Summary of “What’s Your Type? The Myers-Briggs Test and the Rise of the Personality Quiz”

In 1943, a failed mystery novelist named Isabel Briggs Myers started a career in the new field of personality testing.
Myers had something far more radical in mind, a schema to unearth a person’s true character called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which offers a questionnaire that divides test-takers into 16 different possible personality types based on the results.
There were no bad personality types, only bad combinations of personality type and employment.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is simple, a 93-question forced-choice test, loosely based on personality types outlined by Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung in his 1921 book Psychological Types.
During the 1940s, the Myers-Briggs test was used by Station S, the nation’s first personality assessment center for spies, as a way to figure out who could handle the pressure of international wartime espionage.
Briggs first started her research into the world of personality types after noticing that her daughter Isabel’s fiancĂ© had a markedly different personality from the rest of her family.
“The administration of personality tests is frequently presented as a gesture of corporate goodwill, a generous acknowledgement of employees’ uniqueness. Under this banner of respect for individuality, organizations are able to shift responsibility for employee satisfaction onto that obliging culprit, ‘fit,'” Annie Murphy Paul wrote in The Cult of Personality Testing, a 2004 book that explores the rise of various personality testing schemas, including Myers-Briggs.
Myers-Briggs resembles earlier stabs at personality divination, like the Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory, which was used to evaluate potential soldiers during World War I, and is often cited as the first widely used personality test.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Mental Performance Can Be Hurt By Even Mild Dehydration”

Now there’s evidence that too little water can hurt cognitive performance, too, making complex thinking tasks harder.
A growing body of evidence finds that being just a little dehydrated is tied to a range of subtle effects – from mood changes to muddled thinking.
How long does it take to become mildly dehydrated in the summer heat? Not long at all, studies show, especially when you exercise outdoors.
For an average-size person, 2 percent dehydration equates to sweating out about a liter of water.
“Most people can’t perceive that they’re 1.5 percent dehydrated,” Casa says.
Already there are subtle – maybe even imperceptible – effects on our bodies and our mental performance.
“We did manage to dehydrate them by [about] 1 percent just by telling them not to drink for the day,” says Nina Stachenfeld, of the Yale School of Medicine and the John B. Pierce Laboratory, who led the research.
Dehydration didn’t hamper performance on all the tests; the women’s reaction time, for example, was not impeded.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How to Make Sure You’re Getting the Internet Speeds You’re Paying For”

Write down your plan’s maximum download and upload speeds.
One quick word on testing: You’ll want to run a few speed tests at different times of the day across different sites, just in case your connection is suffering from congestion or any of the sites are under-reporting your speeds for whatever reason.
Fast.com certainly lives up to its name, providing you with an almost immediate measurement of your download speeds in Mbps. If you click on “Show More Info” once the site’s measurement is finished, you can also test your upload speed and latency-how long it takes a webpage to start loading after you click a link.
The speeds you see when testing your internet connection in the morning might not reflect the speeds you can expect to get in the afternoon or at night, when everyone is firing up Netflix after work.
With TestMy.net, you can keep a tab open in your web browser and automatically measure your internet speed at different intervals throughout the day, which can help you figure out whether your ISP or your bandwidth-hogging neighbors are to blame for your connection.
Create an account to save your results and chart all of your readings, which can help you figure out whether your speeds are falling over long-term testing.
If you need more detailed information than some of the other internet speed tests provide, consider Measurement Lab’s Network Diagnostic Tool.
You can run a bunch of tests, sure, but how much speed do you really need to stream a movie or play an online game? SourceForge’s Internet Speed Test gives you many of the same statistics as our other options, but it also recommends services you’ll be able to use based on your ping, download and upload speeds, and a combination of your packet loss, jitter, and latency.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Here’s What Happened When The Government Lost Control Of The Biggest Nuclear Cleanup In The US”

The company running this project, a government contractor called CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, quickly agreed to the union demands, and work resumed.
He’s one of at least 11 Hanford workers contaminated after that December event, bringing the total to 42 workers in 2017.
“It proves to me they’ve completely lost control of this job,” said a Hanford worker of about 30 years, who requested anonymity because of fear of retaliation.
The federal government has a “Legal and moral obligation” to help pay for it, they wrote, and that money “Ensures our top priority – worker safety – is achieved while these dangerous cleanup operations take place.”
Shortly into the work, management decided to let the rubble accumulate, according to a Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board report.
Two of the biggest failures, according to several workers and independent experts, were barely mentioned in CH2M Hill’s report.
At a May town hall, Hanford union workers and local residents raised the questions looming over negotiations of the past seven months: When will demo work begin again? And when it does, will it actually be safer?
“It’s very important for cleanup work to continue at Hanford, but it should never come at the expense of workers’ safety,” Sen. Patty Murray, a Democrat from Washington, told BuzzFeed News.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Summer Heat Waves Can Slow Our Thinking”

Summer Heat Waves Can Slow Our Thinking : Shots – Health News Hot weather can influence cognitive performance, according to new research.
Young adults living in non-air-conditioned dorms during a heat wave performed worse on math and attention tests.
Can’t cool off this summer? Heat waves can slow us down in ways we may not realize.
New research suggests heat stress can muddle our thinking, making simple math a little harder to do.
As the climate changes, temperatures spike and heat waves are more frequent.
To learn more about how the heat influences young, healthy adults, Allen and his colleagues studied college students living in dorms during a summer heat wave in Boston.
The findings add to a growing body of evidence that documents the effect of heat on mental performance, both in schools and workplaces.
“We all tend to think we can compensate, we can do just fine” during heat waves says Allen.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Deleting Your Online DNA Data Is Brutally Difficult”

