Summary of “The Real Origins of the U.S.-China Cold War”

As tensions between Beijing and Washington harden, there is a growing fear that China and the United States are entering a new cold war-another multi-decade struggle to shape the international system.
Historical scholarship on the breakdown of U.S.-Soviet relations after World War II addresses such questions as which side was most responsible, whether confrontation between Moscow and Washington was inevitable, the role of ideology and perception, and the significance of individual leaders in bringing on what U.S. President John F. Kennedy would call the “Long twilight struggle.” These debates also provide a useful framework for thinking about how the United States and China got to the present impasse, and where Washington should go from here.
As the political scientist Andrew Scobell has written, it was the resulting perception of American weakness and accommodation-not a perception of increased hostility-that constituted the background to increased Chinese pressure in the South China Sea, East China Sea, and other areas.
There is no debating that China has become more ambitious, aggressive, and authoritarian under Xi. At home, he has cracked down on dissidents, strengthened political controls, transformed China into an increasingly high-tech police state, and replaced collective leadership with personalized rule.
The promulgation of the nine-dash line in the South China Sea, the intensified pressure against Japan in the East China Sea, and other facets of Chinese assertiveness all predate Xi, even if they have intensified and accelerated under him.
A third school of thought-which corresponds to Cold War post-revisionism-is that shifting power dynamics and the nature of international affairs have driven the United States and China to rivalry.
The growth of Chinese power-particularly Chinese military power-was initially driven in part by concerns that the United States might make Beijing its primary adversary with the Cold War over.
Post-revisionists contributed to the debate on Cold War origins by pointing out that it was simply hard to see how the United States and the Soviet Union-two powerful, ambitious countries with conflicting interests and visions of security-could have indefinitely gotten along after World War II. Something similar could be said about U.S.-China relations today.

The orginal article.

Summary of “‘It’s a Place Where They Try to Destroy You’: Why Concentration Camps Are Still With Us”

The disturbing truth is that concentration camps have been widespread throughout recent history, used to intern civilians that a state considers hostile, to control the movement of people in transit and to extract forced labour.
The definition of a concentration camp is sometimes fuzzy, but at root, such camps represent a combination of physical and legal power.
That the British, Americans, Spanish, French and Germans, among other nations, had all used concentration camps led some thinkers to ask whether such camps were inevitable features of the modern state.
According to Agamben, the tendency to banish and dehumanise keeps on coming back in the form of the concentration camp: a space where people are outside the law, yet more subject to its power than anywhere else.
Concentration camps are uniquely dangerous spaces.
In June 2019, amid the outcry from opponents of this policy, congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez recorded a video for her Instagram followers: “The US is running concentration camps on our southern border,” she stated, “And that is exactly what they are I want to talk to the people that are concerned enough with humanity to say that ‘never again’ means something.”
The two most prominent critics of Britain’s camps – the feminist campaigners Emily Hobhouse and Millicent Fawcett – both had to struggle against political and public opinion that initially saw the camps as a wartime necessity, and both fought hard to alleviate suffering.
Without Hobhouse’s radical critique, it would have been harder to oppose the harm done by Britain’s camps a century ago, and would be harder to understand why camps still appear in the world today.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Real Origins of the U.S.-China Cold War”

As tensions between Beijing and Washington harden, there is a growing fear that China and the United States are entering a new cold war-another multi-decade struggle to shape the international system.
Historical scholarship on the breakdown of U.S.-Soviet relations after World War II addresses such questions as which side was most responsible, whether confrontation between Moscow and Washington was inevitable, the role of ideology and perception, and the significance of individual leaders in bringing on what U.S. President John F. Kennedy would call the “Long twilight struggle.” These debates also provide a useful framework for thinking about how the United States and China got to the present impasse, and where Washington should go from here.
As the political scientist Andrew Scobell has written, it was the resulting perception of American weakness and accommodation-not a perception of increased hostility-that constituted the background to increased Chinese pressure in the South China Sea, East China Sea, and other areas.
There is no debating that China has become more ambitious, aggressive, and authoritarian under Xi. At home, he has cracked down on dissidents, strengthened political controls, transformed China into an increasingly high-tech police state, and replaced collective leadership with personalized rule.
The promulgation of the nine-dash line in the South China Sea, the intensified pressure against Japan in the East China Sea, and other facets of Chinese assertiveness all predate Xi, even if they have intensified and accelerated under him.
A third school of thought-which corresponds to Cold War post-revisionism-is that shifting power dynamics and the nature of international affairs have driven the United States and China to rivalry.
The growth of Chinese power-particularly Chinese military power-was initially driven in part by concerns that the United States might make Beijing its primary adversary with the Cold War over.
Post-revisionists contributed to the debate on Cold War origins by pointing out that it was simply hard to see how the United States and the Soviet Union-two powerful, ambitious countries with conflicting interests and visions of security-could have indefinitely gotten along after World War II. Something similar could be said about U.S.-China relations today.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The key to productivity is tapping into your flow state. Here’s how |”

