Summary of “The Evolution of Pleasure and Pain”

The nervous systems are in constant interaction and cooperation with the rest of the organism.
The reason why nervous systems exist in the first place is to assist the rest of the organism.
Organisms with nervous systems can image these states.
It’s important to understand that nervous systems serve the organism and not the other way around.
Once organisms got to the point of being so complex that they had an endocrine system, immune system, circulation, and central metabolism, they needed a device to coordinate all that activity.
Now, in the process of doing that, over millions of years, we have developed nervous systems that do plenty of other things that do not necessarily result in coordination of the organism’s interior, but happen to be very good at coordinating the internal world in relation to the outside world.
You do not invent a moral system or a government system alone or for yourself alone.
When the natural systems do not succeed at improved regulation, guess what? They are weeded out by evolution because they promote illness.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Beyond the Bitcoin Bubble”

To see how enormous but also invisible the benefits of such protocols have been, imagine that one of those key standards had not been developed: for instance, the open standard we use for defining our geographic location, GPS. Originally developed by the United States military, the Global Positioning System was first made available for civilian use during the Reagan administration.
Protocol Labs is Benet’s attempt to take up that baton, and its first project is a radical overhaul of the internet’s file system, including the basic scheme we use to address the location of pages on the web.
To support the protocol, Benet is also creating a system called Filecoin that will allow users to effectively rent out unused hard-drive space.
“So you can bring online a massive amount of supply, which will bring down the costs of storage.” But as its name suggests, Protocol Labs has an ambition that extends beyond these projects; Benet’s larger mission is to support many new open-source protocols in the years to come.
Juan Benet’s Filecoin system will rely on Ethereum technology and reward users and developers who adopt its IPFS protocol or help maintain the shared database it requires.
In the early days, a developer who built an iPhone app that uses Transit might see a windfall of tokens; Uber drivers who started using Transit as a second option for finding passengers could collect tokens as a reward for embracing the system; adventurous consumers would be rewarded with tokens for using Transit in its early days, when there are fewer drivers available compared with the existing proprietary networks like Uber or Lyft.As Transit began to take off, it would attract speculators, who would put a monetary price on the token and drive even more interest in the protocol by inflating its value, which in turn would attract more developers, drivers and customers.
Token economies introduce a strange new set of elements that do not fit the traditional models: instead of creating value by owning something, as in the shareholder equity model, people create value by improving the underlying protocol, either by helping to maintain the ledger, or by writing apps atop it, or simply by using the service.
Additional security would come from the decentralized nature of these new identity protocols.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Tesla the Car Is a Household Name. Long Ago, So Was Nikola Tesla.”

The A.C. MotorIn 1884, Tesla came to New York to work for Thomas Edison with the hope that Edison would help finance and develop a Tesla invention, an alternating-current motor and electrical system.
In 1896, Tesla designed the power generating system at Niagara Falls, a big advance for his A.C. system.
After successful experiments in Colorado Springs in 1899, Tesla began building what he called a global “World System” near Shoreham on Long Island, hoping to power vehicles, boats and aircraft wirelessly.
Although the main Tesla lab building on Long Island is being restored by a nonprofit foundation – the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe – the World System broadcast tower he built there was torn down for scrap to pay his hotel bill at the Waldorf Astoria in 1917.
Robotic DronesAnother Tesla invention combined radio with a remote-control device.
Shortly after filing a patent application in 1897 for radio circuitry, Tesla built and demonstrated a wireless, robotic boat at the old Madison Square Garden in 1898 and, again, in Chicago at the Auditorium Theater the next year.
Tesla failed to fully collaborate with well-capitalized industrial entities after World War I. His supreme abilities to conceptualize and create entire systems weren’t enough for business success.
An earlier version of this article misstated who named the carmaker Tesla after the inventor Nikola Tesla.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Using drones to build the ambulance fleet of the future”

