Summary of “All You Need To Know About Stoicism In One Table”

The best tool he’s found so far also happens to be the source of his best business decisions, he claims: Stoicism.
We hear the right buzz words, like success, wisdom and living a good life, but then words like virtue, fortitude, and providence enter the picture, and we’d rather flip right back to Youtube.
When people like Tim call Stoicism “An operating system for thriving in high-stress environments; for making better decisions,” what they’re doing is translating to help us pick up the thread.It’s always the right time for Stoicism, but it’s always wearing the wrong dress.
You can find everything you need to know about Stoicism in a single table.
Three For ThreeIf only we dare to look just a little closer, we can instantly see that Stoicism is, above all, about simplicity - and a philosophy built around this idea can, by definition, not be complicated.
You really only need to do one thing to become a Stoic: learn to recognize what’s in your control and what’s not.
What Philosophy Is Really ForFurther selling Stoicism to the audience, Tim says it “Decreases emotional reactivity, which can be a superpower.” Given it could save a student from suicide as much as it could keep an NBA star from losing his temper, he claims the stakes are very, very high.
This is something even fewer people understand about Stoicism than its simplicity: It’s a philosophy of happiness.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Exercise Alters Our Microbiome. Is That One Reason It’s So Good for Us?”

Those studies have been associational and could not show whether exercise actually altered microbes or how any microbial changes might later affect health.
So for the new study, which was published in November in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, scientists from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign decided to track the guts of people who undertook an unfamiliar exercise routine.
Now the scientists wished to see if exercise would likewise affect the functioning of microbes in people.
The scientists collected more samples and retested everyone, and then asked the volunteers to stop exercising altogether.
Most of the volunteers had larger concentrations of these short-chain fatty acids in their intestines after exercise, along with the microbes that produce them.
Still, the study’s overall results suggest that even a few weeks of exercise can alter the makeup and function of people’s microbiomes, says Jeffrey Woods, a professor of kinesiology and community health at the University of Illinois who conducted the study, along with his doctoral student Jacob Allen and others.
In theory, Dr. Woods continues, these changes could contribute to some of the broader health benefits of exercise, such as its ability to reduce inflammation throughout the body.
Additional study could also help to determine whether and how people’s microbiomes might continue to change if they exercise for longer than six weeks – a goal that all of us, of course, have resolved to do in the coming year, right?

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Do Cartoon Villains Speak in Foreign Accents?”

Gidney, an associate professor in child study and human development at Tufts University who specializes in sociolinguistics, saw Scar’s accent as part of a disturbing pattern in the film: Foreign accents and non-standard dialects were being used to voice all of the “Bad” characters.
The kicker: In many of the cases studied, villains were given foreign accents.
The study found that most of the heroic characters in their research sample were American-sounding; only two heroes had foreign accents.
The most wicked foreign accent of all was British English, according to the study.
From Scar to Aladdin’s Jafar, the study found that British is the foreign accent most commonly used for villains.
Henchmen or assistants to villains often spoke in dialects associated with low socioeconomic status, including working-class Eastern European dialects or regional American dialects such as “Italian-American gangster” None of the villains in the sample studied seemed to speak Standard American English; when they did speak with an American accent, it was always in regional dialects associated with low socioeconomic status.
“What general sociolinguistic theory would suggest,” Gidney added, “Is that American adults tend to evaluate British dialect as sounding smarter.” Funny characters, on the other hand, often speak in German or Slavic accents, as well as in regional American dialects associated with the white working class.
To Gidney, the common denominator in all of these vague foreign accents is “The binary distinction of ‘like us'” versus “Not like us.” “Villainy is marked just by sounding different,” he added.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The experts’ guide to making”

