Summary of “How Likely Is Your Industry to Be Disrupted? This 2×2 Matrix Will Tell You”

The topic of industry disruption – “a process whereby a smaller company with fewer resources is able to successfully challenge established incumbent businesses” – is rife with misconceptions.
Industry disruption, as Accenture research has found, is reasonably predictable.
To help business leaders better understand industry disruption, we developed an index that measures an industry’s current level of disruption as well as its susceptibility to future disruption.
Our research showed that it is possible for business executives to assess how susceptible their industry is to disruption and why, and to do the same at a more granular level for their company.
In the volatility state, industries experience high levels of disruption and are susceptible to even more disruption in the short term.
The state of viability is where we found new or reborn industries that have endured a significant disruption.
Leaders who understand the various disruptive states and their company’s place therein will be more likely to see disruption as a positive force – not as a cue to protect the old but as a compelling prompt to lead in the new.
Understanding where your industry sits in terms of its susceptibility to disruption will help you make momentous strategic choices.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Close to Midnight? Why Scientists Moved the Doomsday Clock in 2018”

On Thursday, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists moved the Doomsday Clock-a symbolic assessment of how close the world stands to total destruction-as close to midnight as it has ever been, reflecting the expert group’s “Grim assessment” that the world is now “As dangerous as it has been since World War II.”.
Not since 1953, when the United States and Soviet Union both began hydrogen-weapons testing, has the clock been moved so close to the final hour.
Speaking to reporters, experts from the group said that while the Doomsday Clock is based on the risk of many existential threats-like world war, climate change, major epidemics, or new technologies-there was one that outweighed all others this year.
“Unlike in the last few years when we’ve been focusing on both nuclear [weapons] and climate change … this year the nuclear discussions took center stage in our conversations,” said Bronson.
“That in many ways is the power of the Doomsday Clock, in that it gives us a way to talk about whether the world is safer or at greater risk than it was last year … It gives us a way to talk about these enormously complicated issues in a way that real people can have real conversations.”
In 2015, the Bulletin moved the clock to three minutes to midnight, citing the risk of climate change and several national programs to modernize nuclear weapons.
Last January, the clock ticked another 30 seconds forward, as the board fretted over the loose nuclear rhetoric of Vladimir Putin and Donald Trump.
How is reality doing, by the way? Scientists at NASA and NOAA agreed that 2017 was among the three hottest years ever measured.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Hating Gerrymandering Is Easy. Fixing It Is Harder.”

It’s easy for opponents of gerrymandering – the drawing of political boundaries for the benefit of one party or group over another – to argue what districts shouldn’t look like.
To maximize the number of districts in which one minority group makes up the majority of the voting-age population in the district To be compact while splitting as few counties as possible.
In North Carolina, for example, where Republicans drew 10 overwhelmingly Republican districts and three serpentine Democratic districts, not a single district had a Cook Partisan Voter Index score that was remotely competitive.
The compactness map that is guided by borders scored especially highly on our compactness metrics: Compared with the current map, it reduced the total length of boundaries used to divide states into districts by 27 percent and reduced the number of times counties are split from 621 to 380.
If a state has five districts and Republicans won an average of 60 percent of its major-party votes in the last two presidential elections, three districts would be drawn with a Republican lean and two would be drawn with a Democratic lean.
Its 2011 redistricting led to three closely divided districts out of nine total, including one that was won by Donald Trump and is now represented by a Democrat and another that Hillary Clinton won and is now held by the GOP. But constructing those three districts while preserving two Latino-majority districts to comply with the Voting Rights Act required some map-making gymnastics and ignited a redistricting firestorm in which the state’s leading Republicans accused the commission’s independent chair of being a Democratic lackey.
Our interactive’s “Highly competitive” map features 242 districts where both parties have at least a roughly 1-in-6 chance of winning, a more than three-fold increase over the 72 in the current map.
Second, many scholars now wonder whether majority-minority districts have done more favors for Republicans than minorities because they’ve made surrounding districts whiter and more Republican.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Pattern of denial, inaction, information suppression at Michigan State goes beyond Larry Nassar case”

