Summary of “The first asteroid we’ve seen from outside our Solar System is totally bizarre”

Astronomers have confirmed that an object that recently passed by our planet is from outside our Solar System – the first interstellar asteroid that’s ever been observed.
Follow-up observations, detailed today in Nature, have found that the asteroid is dark and reddish, similar to the objects in the outer Solar System.
Astronomers also think this object – nicknamed `Oumuamua, Hawaiian for “a messenger from afar arriving first”- traveled for millions of years before stumbling upon our Solar System.
Interstellar objects are thought to pass through our Solar System pretty frequently Interstellar asteroids are thought to be rejects from other planetary systems.
When our Solar System first formed the giant planets tossed around all the smaller bits of material circulating around the Sun, some of which landed in the outer edges of the Solar System while others were ejected from our neighborhood completely.
Conceivably, ejected material from other planetary systems must make their way to our Solar System once in a while, says Meech.
Such interstellar objects are thought to pass through our Solar System pretty frequently, but they’re usually moving too fast, and they’re usually too faint to see.
With `Oumuamua, astronomers got lucky: the asteroid entered our Solar System at an angle, coming in close by the Sun, and then passed by Earth on its way out of the Solar System.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Mysterious object confirmed to be from another solar system”

Astronomers are now certain that the mysterious object detected hurtling past our sun last month is indeed from another solar system.
The certainty of its interstellar origin comes from an analysis that shows its orbit is almost impossible to achieve from within our solar system.
Since asteroids coalesce during the process of planet formation, this object can tell us something about the formation of planets around its unknown parent star.
The latest analyses with ground-based telescopes show that ‘Oumuamua is quite similar to some comets and asteroids in our own solar system.
‘Oumuamua shows that the same could be possible in other solar systems.
The other group of astronomers, led by David Jewitt, University of California Los Angeles, estimated how many other interstellar visitors like it there might be in our solar system.
It still takes them about a decade to cross our solar system and disappear back into interstellar space.
Using robotic telescopes such as Pan-STARRS, the one that detected ‘Oumuamua, to look for asteroids is a priority for astronomers as they concentrate on discovering potentially hazardous objects that could impact Earth.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A New Phone Comes Out. Yours Slows Down. A Conspiracy? No.”

Here’s what happens: When tech giants like Apple, Microsoft and Google introduce new hardware, they often release upgrades for their operating systems.
A few days before the iPhone 8 shipped in September, Apple released iOS 11 as a free software update for iPhones, including the four-year-old iPhone 5S.The technical process of upgrading from an old operating system to a new one – migrating your files, apps and settings along the way – is extremely complicated.
Start FreshTech companies make it simple to upgrade to a new operating system by pressing an “Update” button, which seamlessly migrates all your apps and data over.
A better practice is backing up all your data and purging everything from the device before installing the new operating system.
It is more likely that a quality-assurance engineer tested installing a new operating system on a blank iPhone 6, rather than an iPhone 6 with the same setup as yours.
After the operating system installation is complete, you can then safely restore your data and apps to the device from the backup.
New operating systems carry more powerful features that were designed to work better on new devices.
Resetting the device’s settings fixed the problem, but he said he would most likely buy a new iPhone soon anyway to keep up with the latest technologies.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Forget About Setting Goals. Focus on This Instead.”

For most of us, the path to those things starts by setting a specific and actionable goal.
What’s the difference between goals and systems?
If you’re a writer, your goal is to write a book.
If you completely ignored your goals and focused only on your system, would you still get results?
Let’s talk about three more reasons why you should focus on systems instead of goals.
Goals are strangely at odds with long-term progress.
That’s why systems are more valuable than goals.
Goals can provide direction and even push you forward in the short-term, but eventually a well-designed system will always win.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How India Is Moving Toward a Digital-First Economy”

At the base of the stack – and thus at the beginning of India’s story of digital transformation – is a nationwide system of digital identity, generically termed the UID system, but more often in India referred to by its project name, Aadhaar.
While the ability to authenticate identity was now digital, bank accounts and payment systems were still paper-based – requiring separate and laborious Know Your Customer validation procedures that had the result of continuing to exclude a majority of people in India from accessing the benefits of banking.
The government of India did not – and does not – conceive of the deployment of the India Stack as a purely technical undertaking, designed exclusively to improve the delivery of government services.
Rather, the India Stack is envisioned as new social infrastructure with the capacity to increase the resilience of Indian society to change, and thus to help propel India into the 21st-century digital economy.
When India underwent demonetization, the India Stack was suddenly and dramatically thrown into action.
The reward will come when India truly sheds the antiquated and inefficient tax systems that built up during the first 70 years after independence, and replaces it with the 21st-century, digitally-enabled digital alternative to which the country is currently adapting.
Already, a new entrant into telecommunications service in India has succeeded in using the India Stack to enroll 108 million consumers in 170 days with a totally paperless, mobile-centric manner – in the process achieving customer acquisition costs of less than $1 per customer, compared with the prior industry standard of $25. The process of digital disruption – whether led by government or not – creates numerous significant social challenges.
The reality is that India is moving into the future at an unprecedented rate.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Listening Is a Lost Art in Medicine. Here’s How to Rediscover It”

