Summary of “A Long, Lasting Influence on Educational Equity”

Today, College Bound serves more than 600 students in their direct-service program, another 150 through their partnership with St. Louis Community College, and 250 more students indirectly through their Get Your Prep On college preparatory curriculum, FAFSA completion, and college counselor engagement.
“We are able to commit to our students for a long period of time and with a depth that other organizations normally aren’t able to,” College Bound executive director Scott Baier says.
“The sad part is there are many students like me, who are smart and eager to attend college, but who are prevented from doing so because they are scared by the cost of college or not completing forms on time. First-generation students are told, ‘Go to college and change your life circumstances,’ but it’s not that simple.”
College Bound has two full-time mental health professionals on staff, both of whom are licensed clinical social workers, in addition to two practicum students, who work with many of the College Bound students, 93 percent of whom are people of color.
“Students who have a positive educational experience in the summer tend to start off well-prepared, ready, and engaged for school, whereas students who don’t have that experience take until about January to make that transition.”
The bond between mentor and student is evident; as the parents and students gathered in the MBA cafeteria before the breakout sessions, filling plastic plates with Boston Market chicken, green beans, and mac ‘n’ cheese, excited students hugged their mentors and introduced them to family members.
Several students wore Eagles T-shirt jerseys; Philadelphia is a sports town, and the Eagles have long brought together the diverse population in a way that few other teams, organizations, or leaders have done.
The focus is on the work that remains in offering educational equity throughout the United States, whether for young children, high schoolers, or college students.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Atavist Magazine”

Monden arrived at the hospital desperate for word of Scout’s condition.
Scout’s parents were en route from Lilburn, Georgia, a 30-minute drive from Atlanta.
Scout even brought Punja home to Lilburn, where Punja greeted Scout’s mom with fake yellow flowers because, she said, they would never die.
Scout stands in the back of the group wearing a tie-dyed shirt, shoulder-length hair parted to one side, and a slight, inscrutable smile above a dimpled chin.
The Georgia Bureau of Investigation had been tasked with investigating the shooting, and in a much quoted statement released on Sunday, September 17, the day after the incident, it described Scout as “Armed with a knife.” The phrase echoed through local news broadcasts, and in a headline The Chicago Tribune described Scout as a “Knife-wielding” student.
One of Scout’s roommates couldn’t bear to stay in her campus apartment, where everything from the posters on the wall to an alarm clock on a table reminded her of Scout.
Second, campus police carried guns and pepper spray but not Tasers, which the Schultzes’ lawyer described as “Insane.” Third, Tyler Beck, the officer who’d killed Scout, hadn’t received training to navigate situations involving people in psychiatric crisis.
People who believed Scout’s death was unjustified were infuriated and galvanized by what they saw as a perfect storm of institutional failures: Members of the GTPD were insufficiently trained and had used excessive force against a queer student suffering because of the campus’s deficient mental-health resources.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Incredible, Rage-Inducing Inside Story of America’s Student Debt Machine – Mother Jones”

President Richard Nixon did two things: He expanded a federally funded grant program for low-income students, which became known as the Pell Grant, and he created an entity called Sallie Mae that used Treasury funds to buy up student loans from banks.
Eventually, Clinton planned, every new student loan would be a Direct Loan.
In 2004, Sallie Mae even made an aggressive but unsuccessful bid to buy PHEAA. More than a decade after their creation, Direct Loans still only made up 25 percent of all student loans.
Outrage over student loan debt powered Sen. Bernie Sanders’ upstart campaign for president.
According to Student Debt Crisis, a borrower advocacy organization, this year the total amount of outstanding student loan debt topped $1.5 trillion.
Miscounting payments is a very common problem with FedLoan, according to Persis Yu, director of the Student Loan Borrower Assistance Project at the National Consumer Law Center.
“There’s a number of borrowers in a constant state of anxiety,” Adam Minsky, a Boston-based lawyer who specializes in student loan issues, told me.
Republican opponents of loan forgiveness programs say people deserve the debt they have incurred-if you took out the loans, now you have to repay them, and if your degree didn’t guarantee you a lucrative profession, you shouldn’t have gotten the degree.