A special, one-hour edition of E:60 airs at 9 a.m. ET Sunday on ESPN and the ESPN App and features a new report by Outside the Lines that details a pervasive failure by Michigan State University to properly handle multiple reports of sexual assault and violence allegations involving athletes.
THE CRIMINAL SEXUAL assault charges against the football players that Dantonio addressed at the news conference in June stemmed from two incidents: A January 2017 report by a female Michigan State student who told police she was dragged into a bathroom during a party and forced to perform oral sex on three football players, and an April report that a defensive end had sexually assaulted a woman at her apartment, for which he was charged with third-degree criminal sexual conduct.
In Michigan State’s case, the university supplied the reports but marked out the players’ names – something East Lansing police did not do.
The woman told campus police that she did not want to seek criminal prosecution but did want to report the incident to Michigan State judicial services.
On Friday, The Lansing State Journal reported that the 2014 investigation of Nassar by MSU’s Title IX office “Concluded that his conduct could open the university to lawsuits and expose patients to unnecessary trauma based on the possibility of perceived inappropriate sexual misconduct.” The findings, the Journal reports, were not shared with the alleged victim but with Michigan State University’s Office of General Counsel, Nassar and Strampel.
The report states students told investigators that Michigan State athletes “Have a reputation for engaging in sexual harassment and sexual assault and not being punished for it, because athletes are held in such high regard at the university.” It also states that athletes received more training on sexual harassment and sexual assault than other students but noted possible mixed messages.
The Lansing State Journal in June reported that it had requested a report made of Michigan State’s Title IX system from November 2014 to May 2015 that had been completed by Philadelphia law firm Pepper Hamilton, which has worked with MSU during the OCR review period.
Pepper Hamilton’s review at Michigan State was being conducted at the same time ESPN was trying to get copies of police reports from the East Lansing and Michigan State police departments that had named football and basketball players as suspects.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Problem With Courting Amazon”

In a 2012 series on incentives, The New York Times concluded that states, counties, and cities provide companies $80.4 billion per year through these arrangements.
The truth is, local and state tax structures aren’t really so critical to most businesses, especially large ones, for which such taxes can be a relatively small part of their total costs.
“While states spend billions of dollars competing with one another to retain and attract businesses,” Rolnick and Burstein wrote, “They struggle to provide such public goods as schools and libraries, police and fire protection, and the roads, bridges and parks that are critical to the success of any community.” America is one economic family, they argued, and unseemly competition to attract new businesses, or to retain existing businesses located within any particular state or city, “Undermines the national economic union.”
One advantage of the American system, with powers divided between states and a national government, Rolnick and Burstein pointed out, is that states are free to compete with each other by trying different taxing and spending allocations.
One state may tax a bit more and provide more public goods-better schools, cheaper health care, smoother roads, more-pleasant parks-in return.
Another state may tax less, and spend less, on such public goods.
If one state fends off a poaching attempt by another state by offering bigger payouts, Rolnick and Burstein wrote, “Competition has simply led states to give away a portion of their tax revenue to local businesses; consequently, they have fewer resources to spend on public goods, and the country as a whole has too few public goods.” If a state successfully draws a business into its borders through tax benefits, they go on, “There will be fewer public goods produced in the overall economy because, in the aggregate, states will have less revenue.”
Congress, using its power to regulate interstate commerce, could change the way relocating companies get taxed or threaten to withhold federal funds from states that try to poach businesses by offering to give up taxes.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Haiti became poor”

It matters in part because of the history of Haiti, and the history of racist discourse about Haiti.
Jonathan Katz, a journalist and former AP correspondent in Haiti who wrote The Big Truck That Went By about Haiti’s 2010 earthquake and the cholera epidemic that followed, has a longer thread spelling out how these narratives about Haiti were generated and how they work.
You’d then have to not know that Haiti was forced to borrow some money to pay back that ridiculous debt, some of it from banks in the United States.
You’d have to not know that in 1914 those banks got President Wilson to send the US Marines to empty the Haitian gold reserve [You’d] have to not know about the rest of the 20th century either-the systematic theft and oppression, US support for dictators and coups, the US invasions of Haiti in 1994-95 and 2004.
In short, you’d have to know nothing about WHY Haiti is poor, and WHY the United States are wealthy.
That’s where they really tell on themselves Because what they are showing is that they ASSUME that Haiti is just naturally poor, that it’s an inherent state borne of the corruption of the people there, in all senses of the word.
Racists have needed Haiti to be poor since it was founded.
While Haiti’s revolution was an early, signature event in world history-the first time a European power would be overthrown by an indigenous army-the causes of Haiti’s poverty are basically identical with those of almost every poor nation around the world: a history of exploitation, bad debt, bad geopolitics, and bad people profiting off of that poverty.

The orginal article.

Summary of “We should look closely at what Adam Smith actually believed”

If you’ve heard of one economist, it’s likely to be Adam Smith.
His professional identity was firmly that of a philosopher – not least because the discipline of ‘economics’ didn’t emerge until the 19th century, by which time Smith was long dead. Admittedly, Smith’s reputation as an economist isn’t entirely mysterious.
For while Smith might be publicly lauded by those who put their faith in private capitalist enterprise, and who decry the state as the chief threat to liberty and prosperity, the real Adam Smith painted a rather different picture.
According to Smith, the most pressing dangers came not from the state acting alone, but the state when captured by merchant elites.
Even worse than this, Smith thought, the merchants were the source of what his friend, the philosopher and historian David Hume, had called ‘jealousy of trade’.
Under absolutely no circumstances, Smith thought, should merchants be put in charge of politics.
Political actors, Smith claimed, were liable to be swept up by a ‘spirit of system’, which made them fall in love with abstract plans, which they hoped would introduce sweeping beneficial reform.
It is time that we listened, a little more carefully, to what the real Adam Smith had to say.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why is liberal California the poverty capital of America?”