Yes, you can experience the benefits that come with it more often, including being self-motivated, more productive, and more empowered, according to violinist and keynote speaker Diane Allen, who’s become an expert at helping people find their flow state.
Here’s how to gain awareness of your flow state and what you can do to tap into it more often.
One of the key indicators of being in flow state is losing a sense of time.
You may feel like you’re in the flow state during activities – like reading a book, binge-watching TV, or playing video games – because you lose all sense of time but they’re not the flow state, says Allen.
“The actual flow state is when you’re somehow active,” says Allen, pointing to activities like playing the violin, writing, playing tennis, or leading a meeting.
Allen recommends recreating the memories of when you were in flow state and examining them.
Allen worked with one client who found his flow state whenever he was racing bicycles.
As Allen says, “Being in the flow state brings out the best in all of us.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “What Does ‘Shelter in Place’ Mean? California’s Coronavirus Order, Explained”

San Francisco and five other counties in California have issued a shelter-in-place order in an effort to curb the spread of coronavirus.
What Does This Shelter-In-Place Order Do? This order requires 6.7 million residents in San Francisco and five other Bay Area counties – Santa Clara, San Mateo, Alameda, Marin and Contra Costa – to stay home unless absolutely necessary.
Santa Cruz county issued a similar order later on Monday.
The order also allows for outdoor exercise, “Provided that the individuals comply with social distancing requirements”.
“The violation of any provision of this order constitutes an imminent threat and creates an immediate menace to public health,” the order states.
At a news conference, William Scott, the San Francisco police chief, said his officers planned on taking a “Compassionate, commonsense approach” to the order and would use enforcement as a last resort.
Half of the state’s coronavirus deaths were in the Bay Area.Wait, Didn’t the Governor Order Something Like This Already? The California governor, Gavin Newsom, issued an advisory calling for the closure of all bars, night clubs, breweries and wineries in the state, and for all Californians with chronic conditions and all seniors age 65 years or older to stay home.
The order exempts the homeless from having to shelter-in-place, but is “Urging them to find shelter and government agencies to provide it”.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The mystery of mountain lions”

“Since mystery is the mother of exaggeration, the animal gradually acquired a reputation for prowess and lurking danger far beyond what it really deserved.” But cougars’ invisibility has a downside.
In 1997, William Perry Pendley, then president of the Mountain States Legal Foundation, now acting director of the Bureau of Land Management, accused cougar defenders of condoning “Human sacrifice.”
People whose families have lived in the woods for generations usually know a fair amount about cougars, said Satterfield.
Wind cheese-grated our faces as we snowmobiled along a ski trail, scanning among deer and domestic dog prints in the hard-packed snow for coaster-sized tracks – four toes with no mark from the retracted claws, lined over a large pad. Where dogs wend, Satterfield told me, a cougar walks deliberately, from somewhere to somewhere.
Satterfield hopes to explore similar dynamics here in the Methow, where cougars flow down from the mountains in winter, perhaps following mule deer seeking forage in the valleys – habitats people also favor.
In California, the number of complaints resulting in permits to kill cougars climbed steadily with human population growth from the ’70s through the ’90s. Then, after cougars killed two people in 1994, they ballooned – something researchers attributed less to a rise in cougar activity than to hyper-vigilance stoked by fear.
The commission initiated an early revision of the cougar hunt, raising worries that the state will increase hunting in places where it already regularly exceeds guidelines set to preserve cougar social structure.
ON OUR FINAL DAY TOGETHER, Satterfield backtracked possible cougar meals, indicated by multiple GPS points sent from the same location over time.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Return of weasel-like fishers finally gives Washington State all its carnivores back”

Niffler, Kendra, Neville, and Katie-all named after characters from the Harry Potter universe-are the last fishers to be released into Washington State’s North Cascades National Park.
“The West Coast has more carnivores than the East Coast because it was less heavily developed,” says Mitchell Parsons, a wildlife ecologist who wrote his doctoral thesis on fishers.
In Washington state, some 260 fishers have been reintroduced since 2008.
So far so good-the fishers have been surviving and reproducing: “The ecosystem’s here, the food’s here, there’s plenty of room for them,” Ransom says.
The national parks also worked with the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, and the First Nations tribes there, to capture and transport healthy young fishers.
Mark Neutzmann, a wildlife biologist for the Yakama Nation, says they support the return of the fishers and are committed ensuring the safety of any pregnant fishers that may end up on the reservation.
The absence of wolves and fishers for so long, for example, left an open niche for coyotes, who have proliferated and moved into territories new to them.
After being eradicated from the state by the 1930s, there are now 126 wolves in 27 packs, including 15 successful breeding pairs, according to the most recent data from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The lost congressman: What happened to Jeremiah Haralson?”

