Summary of “The Universe’s Ultimate Complexity Revealed by Simple Quantum Games”

In all of these games, the rate at which players win has implications for the number of different ways the universe can be configured.
In 2017 three researchers proved that there are games with just five questions that can be won 100 percent of the time if the players have access to an unlimited number of entangled particles.
These games are all modeled on games invented more than 50 years ago by the physicist John Stewart Bell.
Bell developed the games to test one of the strangest propositions about the physical world made by the theory of quantum mechanics.
In the magic square game, and other games like it, there doesn’t seem to be a way for the players to win 100 percent of the time.
What Bell calculated, and what many subsequent experiments have shown, is that by exploiting the strange quantum correlations found in entanglement, players of games like the magic square game can coordinate their answers with greater exactness and win the game more than 89 percent of the time.
They’ve shown that not only do Bell’s games imply the reality of entanglement, but some games have the power to imply a whole lot more – like whether there is any limit to the number of configurations the universe can take.
Slofstra’s work suggests a way to test the distinction: Play a game that can only be won 100 percent of the time if the universe allows for infinite-dimensional state spaces.

The orginal article.

Summary of “John Bolton: Trump’s Shrewd National Security Adviser”

With a president not only prone to bold gestures but incapable of any other kind, Bolton’s role as national security adviser is becoming one for which no one ever thought him suited: a moderating influence.
Bolton is Trump’s third national security adviser.
In October, Trump called Bolton “Mike” at a press conference, perhaps confusing him with the golden-maned singer-songwriter Michael Bolton.
Notice a familiar rhythm: Trump says something, Bolton says he agrees, then Bolton reinterprets Trump to mean the opposite of what he said and pushes to implement his reinterpretation, presumably with Trump’s blessing.
Bolton sometimes sounds less like a national security adviser than a lawyer clawing back the utterances of an uncontrollable client.
Bolton urged me to look at Trump’s “Actual record and formal statements.” “What Trump said was ‘Are we a collective defense organization or are we not?’ Collective means collective,” Bolton said, pointing out that NATO members had started spending more on their militaries.
“I am the national security adviser-not the national security decider,” Bolton told me on three separate occasions.
Bolton may have mind-melded with Trump better than McMaster did, but inevitably the president and his national security adviser will disagree, both on style and on substance.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Could a massive aquifer beneath the Mojave Desert solve California’s water problem?”

It also is among several critical decisions on water policy facing the new Democratic governor, Gavin Newsom, who in his first State of the State address in February highlighted what he called California’s “Massive water challenges.” He already has scaled back one major water project – turning a proposed twin-tunnel pipeline to run beneath the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta into a single tunnel – and will soon consider changes in river-water allocations for urban and agricultural users.
Cadiz would draw water from the ground, pump it east through a proposed 43-mile pipeline to the Colorado River Aqueduct, then sell it to water districts as far as 200 miles away.
The two main questions: How quickly will the aquifer recharge with water if drawn down? And is the aquifer connected to other sources of groundwater, namely a spring that serves as an important watering ground for wandering bighorn sheep, the threatened desert tortoise and migratory birds?
A required environmental assessment, paid for by the company, found that 32,000 acre-feet of water would naturally recharge the aquifer each year, an 18,000-acre-foot annual deficit that Cadiz acknowledges would last for the project’s 50-year life.
The water district, which serves 56,000 homes in Orange County, has signed on to buy 5,000 acre-feet of Cadiz water each year at a cost of about $5.8 million.
Ferons said the district’s local water supply is too high in salt, and, like investors, California water districts are increasingly looking to diversify their sources, for safety reasons.
Most of the district’s water is imported at a time when the threat of earthquakes to the aqueducts and pipes that constitute California’s elaborate water circulatory system is a major concern to state officials responsible for the supply.
In a December letter to Cadiz, the state Department of Fish and Wildlife cited recent studies, dismissed by the company as paid for by environmentalists, that show the same chemical signatures in the spring water and in water drawn from the Fenner Basin.

The orginal article.