Guess which state has the highest poverty rate in the country? Not Mississippi, New Mexico, or West Virginia, but California, where nearly one out of five residents is poor.
It’s not as though California policymakers have neglected to wage war on poverty.
With 883,000 full-time-equivalent state and local employees in 2014, California has an enormous bureaucracy.
“Middle-income households have been forced to accept lower standards of living while the less fortunate have been driven into poverty by the high cost of housing.” The California Environmental Quality Act, passed in 1971, is one example; it can add $1 million to the cost of completing a housing development, says Todd Williams, an Oakland attorney who chairs the Wendel Rosen Black & Dean land-use group.
Jonathan A. Lesser of Continental Economics, author of a 2015 Manhattan Institute study, “Less Carbon, Higher Prices,” found that “In 2012, nearly 1 million California households faced energy expenditures exceeding 10% of household income. In certain California counties, the rate of energy poverty was as high as 15% of all households.” A Pacific Research Institute study by Wayne Winegarden found that the rate could exceed 17% of median income in some areas.
Looking to help poor and low-income residents, California lawmakers recently passed a measure raising the minimum wage from $10 an hour to $15 an hour by 2022 – but a higher minimum wage will do nothing for the 60% of Californians who live in poverty and don’t have jobs.
With a permanent majority in the state Senate and the Assembly, a prolonged dominance in the executive branch and a weak opposition, California Democrats have long been free to indulge blue-state ideology while paying little or no political price.
The state’s poverty problem is unlikely to improve while policymakers remain unwilling to unleash the engines of economic prosperity that drove California to its golden years.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Reversing Felony Disenfranchisement is Transforming Virginia”

Virginia hasn’t made life easy on people who go through that system.
Although since a 2015 state supreme court ruling Virginia has been perhaps the most stringent state on teacher’s qualifications-barring all people with any felonies from working as a teacher in any district-throughout the South’s history, prohibitions against people with crimes of moral turpitude of any degree have gone hand in hand with legalistic efforts to disenfranchise black people and permanently render them second-class citizens.
People in Virginia charged with such crimes, even misdemeanors, cannot work as teachers, marriage therapists, real-estate agents, or registered nurses, and may lose or be denied licensure for dozens of other jobs.
People like Spicer at places like Bethany often pleaded for help from state politicians in easing some of the state’s most severe restrictions on people with felonies, to little avail.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, Virginia has historically been one of the most zealous states in the country in disenfranchising people with felonies, with even those who finish probation having what amounts to a lifelong severance of voting rights unless the governor reviews their case and restores their rights personally.
When I talked to black organizers in the state-which disenfranchised as much as 16 percent of black voters by way of felony restrictions in 2016-they pointed both to a change in state law eliminating some of the weight of its “Moral turpitude” restrictions and to increased attention to registering people in jail and people with felony convictions as key factors in their victory.
More broadly, the Sentencing Project estimates that 1 in 13 black people in America was barred from voting by felony disenfranchisement in 2016, as compared to 1 in 56 non-black people.
According to Thomasson, although McAuliffe has issued 201 pardons, what might stand as the most pardons of any governor in Virginia history, the two fronts-one of which involves restoring civic life to people who’ve largely done their time, and the other which means actually forgiving people for perhaps even violent crimes-are different both optically and procedurally.

The orginal article.

Summary of “As Flow of Foreign Students Wanes, U.S. Universities Feel the Sting”

The Trump administration is more closely scrutinizing visa applications, indefinitely banning travel from some countries and making it harder for foreign students to remain in the United States after graduation.
“As you lose those students, then the tuition revenue is negatively impacted as well,” said Michael Godard, the interim provost at the University of Central Missouri, where 944 international students were enrolled in the fall, a decline of more than 1,500 from the previous year.
International students pay double the $6,445 tuition of Missouri residents, and the lost revenue amounts to $14 million, according to Roger Best, the chief operating officer for the school, in Warrensburg, Mo. Dr. Best said that the university has been forced to cut instructors in computer programs, where many of the foreign students were enrolled, as well as defer maintenance and shave money from other departments, such as the campus newspaper.
An increasingly diverse population in that age group means that more of the students come from low-income families in which no one has ever gone to college, also presenting recruitment challenges for universities, according to Doug Shapiro, the organization’s executive research director.
Officials at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kan., reported an overall enrollment decline of more than 900 students, including 159 fewer international students.
For years, American colleges had been staking their futures on continued growth in foreign students, and after the recession a decade ago, those students were a lifeline for colleges that had poured money into new buildings and amenities.
The president, Matthew Wilson, said that students from India were reporting increased scrutiny of their visa applications, one of the reasons for a drop of about 200 international students.
Akron is one of several public universities in Ohio reporting drops in enrollment, including of international students.

The orginal article.