Don’t think of it as a New Year resolution, says Charles Duhigg, the author of The Power of Habit – think of it as a new year plan.
Whether you are making a new habit from scratch or changing an old habit, decide on the cue and the reward.
The cue could be a time, a place or a feeling, while the reward must be instantaneous, explains Wendy Wood, provost professor of psychology and business at the University of Southern California: “Don’t buy a new pair of shoes at the end of the week – that works for our conscious mind, which is not the neuromechanism behind habits. The reward needs to be immediate, something that makes the behaviour fun.”
Chris Armitage, professor of health psychology at the University of Manchester, explains: “This is a technique that is specifically structured to take advantage of the ways in which habits are formed to change behaviour. The structure is ‘if-then’.” Say your resolution is to run half a mile on Monday mornings.
A recent study showed that people who travelled 8km to the gym went once a month, whereas people who travelled 6km went five or more times a month.
Dr Jessamy Hibberd, a clinical psychologist, says “The biggest obstacle to new habits is self-criticism. Study after study shows that self-criticism is correlated with less motivation and worse self-control, in contrast with being kind or supportive to yourself, as you would to a friend – especially when confronted with failure.”
One study found that simple habits form more quickly in the morning than in the evening.
Rubin says it is crucial to avoid listening to the excuses that make our habits falter, such as the false choice loophole: “I can’t go on a run tomorrow because I have to do X.” Recognising them in advance can make them less powerful, she explains: “That’s the thing about loopholes – when you realise you’re doing it, you’re much more likely to resist.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Year in Fitness: Exercise, Add Intensity, Live to See Another Year”

His efforts help to belie a number of entrenched beliefs about older people, including that physical performance and aerobic capacity inevitably decline with age and that intense exercise is inadvisable, if not impossible, for the elderly.
So it was another study this year that to my mind provided the most persuasive evidence that strenuous exercise alters how we age.
In younger people who exercised this way, almost 275 genes were firing differently now than they had been before the exercise.
In effect, the intense exercise seemed to be changing muscle cells in ways that theoretically could affect biological aging.
During relatively moderate exercise, singing becomes difficult.
During intense exercise, you will find it difficult to speak without gasping.
If you have barely exercised in recent years, five minutes of climbing stairs will constitute an intense – and effective – workout.
Several ingratiating studies this year indicated that luxuriating in warm water aids in recovery from strenuous exercise and also, surprisingly, helps us to acclimate to hot-weather workouts.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Fish May Be Good for the Growing Brain”

Children who eat fish tend to sleep better and score higher on IQ tests, a new study has found.
Using self-administered questionnaires, researchers collected information on fish consumption among 541 Chinese boys and girls ages 9 to 11.
Parents reported their children’s sleep duration, how often they awoke at night, daytime sleepiness and other sleep patterns.
Compared to the one-quarter of children who ate fish twice a month or less, those who had it twice a week or more scored an average of 4.8 points higher on IQ tests.
The study, in Scientific Reports, also found that the more fish a child ate, the fewer his or her sleep problems.
There may be a chain of effects: fish consumption is associated with better sleep, and better sleep is associated with better cognitive performance.
“Fish helps with sleep, and this results in higher IQ,” said the lead author, Jianghong Liu, a professor in the school of nursing at the University of Pennsylvania.
“If parents want their kids to be healthy and high performing in school, they should put fish on the table.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Neuroscience of Intelligence: An Interview with Richard Haier”

Richard Haier is a Professor Emeritus at the University of California Irvine and is the author of the Neuroscience of Intelligence published by Cambridge University Press.
You’ve spent forty years studying intelligence and have compiled your knowledge into a new book accessible to the general reader called The Neuroscience of Intelligence, which looks fascinating from its précis.
Firstly, can you tell us how you became interested in intelligence research, and how you came about studying intelligence through neuroimaging?
This is why neuroscience is starting to focus attention on intelligence.
Our first PET study and many subsequent studies suggest that high intelligence is associated with more efficient brains; there are also indications that more gray matter in certain brain areas and more connections among brain areas are associated with more intelligence.
Since the first neuroimaging studies of intelligence, researchers have been trying to predict intelligence test scores from images.
Can the same methods to study intelligence through neuroimaging also be used to study personality traits and creativity?
Neuroscience approaches have already made intelligence research more mainstream and ready for inclusion in policy discussions.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Calcium and vitamin D supplements may not protect against bone fractures”