The orginal article.

Summary of “An N.Y.U. Sexual-Harassment Case Has Spurred a Necessary Conversation About #MeToo”

Of all the accusations that have come out in the era of #MeToo, the case of Avital Ronell may be the messiest and most difficult to digest.
In July, 2017, two years after finishing his studies at N.Y.U., Reitman finally filed a complaint with the university against Ronell, accusing her of sexual assault, sexual harassment, stalking, and retaliation.
According to the lawsuit, another student had filed a Title IX complaint against Ronell for racial discrimination; Ronell allegedly “Admitted to Reitman of having spread untruths about the complainant at other universities in an effort to sabotage the student’s career. Ronell refused to speak the complainant’s name and instead referred to her as ‘the skunk’ to other students and faculty, and openly stated to Reitman and others that she would ruin the student’s career for having reported her.”
This is the good news about Ronell’s case: it is motivating some very smart people to think publicly about sexual harassment.
Another early defender of Ronell, Lisa Duggan, a professor of social and cultural analysis at N.Y.U. and the author of several important texts on queer sexuality, used the case to discuss what passes for justice in the #MeToo era: punishment doled out to individuals by private corporations.
Perhaps the best piece on the Ronell case was written by Amy Elizabeth Robinson, a writer and a former academic.
The Ronell case, in which punishment has been meted out but few people seem to have been convinced, satisfied, or even appeased, serves, so far, as a case for the impossibility of justice.
Perhaps in all the thinking and rethinking it has engendered, the Ronell case has moved the #MeToo movement one step closer to failing better.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Skim reading is the new normal. The effect on society is profound”

My research depicts how the present reading brain enables the development of some of our most important intellectual and affective processes: internalized knowledge, analogical reasoning, and inference; perspective-taking and empathy; critical analysis and the generation of insight.
Research surfacing in many parts of the world now cautions that each of these essential “Deep reading” processes may be under threat as we move into digital-based modes of reading.
In this hinge moment between print and digital cultures, society needs to confront what is diminishing in the expert reading circuit, what our children and older students are not developing, and what we can do about it.
If the dominant medium advantages processes that are fast, multi-task oriented and well-suited for large volumes of information, like the current digital medium, so will the reading circuit.
Many readers now use an F or Z pattern when reading in which they sample the first line and then word-spot through the rest of the text.
When the reading brain skims like this, it reduces time allocated to deep reading processes.
The possibility that critical analysis, empathy and other deep reading processes could become the unintended “Collateral damage” of our digital culture is not a simple binary issue about print vs digital reading.
We need to cultivate a new kind of brain: a “Bi-literate” reading brain capable of the deepest forms of thought in either digital or traditional mediums.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Have elite US colleges lost their moral purpose altogether?”

In the fall of 2015, student groups from 80 universities across the US demanded that their universities take action, as one statement put it, to ‘end systemic and structural racism on campus’.
The commentator, who claimed to teach at a US university and remained anonymous, warned that, however ‘exotic’ such language might ‘ring in [German] ears’, these developments would find their way across the Atlantic and into German universities.
In 1862, the US Congress passed the Morrill Act, which generated significant funds for colleges and universities.
In 1911, Weber told an assembly of German professors in Dresden that the new US institutions had adopted a German university model but adapted it to a different culture and to different ends, and their scope now rivalled even the grandest of German universities.
As American colleges and universities transformed into research universities and, as Weber put it, became more ‘metropolitan’ – loosening or even severing their denominational affiliations, replacing the classical curriculum with an elective one, relaxing compulsory chapel attendance – they maintained their commitment to the ethical formation of their students.
Within almost all colleges and universities, with the exception of some religiously affiliated institutions, moral education has shifted from the curriculum – from classrooms and labs – to extracurricular student life.
The transformation of American colleges and universities into corporate concerns is particularly evident in the maze of offices, departments and agencies that manage the moral lives of students.
Over the course of the 20th century, America’s elite colleges and universities continued to out-compete, out-perform and quite simply out-capital not only their German predecessors but almost all institutions of higher education around the world.

The orginal article.