Summary of “After Stinging Presidential Loss, Popular Vote Movement Gains Momentum In States”

After Stinging Presidential Loss, Popular Vote Movement Gains Momentum In States Democrats in Colorado and New Mexico are pushing ahead with legislation to pledge their 14 collective electoral votes to the winner of the national popular vote – no matter who wins each state.
Democrats in Colorado and New Mexico are pushing ahead with legislation to pledge their 14 collective electoral votes to the winner of the national popular vote – no matter who wins each state.
Democrats have been stung by the fact that President Trump’s victory marked the second time in five cycles that a Democrat lost the presidency while winning the popular vote.
Proponents of the national popular vote measures have argued that it’s not political, but Republicans, who have benefited in recent elections from the Electoral College system, disagree.
“Right now, if you live in a state that is not a battleground state, then your vote doesn’t count nearly as much.”
Republican state Sen. Jerry Sonnenberg, who represents the plains east of Denver, worries about the impact of a popular vote on rural America.
Across the country, pollsters have seen a steep drop in Republican support for a popular vote for president since 2016.
Still, he expects a series of lawsuits if enough of the National Popular Vote efforts went into effect.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The caliphate’s final days: Inside ISIS’ last stronghold in Baghouz, Syria”

AL-HOL, SYRIA – At the end, the Islamic State is little more than a hamlet of tents, pitched in panic between U.S. bombing raids.
As U.S.-backed forces surround the last square mile of Islamic State territory, preparing for a final assault on the eastern Syrian village of Baghouz, people who have escaped describe a desperate scrabble for survival in the dying days of the statelet.
“The commanders were getting more withdrawn and telling us to stay where we were and keep shooting,” said Sadah, a 15-year-old Yazidi boy kidnapped by the Islamic State in 2014 and later pressed into staffing an outpost to defend Baghouz.
At its height, the Islamic State’s caliphate covered an area the size of Britain, straddling the Syria-Iraq border, and its propaganda sold a dream of Islamic paradise.
By last week, there was only one dusty path out of the Islamic State, and hundreds of fighters and civilians had trudged along it, toward the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces backed by the U.S. military, and then were sent hundreds of miles to refugee camps or prisons.
Both President Trump and SDF officers have said a victory is imminent over the Islamic State and the several hundred fighters still believed to be in Baghouz.
We left,” said Lina Mohamed Mahmoud, a 17-year-old from the Islamic State’s onetime capital of Raqqa, Syria.
In Syria, U.S.-backed forces launch battle for last Islamic State foothold.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How the vegan food trend made a star of the pungent jackfruit”

Thousands of miles from this tropical forest habitat, in food trucks in Los Angeles, vegan eateries in London – and now even at Pizza Hut- jackfruit consumption is surging among diners looking for an ethical alternative to meat.
Jackfruit is renowned for its meaty texture but the cumbersome fruit comes in many guises, I learned in the hills around Kochi city, at the farm of VA Thomas, Kerala’s one-man jackfruit encyclopedia.
For lunch, Thomas served us dry jackfruit, dehydrated jackfruit pieces, fresh jackfruit and boiled jackfruit mashed with turmeric and grated coconut.
Food researchers are trumpeting the potential for jackfruit to become a staple crop on a warming planet.
“The thing about jackfruit is that it’s huge – one of the biggest tree fruits in the world,” said Danielle Nierenberg, president of the Food Tank, a Washington DC-based food study institute.
In May 2018, the Kerala government declared jackfruit the state’s official fruit, with the winning slogan: “Jackfruit is the best fruit. Its fruit has innumerable good qualities.” It is now being processed into ice-cream, crisps and juices.
He signals for a waiter, who brings a plate of fish fried in batter made with one-quarter jackfruit flour.
Another study, to be presented in Rome in April, claims the use of diabetes medication fell in Kerala during jackfruit season last year, when the government was heavily promoting the consumption of its new state fruit.

The orginal article.

Summary of “All the Presidents’ Meals – Foreign Policy”

Foreign Policy has collected menus for White House state dinners dating back nearly 86 years.
Outside of state dinners, she-with the help of her housekeeper Henrietta Nesbitt, who oversaw the kitchen-transformed the White House kitchens into a model of economy, to her husband’s dismay, priding herself on keeping meals under 10 cents.
As U.S. global commitments increased, Europe stabilized enough to welcome visitors again, and the American tourist became a new stereotype, a fresh appreciation of foreign cuisine also started making its way back to the dinner table.
Wines came predominantly from France, but at his state dinner for Peruvian President Manuel Prado Ugarteche on Sept. 19, 1961, Kennedy became the first president to serve state dinner guests a wine from the United States: Almaden pinot noir.
Befitting one of the most ambitious presidents of the 20th century, Johnson also holds the record for most state dinners: a staggering 54.
Ford, who promised to restore dignity to the White House, also used state dinners as a way to reassure foreign leaders.
Not only did he host more state dinners in a single year than any other president-16 in 1977-but on Sept. 7 of that year he also hosted a state dinner with the most guests of honor in history, honoring 27 different Latin American countries in recognition of the United States signing the treaties transferring ownership of the Panama Canal.
Like Eisenhower’s state dinners, the elder Bush’s 32 such gatherings were a transitional phase between eras of state dinner cuisine.