The level of ambition of a country that has limited resources relative to a country like the U.S., to say we don’t just want to have the best healthcare system in East Africa, we don’t just want to have the best healthcare system in the developing world, why don’t we just go build one of the best healthcare systems in the world and let’s use technology and robotics and artificial intelligence to get there.
We’re a U.S. company and the reality is that the same positive impact that this system is having in Rwanda, it could have that same positive impact on patient health in the U.S. There are people who live in remote parts of this country who don’t have the same access to healthcare that you have if you’re living in a city or on the coasts.
We’re essentially waiting for the U.S. government to catch up to a country like Rwanda, in terms of using technology to make people’s lives better.
We don’t want the U.S. to fall behind in terms of core infrastructure projects of the future.
Of course the countries that seize the opportunity first, that used to be the U.S. The U.S. led the way in aviation for the first half of the 20th century.
As you’ve talked to health networks and pharmacies in the U.S. What have you found about their response? The U.S. healthcare system is notoriously bureaucratic and it’s one of the glaring areas where there’s been no innovation and people have tried time and time again to crack it.
Even the bureaucracy of the healthcare system is not going to be sufficient to prevent someone someone who is dying or someone’s family from using that system or insisting that it be used.
How many of these distribution centers would you need to cover the U.S.?

The orginal article.

Summary of “This Easy Life Management System Will Make You Happier, Freer, and Twice As Productive”

Every part of me resists structuring my day, but I’ve realized that it’s mostly because of how it’s typically done.
On the dry erase board every morning, I will choose two tasks from the far left list to complete that day.
On any day, I can decide to work on a “Near Future” task or “Someday/Maybe” task in lieu of or in addition to my core tasks.
A typical day’s pair of tasks will be some form of exercise and some form of computer work, but I can switch it up however I please.
I don’t want every day to be equally productive, because life isn’t that rigid and predictable.
Anyone can have a single great day or do a single great thing, but a great life can only be made by doing great things consistently.
For the most part, you’re a general examining the battlefield of life every day and deciding your next move.
What if your boss let you take as many vacation days as you wanted? You might take off quite a few days, sure, but wouldn’t it also make you want to be really productive at work because your boss is awesome? That’s what this feels like.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The ‘Frequent Flier’ Program That Grounded a Hospital’s Soaring Costs”

“A toxic combination of unfair economic arrangements, poor social qualities and programs and bad governments, are responsible for these inequities in daily life which give rise to avoidable health differences. If we put fairness to the fore, it would reduce variable health inequalities. At the heart of this concern is one of social justice, but evidence really matters.”
After two years at Johns Hopkins University, Amarasingham returned to Parkland with further expertise in computers and health care systems, as well as an MBA, and began working on software to help the hospital predict which patients would require readmissions.
Society had to start paying for things that promised good health rather than health-related procedures-and good health, as people had been observing ad nauseam, required healthy communities.
“Stage 2” allowed general information about a person to be shared with the health care system and “Stage 3” meant health care providers and community organizations could share detailed information about a patient’s diagnoses and needs, and the services they were getting-even the specific foods they took home from a pantry.
To test whether it would be possible to share fairly detailed information through the portal, early this year they started a pilot project called Data Across Sectors for Health, or DASH. About 150 Parkland patients with diabetes or hypertension who also used food pantries or homeless shelters were enrolled in the pilot, after they had consented to the sharing of their health and other information.
The Parkland health system, along with the Baylor, Methodist, Children’s and Dallas MetroCare systems, will host one of 22 demonstration projects in the Accountable Health Communities initiative, which is really just a more formal version of what Amarasingham and his colleagues have already started doing.
In North Carolina, the Blue Cross Foundation has invested since 2014 in food, transport and homelessness programs aimed at improving health and lowering health care costs, in part to lower the insurer’s health are costs, Conway said.
If the pilot is successful in Dallas and other cities, it’s likely the government will start providing incentives, in the form of additional Medicare payments to health care systems that use approaches like Iris to keep track of their patients outside the health care system-and possibly even assess penalties for hospital systems that don’t do a good job at this.

The orginal article.

