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My friend Karen says her son Christopher’s devotion to garbage trucks began when he was around 18 months old.
All day, he would talk about garbage trucks, draw pictures of garbage trucks and watch videos about garbage trucks On his birthday, Christopher had a garbage truck cake.
The subjects of interest can range from garbage trucks to excavators to this personal injury lawyer from New Orleans.
According to a Yale study, boys have intense interests much more commonly than girls.
A 2008 study found that sustained intense interests, particularly in a conceptual domain like dinosaurs, can help children develop increased knowledge and persistence, a better attention span, and deeper information-processing skills.
There’s decades of research to back that up: Three separate studies have found that older children with intense interests tend to be of above-average intelligence.
One mom in the Yale study told researchers that her 5-year-old daughter had “An extremely unusual interest in bodies and injuries,” and so she would sometimes, reluctantly, agree to stop the car so they could examine road kill.
In the Yale study, when researchers followed up with parents, they reported that the interests lasted between six months and three years.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Inside The Voucher Schools That Teach L. Ron Hubbard, But Say They’re Not Scientologist”

Garrett Cantrell, who is not a Scientologist, recalled his time at the school as he sat near Clearwater’s harbor, surrounded by Scientologist retreat centers.
Clearwater Academy International is one of dozens of schools and tutoring centers in the U.S. that use learning materials based on the ideas of L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of the church of Scientology.
Five of these schools and tutoring centers, including Clearwater Academy, receive public funding through voucher or tax credit scholarship programs, HuffPost has found.
HuffPost has been investigating the schools that receive such money for students, which comes via state-level voucher or tax credit programs.
As Applied Scholastics schools continue to receive millions of dollars in taxpayer funds and are therefore more accountable to the public than typical private schools, their claims of secularity deserve heightened scrutiny.
Voucher programs provide scholarships for students to go to private schools based on criteria like income.
The Florida Department of Education’s directory of schools that participate in its voucher and tax credit programs list the four institutions that use curriculum associated with Hubbard as “Non-religious.”
The four schools in Florida that use Study Technology take advantage of the state’s voucher program specifically for students with disabilities.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Two New Drugs To Treat Migraines Could Be On The Market Soon”

Two New Drugs To Treat Migraines Could Be On The Market Soon : Shots – Health News The first drugs designed specifically to prevent migraines have been found safe and effective in studies, but aren’t yet FDA approved.
People who experience frequent migraines may soon have access to a new class of drugs.
In a pair of large studies, two drugs that tweak brain circuits involved in migraine each showed they could reduce the frequency of attacks without causing side effects, researchers report in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Current migraine prevention treatments consist primarily of drugs designed to treat high blood pressure, epilepsy and depression.
The new drugs use special antibodies to dampen a system in the brain that modulates pain.
Silberstein’s study gave monthly or quarterly injections of an antibody called fremanezumab to more than 700 patients who have chronic migraines.
In Goadsby’s study, a different antibody called erenumab produced similar results in patients who had up to 14 migraines a month.
The Food and Drug Administration is expected to review the new drugs in the next few months.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Breathing Calms Your Brain, And Other Science-Based Benefits Of Controlled Breathing”

A brief review of the latest science on breathing and the brain, and overall health, serves as a reminder that breathing deserves much closer attention – there’s more going on with each breath than we realize.
While the admonition to control breathing to calm the brain has been around for ages, only recently has science started uncovering how it works.
While it’s unclear whether you can entirely manage blood pressure with controlled breathing, research suggests that slowing your breathing increases “Baroreflex sensitivity,” the mechanism that regulates blood pressure via heart rate.
Over time, using controlled breathing to lower blood pressure and heart rate may lower risk of stroke and cerebral aneurysm, and generally decreases stress on blood vessels.
Participants were asked to count how many breaths they took over a two-minute period, which caused them to pay especially focused attention to their breathing.
A 2016 study showed for the first time that the rhythm of our breathing generates electrical activity in the brain that influences how well we remember.
Controlled breathing may boost the immune system and improve energy metabolism.
Controlled breathing triggers a parasympathetic response, according to the theory, and may also improve immune system resiliency as a “Downstream health benefit.” The study also found improvements in energy metabolism and more efficient insulin secretion, which results in better blood sugar management.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Trauma May Have Fallout Over Generations”

The daughters of women exposed to childhood trauma are at increased risk for serious psychiatric disorders, a new study concludes.
Researchers studied 46,877 Finnish children who were evacuated to Sweden during World War II, between 1940 and 1944.
They tracked the health of their 93,391 male and female offspring born from 1950 to 2010.The study, in JAMA Psychiatry, found that female children of mothers who had been evacuated to Sweden were twice as likely to be hospitalized for a psychiatric illness as their female cousins who had not been evacuated, and more than four times as likely to have depression or bipolar disorder.
There was no effect among male children, and no effect among children of either sex born to fathers who had been evacuated.
The most obvious explanation would be that girls inherited their mental illness from their mothers, but the researchers controlled for parental psychiatric disorder and the finding still held.
The lead author, Torsten Santavirta, an associate professor of economics at Uppsala University, said that it is possible that traumatic events cause changes in gene expression that can then be inherited, but the researchers did not have access to genetic information.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Breathing Calms Your Brain, And Other Science-Based Benefits Of Controlled Breathing”

