s worse than an open floor plan? An open floor plan loaded with hard surfaces! And given that many open plans are housed in old warehouse/loft-like spaces, you’re materially at a disadvantage.
Open’s a choiceYes, an open floor plan is a choice, but it requires a cultural commitment to respect and quiet.
It’s all optional!We did the best job we could designing an open office that allows everyone to work in focused peace and quiet every day.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How big should your house be?”

Any big-house ethnographer can see this in episodes of shows like House Hunters, where the prospective buyers will say infuriating things like, “I like having Thanksgiving at my house every other year, so I’m going to need a chef-level kitchen and a two-story deck.” This claim has about as much substance as another common House Hunters trope: “I like this house, but that easily repaintable green half-bath is a deal-breaker for me.”
Elite houses, from the domus of a Pompeian politician to the Palace of Versailles, from Biltmore to McMansions in subdivisions named Biltmore, have always maintained a separation of formal and informal space.
These spaces are frequently articulated in a house’s architecture, partly for their symbolic value.
The ironic inefficiency of hyper-exaggerated high-end entertaining spaces belies a truth: These spaces aren’t really designed for entertaining.
Even if they were to do such a thing, fear of isolated rudeness hardly justifies building thousands of square feet of entertaining space or going into debt getting a bigger house.
Even if we do use our great rooms and formal dining rooms to host Thanksgiving and entertain those circles of friends, we’re still designing our spaces for maximum occupancy instead of the average family of three to five people who actually live in them every day.
Large, unused spaces designed for social functions foster isolation instead. Designing our homes for the worst-case scenario-a hundred people are all at our house for a party and the party is also a tribunal where all of our guests publicly judge us-prioritizes guests who spend a very short amount of time in our houses over our own daily needs.
No matter the layout of your chosen home, if you want to entertain, entertain! Nobody is stopping you from being the savvy socialite you want to see in the world, and you definitely don’t need 1,000 square feet of otherwise useless space to have your friends over for drinks.

The orginal article.

Summary of “NASA astronaut Ellison Onizuka’s soccer ball that survived the Challenger explosion”

This is the story of the soccer ball that survived – and the family that sent it into space, twice.
There on Lorna’s television, inside the 4.4 million-pound launchpad assembly, inside the space shuttle, inside the crew cabin, inside a locker, inside a black duffel bag, was a soccer ball.
As the Onizuka girls woke up on Jan. 28, 1986, and found something else for breakfast, the ball sat in Ellison’s locker on board the shuttle.
The mid-January evening that Ellison came to pick up the ball was one of those nights he was supposed to be in quarantine.
In the 30 years since the Onizukas lost Ellison, the soccer ball was dwarfed in its case by newer, bigger trophies as Clear Lake collected accomplishments worthy of display.
There was no way a soccer ball survived that – and if it had, there was no way it had been sitting in a display case just outside her office.
On Oct. 19, 2016, Expedition 49 launched successfully – carrying two Russian astronauts, Shane and the soccer ball into low earth orbit, eventually docking aboard the International Space Station.
Shane returned the ball to the Onizuka girls, but Lorna knew it ultimately belonged in the place where its journey began.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Space is full of dirty, toxic grease, scientists reveal”

The findings bring scientists closer to figuring out the total amount of carbon in interstellar space, which fuels the formation of stars, planets and is essential for life.
Until now there has been uncertainty over how much carbon is drifting between the stars.
The rest is chemically bound with hydrogen in either a grease-like form, known as aliphatic carbon, or as a gaseous version of naphthalene, the main chemical component of mothballs.
To tackle the question, Schmidt and colleagues recreated in the laboratory the process by which greasy carbon forms in the outflows of carbon stars.
“This space grease is not the kind of thing you’d want to spread on a slice of toast,” said Schmidt.
“It’s dirty, likely toxic and only forms in the environment of interstellar space – and our laboratory.”
The team now plans to determine the abundance of the mothball-like carbon, which will involve more laboratory experiments.
“It’s part of understanding the great life-cycle of carbon,” said Schmidt.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Exclusive: Inside Target’s top secret test store”

This is her domain: A 100,000-square-foot test store that takes up a full city block in downtown Minneapolis.
Before it created the test store, Target could never see how all of its products and promotions came together in one space.
Target has recently doubled down its efforts on store design, turning its big-box retail stores into more experiential spaces filled with high-impact displays.
Target can literally see every display before it goes live in a store, debate it until everything is perfect, then photograph it for each store manager to duplicate on their own.
This Target is a full-sized store, but because it’s squeezed into the geometric limitations of a city block, its sections have been Tetrised together, taking you from school supplies to menswear without the comforting mental layout burned into your brain by decades of visiting Target stores.
Most of the test store team is thinking much further out as I’m there, imagining lines for spring 2019.
As Target designers develop updated lines-let’s use athletic gear as an example-they’re developing items in rooms a few floors up from the test store.
Once all parties agree on the merchandise and layout, Target corporate shares the plan with Target stores.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Messi Walks Better Than Most Players Run”

In the 12 years since he became the youngest Argentine to score a World Cup goal, Lionel Messi has won more Ballon d’Or trophies, awarded to the world’s best player, than anyone before him.
Messi may get the ball more than most, but he, like all players, still spends the majority of his time without it – making runs, hiding in space, creating space for his teammates.
The most popular explanation has been that Messi walks to conserve his energy for critical moments, like a perfectly efficient machine.
Applying the models to data from that La Liga match between Barcelona and Villarreal in January 2017, Bornn and Fernandez found that Barcelona’s most important principle space gainers were Sergio Busquets, Andres Iniesta and Messi.
Remarkably, in about 66 percent of the moments Messi won control of valuable space, he was walking.
In the same match, Messi was one of Barcelona’s top three players in terms of gaining space, along with Luis Suarez and Neymar.
Whether Messi consciously decides to go against the run of play with his movement is difficult to ascertain.
“Can we say Messi gets a lot of his space by not chasing the play? Yes, that’s precisely what our research shows.” Bornn said.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How WeWork became the most hyped startup in the world”

Ask WeWork CEO Adam Neumann what makes WeWork so special and he will say that it is about so much more than office space.
In 2016, Microsoft moved 300 of its New York-based sales team into WeWork spaces; in 2017, IBM signed a deal to take every desk in one WeWork office.
Today, more than 24 per cent of WeWork desks globally are occupied by enterprise clients, which WeWork defines as companies with 1,000 employees or more.
The agreement with SoftBank Group and SoftBank Vision Fund, consisted of a $3 billion investment into WeWork and $1.4 billion into three new companies, WeWork China, WeWork Japan and WeWork Pacific.
From his patch of open-plan, wood-floored office space in the middle of WeWork HQ, Veresh Sita can see every WeWork in the world.
For these customers, WeWork has come up with a new option it calls “Powered by We”.Under Powered by We, WeWork will help build, design and operate a company’s own office.
Like a regular WeWork space, Powered by We spaces are run by WeWork community teams, who keep the spaces clean and the coffee hot, and host a calendar of extra-curricular activities.
Employees become WeWork members, meaning they can access other WeWork spaces and events.

The orginal article.