The conclusion was clear: vitamin D and calcium supplements do not seem to be warranted to prevent bone breaks or hip fractures in those adults.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, an influential federal advisory body, has raised questions about these supplements since 2013, when it issued recommendations saying evidence to support the benefit of the supplements in older adults without osteoporosis or vitamin D deficiency was “Insufficient.”
Vitamin D is not a vitamin but a hormone that is produced in reaction to sunlight and seems to have many different roles in the body related to bones, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, immune function and reproductive health.
Calcium and vitamin D have been known to be important to bone maintenance for a long time, and the best way to get the daily recommended doses are the natural way.
The issue is many Americans don’t get enough calcium or vitamin D – which is why the debate over supplements has become so important.
While that report has few explicit mentions of supplements, the use of supplements seems assumed, and it includes a lot of discussion about the importance of setting and following upper limits for intake of vitamin D and calcium.
“As North Americans take more supplements and eat more of foods that have been fortified with vitamin D and calcium, it becomes more likely that people consume high amounts of these nutrients,” the group wrote, warning of the possibility of kidney and tissue damage from overconsumption.
The new study did not look at the benefits or risks of vitamin D supplements on other conditions, but previous studies have suggested they can lower risks for diabetes and certain cancers.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Politics Moves Fast. Peer Review Moves Slow. What’s A Political Scientist To Do?”

On aggregate, 100 studies that have been peer-reviewed are going to produce higher-quality results than 100 that haven’t been, said Justin Esarey, a political science professor at Rice University who has studied the effects of peer review on social science research.
That creates dueling incentives for political science: Is it more important to get work into the public while it is most relevant, or is it more important to go through the often slow process of peer review and hope that makes the work more accurate? Ten or 15 years ago, the answer would have clearly been to wait for peer review, said Nicholas Valentino, professor of political science at the University of Michigan.
Both involved research that is deeply relevant to current political news, and – according to researchers I spoke with – both are flawed in ways that peer review might have caught.
“If you waited until an article has actually been published you’re talking about a year and a half, maybe two years before the information is out there.” Political science isn’t the only field where publication before peer review is increasingly common: Biologists now “Pre-publish” more than 1,000 new articles every month, more than 10 times the monthly average of a decade ago.
Nor is political science the only field where researchers can struggle with long wait times before their work is published through the traditional peer review process.
This issue with timing, combined with the desire to make research results available when they are most relevant to the public discourse, helps explain why there doesn’t seem to be a strong consensus within political science about whether releasing data before peer review is a good idea.
They told me that bypassing peer review was sometimes necessary, enabling scientists to get publicly funded research to the public when it was most important and even improving research by allowing peers to weigh in, critique one another and craft better papers before a formal peer review.
Most of those same scientists also believed there were serious risks to bypassing peer review, and that those risks were particularly relevant for political science.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Sitting May Be Bad for Your Heart”

No research had ever examined whether sitting was associated with high troponin levels.
So for the new study, published in Circulation, the researchers turned to existing data from the Dallas Heart Study, a large, ongoing examination of cardiac health among a group of ethnically diverse men and women, overseen by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
The researchers pulled information about more than 1,700 of these participants, excluding any who had heart disease or symptoms of heart failure, such as chest pain or shortness of breath.
The people who moved the most tended to have lower amounts of troponin in their blood, although the benefits statistically were slight.
Overall, sitting was more strongly associated with unhealthy troponin levels than exercise was with desirable amounts.
Of course, this was an observational study and can show only that sitting is linked to high troponin, not that it causes troponins to rise.
“Sedentary behavior is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and fat deposition in the heart, all of which can lead to injury to heart cells,” he says.
He and his colleagues are conducting a number of follow-up studies to look at whether sitting less, exercising more, or both affect troponin levels and the risk for subsequent heart failure, he says.

The orginal article.