Deleting my data there was simple: With a click, it disappeared from view.
I was told that the tools for deleting my data and sample from 23andMe’s records were “Not currently available.” I had to wait until May 25, when the company planned to roll out new privacy tools in compliance with Europe’s data-protection regulations, the GDPR. On the morning of May 25, 23andMe’s email arrived, heralding how easy it now was to delete your data.
There was another problem: Deleting my genetic information at my request is against federal law.
Fourteen frustrating customer-service emails later, I ascertained that the “Minimal amount” of information the company was required to keep on hand was, essentially, all of my raw genetic information.
Helix, which bills itself as the “App store” for DNA, processes the DNA sample and then shares the relevant data with other companies from which consumers purchase tests for interpretation.
This seemed to spell it out most clearly: When you delete your DNA information, you are mainly hiding your information from yourself.
Hazel, the researcher studying the privacy policies, said even if a company did offer to delete all your data, it’s unlikely that it could really purge your information from all the places it had already wound up.
In two studies in 2013, researchers showed it was possible to identify people from anonymous DNA information.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The “marshmallow test” said patience was a key to success. A new replication tells us s’more.”

How the new study changes the story Over the years, the marshmallow test papers have received a lot of criticism.
The marshmallow test in the NIH data was capped at seven minutes, whereas the original study had kids wait for a max of 15.
Most of the predictive power of the marshmallow test can be accounted for kids just making it 20 seconds before they decide to eat the treat.
Perhaps it’s an indication that the marshmallow experiment is not a great test of delay of gratification or some other underlying measure of self-control.
What the latest marshmallow test paper shows is that home life and intelligence are very important for determining both delaying gratification and later achievement.
Reducing income inequality is a more daunting task than teaching kids patience.
Increasing IQ is a more daunting task than teaching kids patience.
Watts says his new marshmallow test study doesn’t mean it’s impossible to design preschool interventions that have long-lasting effects.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why We Shouldn’t Be Surprised at the Theranos Fraud”

Assuming what Theranos said it invented was real, it could have been a game changer, and could have resulted in people getting their blood tested more often.
It’s a semi-portable machine and looks like a miniature ATM. Holmes met with a firm called MedVenture Associates in the early days of Theranos that had a lot of experience in medical technology and had invested in Abaxis.
Theranos tried to work on that for several years before Holmes lost patience in late fall 2007 and abandoned it.
Theranos kept up the illusion that they were running a lot of the tests from finger-stick blood draws by hacking the Siemens machines to work with small samples.
Erika Cheung, who worked at Theranos for several months in late 2013 and early 2014, eventually got up the courage to go to a laboratory inspector at the CMS, who then immediately launched an inspection of the company.
You can fault them for maybe not ferreting out what Theranos was doing soon enough, but once they did get the feeling that things that were going on there were not good, they went in in force, the two agencies, one after the other, and essentially shut the company down.
When the CLIA inspector came to renew the CLIA certificate of the Theranos lab in early December of 2013, she was not shown the part downstairs that Theranos referred to as Normandy, where they had the Edisons and the hacked Siemens machines.
Should we be surprised that Theranos happened, or surprised that it doesn’t happen more?

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Marshmallow Test: What Does It Really Measure?”

The marshmallow test is one of the most famous pieces of social-science research: Put a marshmallow in front of a child, tell her that she can have a second one if she can go 15 minutes without eating the first one, and then leave the room.
Passing the test is, to many, a promising signal of future success.
The researchers-NYU’s Tyler Watts and UC Irvine’s Greg Duncan and Hoanan Quan-restaged the classic marshmallow test, which was developed by the Stanford psychologist Walter Mischel in the 1960s.
The marshmallow test isn’t the only experimental study that has recently failed to hold up under closer scrutiny.
This new paper found that among kids whose mothers had a college degree, those who waited for a second marshmallow did no better in the long run-in terms of standardized test scores and mothers’ reports of their children’s behavior-than those who dug right in.
The failed replication of the marshmallow test does more than just debunk the earlier notion; it suggests other possible explanations for why poorer kids would be less motivated to wait for that second marshmallow.
Even if these children don’t delay gratification, they can trust that things will all work out in the end-that even if they don’t get the second marshmallow, they can probably count on their parents to take them out for ice cream instead. There’s plenty of other research that sheds further light on the class dimension of the marshmallow test.
In other words, a second marshmallow seems irrelevant when a child has reason to believe that the first one might vanish.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How the nature of cause and effect will determine the future of quantum technology”

Today we get an answer to this question, thanks to the work of Morgan Mitchell at the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology in Spain, along with dozens of collaborators and more than 100,000 experimenters around the world who have carried out a unique test of one of the most confounding predictions of quantum theory.
One of the curious features of quantum mechanics is that it allows quantum particles created at the same point in space and time to share the same existence.
In the late 1960s, the Bell test was beyond the capabilities of quantum physicists.
They have become routine in quantum optics labs and a key part of the protocols used in emerging technologies such as quantum cryptography.
The bits were then fed at a constant rate of 1,000 bits per second to labs all around the world that had agreed to perform a Bell test in various ways, using photons as the quantum particles, atoms, and even superconductors in myriad combinations.
That is good news for the many emerging quantum technologies that rely on Bell tests, such as quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography.
Quantum mechanics-and Bell tests in particular-blur the distinction between cause and effect.
It is 50 years since Bell put forward his controversial ideas, but Bell tests now lie at the heart of the emerging quantum technology revolution.

The orginal article.