Jeremiah Haralson listened as the ex-Confederate accused him of forgery.
During questioning, Graham asked Haralson about the testimony of another witness who claimed that Haralson had forged an election ticket to get votes in Lowndes County.
Frederick Douglass, who heard Haralson speak in New Orleans in 1872, wrote shortly after that Haralson was “a man of real solid sense” who had “Humor enough in him to supply a half dozen circus clowns.” During his 1877 Senate testimony, Graham asked the congressman whether a local activist was a Democrat.
Haralson appears to have inherited Jeremiah after Thompson’s death, and took him from Columbus to Selma.
After hearing Haralson speak in New Orleans in 1872, Frederick Douglass called Haralson “One of the most amusing, ready, witted, and gifted debaters that took part in the proceedings.”
The congressman said, Shelley and Quartemas drew guns, and the sheriff angrily demanded that Haralson retract his statement about Shelley being a Republican, and withdraw from the race.
There are no records of Haralson in any Census after the time of his incarceration, or contemporary accounts of Haralson after 1895 in newspapers reviewed on newspapers.com.
A Montgomery Advertiser story in 1901 claimed that Haralson died “a year or two ago,” though it provided no evidence and incorrectly stated Haralson had been incarcerated in Arkansas.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Everyone loved George Washington, until he became president”

When the great Gen. George Washington left his comfortable retirement at Mount Vernon to become the first president of the United States, well-wishers threw flowers at his feet.
It cannot be overstated how much Washington did not want to be president.
Although Washington never declared a party affiliation, only Federalists remained in his administration in his second term.
Vice President John Adams later wrote that the French ambassador had incited “Ten thousand People in the Streets of Philadelphia, day after day, threaten[ing] to drag Washington out of his House, and effect a Revolution in the Government.”
“In an extraordinary show of executive overreach,” Coe writes, Washington called the state militia to federal service.
Coe includes a chart in her book of what other Founders said about Washington before his presidency and after.
John Adams in 1785: “I glory in the character of Washington because I know him to be an exemplification of the American character.”
Washington delivered a final address to Congress in December 1796, three months before he officially left office.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Life And Times Of Mr. Peanut”

“Virginias” are a type of peanut harvested throughout the Southeast, and they make up about fifteen percent of the United States’ annual peanut crops.
Fourteen-year-old Antonio Gentile, from Suffolk, Virginia, submitted a series of sketches of an anthropomorphized peanut.
The copy continued with a long “Quotation” from Mr. Peanut himself, in which he remarked that “The Planters Nut & Chocolate Co., originated the secret process of making whole salted peanuts,” and highlighted the company’s “Distinctive glassine bag.”9 While these references highlight the industrial processing of peanuts and its benefits to consumers, neither the text nor the imagery references the agricultural stages of production.
Even as his appearance remained dependent on his very existence as a peanut, an agricultural product, Mr. Peanut embraced an English style of men’s formal “Full dress.” This styling included a black top hat, white gloves, and spats, and it relied on conventions of distinction, leisure, frivolity, and impractical wealth.
Appearing in campaigns for the “Nickel lunch” and cocktail peanuts, Mr. Peanut was positioned as a character who could speak and market to his social equals and those without his apparent means.
Whether you still call him Mr. Peanut or have embraced the name Baby Nut, the thirty-second “Rebirth” commercial exposes the agricultural roots of the Planters mascot more than the advertisements from the preceding 104 years.
While non-anthropomorphized peanuts grow underground, not resting amid the foliage like Baby Nut, the visual inclusion of a peanut plant is a reminder of the very real agricultural origins of the peanuts that Planters dry roasts and sells across the country.
His nursery-visible on a “Live stream” available on Twitter immediately after the commercial aired-is outfitted with a peanut-shaped bassinet, botanical prints of peanut plants, framed copies of “Mr. Peanut’s Guide to Tennis” and “Mr. Peanut’s Guide to Nutrition”-and peanut and monocle patterned wallpaper.

The orginal article.