Summary of “Metaphors shape our thoughts in ways we don’t even realize”

The metaphors we choose to use can dramatically impact people’s perceptions in ways that have real-world consequences.
Because of the role they play in our thought processes, the metaphors we choose to use can dramatically impact people’s perceptions in ways that have real-world consequences.
While metaphors make complex concepts easier to digest, they inevitably simplify, shape, and distort our perceptions of these concepts, changing our thoughts in ways that we are not aware of.
Metaphors are physical and visceral, causing us to simulate certain sensations in our mind, which may be a reason why they hold such power over our thoughts.
Metaphors lurk in our language, our thoughts, our assessments of people and situations, and even in the cup of coffee you are holding.
Our brains think using metaphor, and when art gives us new metaphors, it could also be giving us new ways to think.
Outside the realm of art, we can be mindful of the metaphors that exist all around us and the influence they have on our thoughts.
Like poets, we can approach our language with grace and precision, crafting metaphors that are persuasive and give people new ways to think about issues.

The orginal article.

Summary of “This Common Word Makes You Sound More Negative Than You Want To”

Typically, “But” follows a more positive statement and signals a note of disagreement, opposition, or confused thinking that’s just around the corner.
“And” introduces a more collaborative response and positions you as a positive, friendly colleague who’s shifting the conversation in a different direction, not turning it upside down.2.
You might tell your boss, “I can do the creative for this campaign, but I’ll need more time.” You may be right, but using “But” here undercuts the positive message you just delivered: You would be available if not for this one thing.
It’s possible to communicate your caveat much more positively.
Someone at a meeting might say, “We could take that approach with this client, but we could try a different angle, too. What do you all think?” Or a job candidate might tell an interviewer, “I know I have the skills required for this position, but I can see that there will be new challenges, too. I’m confident I can handle them by drawing on my experience, though.” This phrasing makes the speakers sound unnecessarily tentative and confused.
You might tell your coworkers, “Our gross revenues remained solid this quarter, but our profits declined.” Even a straightforward statement like this leaves your listeners to wonder which metric is more important-revenues or profits.
It’s a tiny, completely unavoidable three-letter word that says more about you than you might think.
Pay a little more attention to what you say, and you may find yourself using “But” a lot less-and sounding infinitely more positive as a result.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Mind-Expanding Ideas of Andy Clark”

One problem with his Otto example, Clark thinks, is that it can suggest that a mind becomes extended only when the ordinary brain isn’t working as it should and needs a supplement-something like a hearing aid for cognition.
As the years passed, and better devices became available, and people started relying on their smartphones to bolster or replace more and more mental functions, Clark noticed that the idea of an extended mind had come to seem almost obvious.
After the paper was published, Clark began thinking that the extended mind had ethical dimensions as well.
What you saw was not just a signal from the eye, say, but a combination of that signal and the brain’s own ideas about what it expected to see, and sometimes the brain’s expectations took over altogether.
To Clark, predictive processing described how mind, body, and world were continuously interacting, in a way that was mostly so fluid and smoothly synchronized as to remain unconscious.
Clark saw the brain as travelling light, taking in only the news, only what it needed for its next move; but Hohwy saw how much heavy mental equipment was necessary to process even the briefest glance or touch.
In 2008, Clark came across an article in New Scientist that described what purported to be a unified theory of the brain.
Free energy, as Friston defined it, was roughly equivalent to what Clark called prediction error; and the brain’s need to minimize free energy, or minimize prediction error, Friston believed, drove everything the brain did.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Mike D, In Conversation”

When the Beastie Boys’ career came to a tragic halt in 2012 after the death of Adam “MCA” Yauch, the remaining band members, Adam Horovitz and Mike Diamond, were faced with the difficult task of creating futures for themselves that weren’t mired in the past.
Thirty-seven years after forming the band, Mike can say, with a smile, “I learned a lot of things in the Beastie Boys – including how to appreciate a good time.”
Has working on the book affected your thinking about the Beastie Boys’ career? The conventional narrative, as I see it, is that there were three defining milestones for you guys: Licensed to Ill, Paul’s Boutique, and “Sabotage.” Does that jibe with your understanding of the band’s trajectory?No.
You’ve lived primarily in L.A. for a while but I’ll always think of the Beastie Boys as being quintessential New York characters.
Just to go back to the band a little more specifically: Did your relationships with the two Adams change over time? From what I’ve read, in the very early days of the Beastie Boys they occasionally gave you the business – almost in a young-male hazing way.
We’re kind of joking around here, but the idea of a New Yorker moving to California and becoming a laid-back surfer-guy is almost a cliché you could imagine the Beastie Boys having fun with in their younger days.
A highlight of Spike Jonze’s post-skateboard music-video career, it’s as iconic as the song’s overdriven bass, played by MCA. Released in 1993, the Beastie Boys’ third record finds them playing more instrumentally, with Ad-Rock on guitar, MCA on bass, and Mike D on drums.
With an early start in his NYU dorm, Simmons founded Def Jam Recordings in 1984; the next year, he released the Beastie Boys second single “Rock Hard” on the new label.

The orginal article.