A brief review of the latest science on breathing and the brain, and overall health, serves as a reminder that breathing deserves much closer attention – there’s more going on with each breath than we realize.
While the admonition to control breathing to calm the brain has been around for ages, only recently has science started uncovering how it works.
While it’s unclear whether you can entirely manage blood pressure with controlled breathing, research suggests that slowing your breathing increases “Baroreflex sensitivity,” the mechanism that regulates blood pressure via heart rate.
Over time, using controlled breathing to lower blood pressure and heart rate may lower risk of stroke and cerebral aneurysm, and generally decreases stress on blood vessels.
Participants were asked to count how many breaths they took over a two-minute period, which caused them to pay especially focused attention to their breathing.
A 2016 study showed for the first time that the rhythm of our breathing generates electrical activity in the brain that influences how well we remember.
Controlled breathing may boost the immune system and improve energy metabolism.
Controlled breathing triggers a parasympathetic response, according to the theory, and may also improve immune system resiliency as a “Downstream health benefit.” The study also found improvements in energy metabolism and more efficient insulin secretion, which results in better blood sugar management.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Babies who get more cuddles have their genetics changed for years, study shows”

A new study says it can actually affect babies at the molecular level, and the effects can last for years.
Based on the study, babies who get less physical contact and are more distressed at a young age, end up with changes in molecular processes that affect gene expression.
During the study, parents of 94 babies were asked to keep diaries of their touching and cuddling habits from five weeks after birth, as well as logging the behaviour of the infants – sleeping, crying, and so on.
This marker was lower than expected in the kids who hadn’t had much contact as babies, and had experienced more distress in their early years, compared with their actual age.
Similar findings were spotted in a study from 2013 looking at how much care and attention young rats were given from a very early age.
Gaps between epigenetic age and chronological age have been linked to health problems in the past, but again it’s too soon to draw those kind of conclusions: the scientists readily admit they don’t yet know how this will affect the kids later in life.
We are also talking about less than 100 babies in the study, but it does seem that close contact and cuddles do somehow change the body at a genetic level.
Of course it’s well accepted that human touch is good for us and our development in all kinds of ways, but this is the first study to look at how it might be changing the epigenetics of human babies.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Babies who get more cuddles have their genetics changed for years, study shows”

A new study says it can actually affect babies at the molecular level, and the effects can last for years.
Based on the study, babies who get less physical contact and are more distressed at a young age, end up with changes in molecular processes that affect gene expression.
During the study, parents of 94 babies were asked to keep diaries of their touching and cuddling habits from five weeks after birth, as well as logging the behaviour of the infants – sleeping, crying, and so on.
This marker was lower than expected in the kids who hadn’t had much contact as babies, and had experienced more distress in their early years, compared with their actual age.
Similar findings were spotted in a study from 2013 looking at how much care and attention young rats were given from a very early age.
Gaps between epigenetic age and chronological age have been linked to health problems in the past, but again it’s too soon to draw those kind of conclusions: the scientists readily admit they don’t yet know how this will affect the kids later in life.
We are also talking about less than 100 babies in the study, but it does seem that close contact and cuddles do somehow change the body at a genetic level.
Of course it’s well accepted that human touch is good for us and our development in all kinds of ways, but this is the first study to look at how it might be changing the epigenetics of human babies.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Evidence mounts that laptops are terrible for students at lectures”

Do you use a laptop or tablet to take notes during school lectures or meetings? If so, you might want to reconsider pen and paper; there’s increasing evidence that using laptops during lectures decreases learning, which can result in lower grades, reports The New York Times.
To study this, researchers at Princeton University and the University of California asked a group of students to take notes at a lecture using pen and paper while another group used laptops.
The experiment found that the students who used a laptop did not understand the lecture as well as those who wrote their notes out by hand.
The researchers hypothesized that this was because students who wrote notes by hand had to process what the lecturer was saying and, in effect, summarize what was being said to keep up with the lecture.
Another study by researchers at York University and McMaster University tested students by asking them to look up things on their laptop that were unrelated to their lecture, like cinema session times.
Unsurprisingly, the distraction caused them to remember less of the lecture, and those sitting near them were adversely affected too.
Lastly, a study from the United States Military Academy tested students’ achievements in an economics class by comparing student performance based on whether laptops or tablets were restricted, unrestricted, or not permitted at all.
The study found that the students who did not have access to a device performed significantly better than those who did.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Report claims sugar industry hid connection to heart disease for decades”

After examining the sugar industry’s internal documents, UCSF researchers said that in 1968 the Sugar Research Foundation, which has organizational ties to the Sugar Association, funded animal research to explore the link between sugar consumption and cardiovascular disease.
One of the investigation’s authors, Stanton Glantz, told the New York Times that while the documents are several decades old, they are significant, as they show how long the sugar industry has spent de-emphasizing sugar’s effect on health.
The Sugar Association criticized Tuesday’s report and said in a statement that it was not a study but a perspective, “a collection of speculations and assumptions about events that happened nearly five decades ago.” It also called the researchers “Known critics of the sugar industry.”
The sugar industry has long denied that sugar has any specific role in chronic disease, though research suggests otherwise.
The researchers’ claims that the sugar industry misled the public mirror accusations the tobacco industry faced.
Tuesday’s report isn’t the first time that decades-old documents appear to show that the sugar industry distorted medical research.
In 1964, the group now known as the Sugar Association looked for ways to soften “Negative attitudes toward sugar” after studies began linking sugar with heart disease.
The Sugar Association said the 1960s research cited in Tuesday’s report ended for three reasons: It was too expensive, it was “Significantly delayed,” and the delay interfered with the organizational restructuring of the Sugar Research Foundation, which would eventually become the International Sugar Research Foundation.

The orginal article.