William Osler, often called the father of modern medicine, famously advised his students: “Just listen to your patient; he is telling you the diagnosis.” A century later, clinicians and health system leaders started tuning out the patient’s voice, turning instead to electronic health records and the latest care protocols to manage their most complicated and high-need patients.
According to the National Academy of Medicine, “High-need individuals are disproportionately older, female, white, and less educated. They are also more likely to be publicly insured, have fair-to-poor self-reported health, and be susceptible to lack of coordination within the health care system.” Overall, these patients make up just 5% of the patient population, but account for nearly half the spending on health care in the United States.
Over the past several years at Mount Sinai Health System, we’ve focused on developing a new generation of clinical services for high-need patients by drawing heavily on strategies pioneered by others across the nation, guided by the recommendations in the newly released NAM report, “Effective Care for High-Need Patients”.
In his groundbreaking book, How Doctors Think, Jerome Groopman provides harrowing examples of misdiagnoses and other negative consequences of tuning out the patient’s voice.
In one case, an emergency room doctor failed to recognize a patient was having an acute heart attack because he appeared fit and healthy and did not have any typical risk factors – even though the patient told the doctors he was having sharp chest pains.
As the NAM report points out, caring for high-need patients extends beyond their physical ailments, and into behavioral and social services they need in the neighborhoods where they live.
The system scores patients on a 1-to-10 scale based on risk-adjustment data, risk factors such as recent hospitalizations, and any relevant changes in patients’ lives that a member of the care team learns about through conversation.
In a fast-paced health care system, it is clear that patients will benefit from the work of researchers and technologists focused on data-driven technologies to improve care.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What constitutes an individual organism in biology?”

My view is that no such unified theory exists; there’s no single answer to the question: ‘What parts of the world are a part of you as a biological individual, and what parts are not?’ Different accounts of individuality pick out different boundaries, like an overlapping Venn diagram drawn on top of a network of biotic interactions.
He compared the individual units of such ‘zoophytes’ to buds on a tree; but he, like his grandfather, accepted that the buds ‘must be considered individual plants’.
Some hydrozoans live their lives as individual polyps, while others develop into complex colonies made up of many individuals.
In The Principles of Biology, Spencer wrote that a biological individual is one in which the interdependence of the parts allows it to function and respond to environmental change as a whole.
Living matter could be grouped into continuing, ‘closed, independent systems with harmonious parts’, he wrote in The Individual in the Animal Kingdom.
One of the things that Janzen pointed out in ‘What Are Dandelions and Aphids?’ was that evolutionary biologists and ecologists are talking about different things when they talk about individual dandelions and individual aphids.
These traits often correlate with being an individual, and can function as a handy marker – but they are not a reason to define something as an individual per se.
Through the lens of physiological individuality, in which discrete parts function as an integrated whole, you’re an individual who contains human parts and microbial parts.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The keys to your house belong to startups”

Several startups have business models tied to traditional keys, including offering tools to more easily copy and keep track of them.
Most of the funding has gone to companies offering digital alternatives to metal keys, including systems that tie in smartphone apps to monitor and control who gets through the door.
“People shouldn’t have to carry their keys with them all the time when they are only used one to two times a day.”
Johnson says, virtual keys give users more control.
Users can also revoke virtual keys instantly, eliminating some of the worries that come with sharing physical keys.
August closed a $25 million funding round in July, and KeyMe, which lets people make copies of physical keys using a digital image, closed on $25 million in September.
It’s not clear whether startups will dominate in key and home access innovation.
Smart lock systems don’t necessarily require giving up traditional keys.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How the US college went from pitiful to powerful”

A Presbyterian college would be more attractive to Presbyterian consumers than the Methodist college in the next town.
Until the late-19th century, nearly all presidents and most faculty at US colleges were clergymen, who were particularly attractive to college founders for two reasons.
Instead of organising a college from scratch, he convinced Iowa College to move from Davenport and assume the name Grinnell College.
I accepted the Presidency of Middlebury College, Gentlemen, with a full understanding that your Faculty was small and that in consequence a large amount of instruction would devolve upon the President – that I should be desired to promote the financial interests of the Institution, as convenience and the duties of instruction would permit, was naturally to be expected, but I could not have anticipated that the task of relieving the College from pecuniary embarrassment, and the labor and responsibility of procuring funds for endowment for books, for buildings etc, etc would devolve on me.
US college professors could not afford to have narrow expertise.
In short, the US college system in the mid-19th century was all promise and no product.
The focus on the useful arts was written into the DNA of these institutions, as an expression of the US effort to turn a college for gentlemen or intellectuals into a school for practical pursuits, with an emphasis on making things and making a living, rather than on gaining social polish or exploring the cultural heights.
Since such funding was not forthcoming in the US, graduate education and scholarly research could exist only at a modest level and only if grafted on to the hardy stock of the US undergraduate college.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Data From 3.5 Million Employees Shows How Innovation Really Works”

One of us, Dylan, has analyzed five years of data from 154 public companies covering over 3.5 million employees that have used an idea management system called Spigit.
For the millions of employees of these companies, the idea management system functions a little like Facebook – people can post ideas, get votes, deliver or respond to feedback, and develop the ideas into innovations that make a difference to the company.
The innovation teams at these companies use them to track and process all the ideas and whether the company committed to putting them into practice.
We know how many innovation challenges the companies are running, how many people are suggesting ideas, and how many ideas they suggest.
Higher ideation rates are correlated with growth and net income, most likely because companies with an innovation culture not only generate better ideas, but are organized and managed to act on them.
To succeed, a company needs to create frequent idea challenges for its employees.
Our research shows how to generate that steady stream of ideas.
Once everyone is thinking about ideas – and imagining that their cool concept might actually move the company – you get the while company effectively engaged in innovation.

The orginal article.