Summary of “24 Cognitive Biases You Need To Stop Making”

Cognitive bias occurs when we make subjective assumptions about people or situations based on our own perception of reality.
This can lead to irrational decisions and judgement calls that affect those around us.
They can alter the way you see everything without you even realising it.
Identifying the problem is the first step towards rational thinking.
Here are 24 distinct biases that you need to be aware of – from “Declinism” to “Fundamental attribution error”.
The “Know Thyself” infographic was put together by the talented Jesse Richardson.
It breaks down 24 world view-altering biases with brief explanations.
There are also a few tips on how to avoid falling into these logic traps yourself.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Say ‘No’ and change your life”

One of the most important things Peters says is this: the inner chimp is much more powerful than the inner human.
Politics is for chimps; Twitter is for chimps; clickbait is for chimps.
It’s a world geared to the chimp – or, in psychologist Walter Mischel’s terms, the “Hot system” of impulse, rather than the “Cool system” of taking stock, looking for evidence, thinking about what’s best in the long term.
Your ‘inner chimp’ is grabby, jealous, greedy.
Things have evolved to grab the chimp’s attention.
As Steve Peters would say: allow time for the information to move beyond the chimp.
You can let yourself feel your chimp’s emotions, and wait for them to pass.
Why not just go for a couple of days? Why not? But that’s chimp maths.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Julian Casablancas, In Conversation”

Why are you disappointed in the internet?I really believed that the internet’s capacity to let people access the best of the best of music – from underground stuff to music from all over the world – would’ve been a positive influence, that music would’ve evolved like never before.
What’s the parallel?People thought that the internet would lead to more information and more truth.
My bigger point is more that there is music with quality that gets ignored.
Given how fraught both politics and culture are now – and they’re clearly even more fraught than in 2014 when Tyranny came out – do you feel more responsibility to be talking this way? It’s my own narrow-mindedness, but I’ve never thought of you as someone that eager to talk publicly about anything, let alone politics.
Honestly in a lot of ways people are more informed and less naïve than they were in 2004, so it’s easier to talk about this kind of stuff.
I’m happy to talk music more if that’s what you want.
You see all these people wearing Black Flag T-shirts now and that band probably was playing to 12 people back in the day.
The music on Tyranny and Virtue moves in so many more directions than a Strokes song would typically move.

The orginal article.

Summary of “What’s Helped Me Get Out of My Head and Do Things That Scare Me”

Now, the aim of the exercise on one level seemed obvious: to teach us to be more forthright, in businesses, in our relationships, in life.
Thus we can go home and feel more comfortable speaking our truth, asking for what we want, and generally showing up in life more confidently.
In the moment I was so much more resilient, confident, creative, and connected than I’d given myself credit for.
We get so stuck in our thinking that we can almost talk ourselves out of doing things we want to do.
The more we can explore this and shine a light on what’s going on, the more grounded and confident we become.
I stay more in the moment, which means when I’m at work I’m no longer in my head wondering if people will want to hire me, or what they think of me, or if I’m going to be able to get them the results they want.
In doing so I can have so much more impact than if I was trying to second-guess the situation or worrying about what will happen next.
These are people who want to become more impactful and influential leaders in their careers, relationships, and community.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How knowledge about different cultures is shaking the foundations of psychology”

In a classic demonstration of cultural differences in thinking styles, participants from Japan and the USA were presented with a series of animated scenes.
This clearly demonstrates how cultural differences can affect something as fundamental as memory – any theory describing it should take that into account.
Subsequent studies have shown that cultural differences in thinking styles are pervasive in cognition – affecting memory, attention, perception, reasoning and how we talk and think.
These differences are pervasive, and have been linked to differences in social relationships, motivation and upbringing.
In a brain-scanning study, Chinese and American participants were shown different adjectives and were asked how well these traits represented themselves.
In American participants, there was a clear difference in brain responses between thinking about the self and the mother in the “Medial prefrontal cortex”, which is a region of the brain typically associated with self presentations.
In Chinese participants there was little or no difference between self and mother, suggesting that the self-presentation shared a large overlap with the presentation of the close relative.
Clearly culture has a massive effect on how we view ourselves and how we are perceived by others – we are only just scratching the surface.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How knowledge about different cultures is shaking the foundations of psychology”

In a classic demonstration of cultural differences in thinking styles, participants from Japan and the USA were presented with a series of animated scenes.
This clearly demonstrates how cultural differences can affect something as fundamental as memory – any theory describing it should take that into account.
Subsequent studies have shown that cultural differences in thinking styles are pervasive in cognition – affecting memory, attention, perception, reasoning and how we talk and think.
These differences are pervasive, and have been linked to differences in social relationships, motivation and upbringing.
In a brain-scanning study, Chinese and American participants were shown different adjectives and were asked how well these traits represented themselves.
In American participants, there was a clear difference in brain responses between thinking about the self and the mother in the “Medial prefrontal cortex”, which is a region of the brain typically associated with self presentations.
In Chinese participants there was little or no difference between self and mother, suggesting that the self-presentation shared a large overlap with the presentation of the close relative.
Clearly culture has a massive effect on how we view ourselves and how we are perceived by others – we are only just scratching the surface.

The orginal article.