Summary of “China’s CCTV surveillance network took just 7 minutes to capture BBC reporter”

This wasn’t a case of a member of the media being forcibly removed from the country.
The chase was a stunt set up to illustrate just how powerful and effective the Chinese government’s surveillance system can be.
It’s a stark example of the type of monitoring that China has invested heavily in over recent years with the aim of helping police do their job more efficiently.
China has the largest monitoring system in the world.
There are some 170 million CCTV cameras across the country, and that’s tipped to grow more than three-fold with 400 million more set to be installed by 2020.
Beyond the sheer numbers of lookout points, China is harvesting information with a new-found focus on intelligence.
The government also works with facial recognition and AI companies, such as unicorn Face++, which can pour through data to extract meaningful information such as faces, ages, registration plates and more.
The full video of Sudworth’s ‘capture’ is on the BBC website, with a snippet is below – hat-tip The Next Web.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Astronomers to Check Mysterious Interstellar Object for Signs of Technology”

‘Oumuamua barreled into view in October, the first interstellar object seen in our solar system.
Astronomers expected these to be the first interstellar objects they saw.
Astronomers don’t know how the universe could have produced an object such as this.
Most natural interactions between an object and its surrounding medium favor the creation of rounded objects, Loeb said, like pebbles on a lakeshore made smooth by lapping water.
Karen Meech, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy whose team discovered ‘Oumuamua, has said their observations are “Entirely consistent with it being a natural object.” Analysis of the light reflected by the asteroid shows ‘Oumuamua is red, a color that would be expected for rocky bodies exposed to the cosmic radiation of interstellar space for long periods of time.
The year is 2131, and astronomers have detected a mysterious object beyond the orbit of Jupiter and classified it as an asteroid.
For Milner, it’s worth examining every interstellar object for signs of artificial technology.
Starting Wednesday at 3 p.m. Eastern Time, the Green Bank Telescope will aim at the first known interstellar object in our solar system.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Bitcoin is none of the things it was supposed to be”

Most of the current Bitcoin economy, worth around $276 billion at the time of writing, is antithetical to the premise of Bitcoin.
The first stop for anyone seriously interested in Bitcoin is the Bitcoin white paper: the canonical document written by Bitcoin’s pseudonymous creator, Satoshi Nakamoto, in 2008.
Bitcoin, at its core, was supposed to be a way to pay for goods and services online – in Nakamoto’s words, Bitcoin would replace existing systems for “Commerce on the internet.” In the early days of Bitcoin, evangelists tried to use it for everything, including salaries, pizza, and Bitcoin swag.
BitPay was part of the early crop of Bitcoin’s finance industry, and while it and similar startups increased the usefulness of Bitcoin, they represented the sort of middleman Bitcoin was supposed to disintermediate.
Bitcoin is the default currency on the dark web – but the speculators driving the current bubble are making it difficult to use Bitcoin for actual transactions.
You download the Bitcoin client and either have someone send you Bitcoin in exchange for a good or service, or use your computer’s processing power to maintain the network and get rewarded in Bitcoin.
In October 2009, New Liberty Standard published a Bitcoin exchange rate based on the cost of electricity for a computer to mine Bitcoin, which established that one U.S. dollar was worth 1,309.03 BTC. In February 2010, The Bitcoin Market, the first of many Bitcoin exchanges, popped up.
Goldman Sachs says it is “Exploring” a Bitcoin trading operation, and on Monday, two finance companies will launch Bitcoin futures contracts so that even more betting on the price can take place.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The AI Guru Behind Amazon, Uber, and Unity Explains What AI Really Is”

Lange doesn’t shy away from the oft-hyped term “Artificial intelligence”- provided the machines really do learn how to respond to users’ needs.
Does the system seem to be very reasonable? Does it almost seem like there’s a human hiding behind the system, interacting with me and making me feel comfortable?
I [can’t] think of an AI system that doesn’t have machine learning at its core.
Because now we’re sort of back to human programming of the system … AI would have been giving the computer treatment data and results, start developing an ability to do the diagnosis, propose some suggestions for treatment, measure the output of the treatment, and constantly adjust and learn.
First] you have a drone [that] a machine learning system has learned to fly on its own.
What is the rewards function of a drone? Find the bad guys and eliminate them … It’s really what you define as the end goal of the system.
So that’s why these systems are highly branded experiences, which apparently people really like, and that’s fine.
FC: Anything else you think we need to know about AI? DL: The key message is, you have a learning system, and that’s the disruption … Your computer can do more than it’s told to do because it gets the data and it learns from it, and the loop makes it improve endlessly.

The orginal article.