Summary of “On Not Being Able to Read”

There’s a specific mechanism by which legal culture, especially within the law school, transforms these sacrifices into virtue.
Early in the program, law students are introduced to the case method, the cornerstone of legal pedagogy.
Any legal argument is bound by law’s incremental development: you cannot make a point without citing its precedent in previous cases.
Though students have to take a certain number of black-letter law courses to fulfill the dictates of the degree, I skated by on the bare minimum, loading my plate instead with ones that took law itself as an object of study: Law and Literature, Racial Politics and the Law, Statutes and Statutory Interpretation.
In the first year of law school, students are enrolled in a mandatory course on Legal Research and Writing.
If you’ve abandoned the idea of legal practice, you’re left with a mix of skills and affects that the profession will tell you is bad currency; among lawyers, common sense is that you don’t go to law school if you don’t want to become one of them.
In adopting the law’s structure but refusing its closure, Williams steals the law’s own resources to produce a vicious critique of its logic.
In collaboration with a like-minded professor, I developed the Race and Law reading group, an interdisciplinary gathering based in the Faculty of Law.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why we hate using email but love sending texts”

As short message service and other forms of text messaging have grown to become such a core part of the way we interact with each other, they have done so at the expense of the form of digital communication that preceded it email.
Our love affair with email was short-lived and many of us now have a genuine dislike of our inbox, preferring to tap out text messages until our thumbs ache.
So why have we come to loathe email so much? Why is it such a source of anxiety, tedium, guilt? Why do we hate emails, but love texts?
“You had to memorise other people’s also dumb email addresses – and you had like, five people that had email, and you all felt really cool. That’s how it used to be – it was not very widely known.”
The ratio of people using email for fun versus those using it for work has flipped since the 1990s, according to Morrison.
Generation Z won’t kill email dead – some estimates show that 85% of Gen Z view email as an essential form of communication, compared to 89% of millennials and 92% of Gen X. But those under the age of 22 definitely use email differently.
“We are losing one thing as email declines – and that’s no one really owns email,” says Ivory.
In reality text messages are only likely be doomed if they become tied to work in the way email has.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Many poor kids who get into college don’t enroll. Here’s why.”

Every spring, millions of students graduate high school with every intention of attending college.
Research by Benjamin Castleman and Lindsay Page shows that among students from a lower socioeconomic background, about one in five who planned to attend college don’t actually enroll.
Much of the gap between poor and affluent students comes from the type of college they choose to attend.
This intervention had a pretty drastic impact on keeping poor students on the path to college.
We can also smooth the path once disadvantaged students get to college This summer melt intervention is yet another example of the small nudges that can help disadvantaged students get on an even playing field with everyone else.
In another experiment, Stanford researcher Greg Walton and his colleague Geoff Cohen theorized that disadvantaged students were concerned about belonging in their college environment – and this social concern was threatening to the point of hurting their academic performance.
Northwestern University’s Nicole Stephens found that first-generation college students – much like black students – struggle to keep up academically with students who have college-educated parents.
So before the semester, she had students sit in on a session about the importance of their class backgrounds and how it will shape their college experience, which she calls “Difference education.” The idea was that this would help them contextualize why they may be experiencing college differently.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Summer melt: why so many poor kids get into college but don’t enroll”

Every spring, millions of students graduate high school with every intention of attending college.
Research by Benjamin Castleman and Lindsay Page shows that among students from a lower socioeconomic background, about one in five who planned to attend college don’t actually enroll.
Much of the gap between poor and affluent students comes from the type of college they choose to attend.
In one experiment, Page and Castleman had counselors proactively reach out to college-bound students during the summer.
This intervention had a pretty drastic impact on keeping poor students on the path to college.
We can also smooth the path once disadvantaged students get to college This summer melt intervention is yet another example of the small nudges that can help disadvantaged students get on an even playing field with everyone else.
Northwestern University’s Nicole Stephens found that first-generation college students – much like black students – struggle to keep up academically with students who have college-educated parents.
So before the semester, she had students sit in on a session about the importance of their class backgrounds and how it will shape their college experience, which she calls “Difference education.” The idea was that this would help them contextualize why they may be experiencing college differently.

The orginal article.