The orginal article.

Summary of “‘It will take off like a wildfire’: The unique dangers of the Washington state measles outbreak”

Amber Gorrow is afraid to leave her house with her infant son because she lives at the epicenter of Washington state’s worst measles outbreak in more than two decades.
Almost a quarter of kids in Clark County, Wash., a suburb of Portland, Ore., go to school without measles, mumps and rubella immunizations, and Washington Gov. Jay Inslee recently declared a state of emergency amid concern that things could rapidly spin out of control.
Libertarian-leaning lawmakers have bowed to public pressure to relax state laws to exempt virtually any child from state vaccination requirements whose parents object.
“Measles is exquisitely contagious. If you have an under-vaccinated population, and you introduce a measles case into that population, it will take off like a wildfire.”
Gorrow, who lives in a middle-class bedroom community, says the outbreak has changed nearly every aspect of her life, which is now laser-focused on avoiding contact with children who may carry measles germs.
The same day Inslee declared a state of emergency, Washington state Rep. Paul Harris, a Republican from Vancouver who represents Clark County, introduced a bill that would prohibit all exemptions from the measles vaccine requirement save for medical and religious reasons.
Officials in anti-vaccination ‘hotspot’ near Portland declare an emergency over measles outbreak.
Anti-vaccine activists spark a state’s worst measles outbreak in decades.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Thieves Target Gun Stores”

Most gun stores face no legal requirements to secure the weapons they sell.
Most important, he knew that gun stores in North Carolina had few security precautions, which made stealing from them easy.
Scott’s spree tracks with a national trend: in recent years, burglaries at gun shops and other federal firearms licensees have increased, from three hundred and seventy-seven, in 2012, to five hundred and seventy-seven, in 2017.
Only four states-California, Connecticut, Minnesota, and New Jersey-have enacted laws requiring gun stores to impose physical security measures, but even those regulations tend to be narrow.
Rules adopted in 1971 require gun shops in the state to obtain approval for their security plans from the superintendent of the state police before opening for business, and to keep weapons locked up.
At the federal level, Senator Dick Durbin and Representative Brad Schneider, both Democrats of Illinois, introduced bills in 2017 that would have penalized gun stores that failed to lock up their inventories, but the bills languished in committee for more than a year without a vote from the Republican-controlled Congress.
Since taking control in 2011, Republican legislators have made it easier to acquire machine guns, allowed concealed firearms in bars and restaurants, and authorized gun owners to lock weapons in their cars on public-school grounds.
Pricey Harrison, a Democratic state representative from Greensboro, told me that she thinks gun theft should be a nonpartisan issue.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The War-Torn Web – Foreign Policy”

Despite refusing to sign as sovereigns, the prominence of American companies in pushing for international internet agreements amid its governmental absence highlights one of Macron’s key points: “The internet is a space currently managed by a technical community of private players,” noted one source from the Macron government, quoted by Reuters, “But it’s not governed. So now that half of humanity is online, we need to find new ways to organize the internet.”
Its short, doomed life was one indicator of the beginning of the next era of the internet, one where states actively seek to influence global internet governance and norms through a variety of tactics.
The gulfs in governance and action opening up and the active efforts to influence them indicate the world is coming into a new-and worrying-phase of the internet’s development, one we’ve dubbed the Internet’s Warring States Period.
Each government’s attempt to define the rules either projects its policy globally or fragments what was once the common ground of some aspect of the internet.
The Internet’s Warring States Period is similarly shaping the role of states in the global internet and defining what constitutes acceptable digitalpolitik, which changes by a country’s position and market influence.
We should expect more regionalist approaches in the wake of the GDPR, such as the African Union’s release of internet infrastructure security guidelines and the Pacific Alliance’s evolving agenda on digital governance and policy.
Brazil, with the fifth-largest internet population in the world, regularly leads in technology initiatives like its “Internet of things” policy and its Civil Rights Framework for the Internet, even as the latter has been used to justify blocking WhatsApp.
Without harmonizing institutions, the internet’s warring states are engaged in a brinkmanship approach to policy evolution, where each proposal is both progress and an extraterritorial incursion.

The orginal article.