Summary of “Study: Two Spaces After a Period May Be Better Than One”

As Johnson told me, “Our data suggest that all readers benefit from having two spaces after periods.”
“Increased spacing has been shown to help facilitate processing in a number of other reading studies,” Johnson explained to me by email, using two spaces after each period.
In the Skidmore study, among people who write with two spaces after periods-“Two-spacers”-there was an increase in reading speed of 3 percent when reading text with two spaces following periods, as compared to one.
Nicholas Christakis, a professor at Yale University, wrote: “Hurray! Science vindicates my longstanding practice, learned at age 12, of using TWO SPACES after periods in text. NOT ONE SPACE. Text is easier to read that way. Of course, on Twitter, I use one space, given 280 characters.”
I find two spaces after a period unsettling, like seeing a person who never blinks or still has their phone’s keyboard sound effects on.
I plan to teach my kids never to reply to messages from people who put two spaces after a period.
The new American Psychological Association style guidelines came out recently, and they had changed from one space to two spaces following periods because they claimed it “Increased the readability of the text.” This galled Johnson: “Here we had a manual written to teach us how to write scientifically that was making claims that were not backed with empirical evidence!”.
In the current study, when text was presented with two spaces after periods, some readers’ eyes were more likely to jump over the “Punctuation region” and spend less unnecessary time fixated on it.

The orginal article.

Summary of “One space between each sentence, they said. Science just proved them wrong.”

Letters of uniform width looked cramped without extra space after the period.
Anything more than a single space between sentences was too much.
The original printing of the U.S. Declaration of Independence used extra long spaces between sentences.
Reading speed only improved marginally, the paper found, and only for the 21 “Two-spacers,” who naturally typed with two spaces between sentences.
Everyone tended to spend fewer milliseconds staring at periods when a little extra blank space followed it.
The study’s authors concluded that two-spacers in the digital age actually have science on their side, and more research should be done to “Investigate why reading is facilitated when periods are followed by two spaces.”
No sooner did the paper publish than the researchers discovered that science doesn’t necessarily govern matters of the space bar.
Johnson told Lifehacker that she and her co-authors submitted the paper with two spaces after each period – as was proper.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Dyson Saw Feynman”

Dyson and Feynman had both professional and personal bonds: Dyson helped interpret and draw attention to Feynman’s work-which went on to earn a Nobel Prize-and the two men traveled together and worked side by side.
Feynman is a man whose ideas are as difficult to make contact with as Bethe’s are easy; for this reason I have so far learnt much more from Bethe, but I think if I stayed here much longer, I should begin to find that it was Feynman with whom I was working more.
On the third day of the journey a remarkable thing happened; going into a sort of semistupor as one does after forty-eight hours of bus riding, I began to think very hard about physics, and particularly about the rival radiation theories of Schwinger and Feynman.
The work consisted of a unification of radiation theory, combining the advantageous features of the two theories put forward by Schwinger and Feynman.
Feynman himself came to meet us at the station, after our ten-hour train journey, and was in tremendous form, bubbling over with ideas and stories and entertaining us with performances on Indian drums from New Mexico until one a.m. Feynman was obviously anxious to talk and would have gone on quite indefinitely if he had been allowed.
Feynman gave a masterly account of his theory, which kept Cécile in fits of laughter and made my talk at Princeton a pale shadow by comparison.
After supper Feynman was working until three a.m. He has had a complete summer of vacation and has returned with unbelievable stores of suppressed energy.
One of these was a deduction of Maxwell’s equations of the electromagnetic field from the basic principles of quantum theory, a thing which baffles everybody including Feynman, because it ought not to be possible.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A Sidelined Wall Street Legend Bets on Bitcoin”

Princeton, like Wall Street, where Novogratz has made at least three fortunes and lost at least two, is full of stories about him.
Novogratz had risen quickly, at Goldman Sachs and in the hedge-fund world, but each rise was met with a stunning, often humiliating reversal-first a parting with Goldman, in 2000, over what has been referred to in the press as “Lifestyle issues,” and then the removal from his partnership, in 2015, at the high-flying Fortress Group after losing a series of currency bets.
Novogratz’s crypto bets had coaxed him out of self-imposed retirement, and soon sprang him back onto CNBC and Bloomberg.
Widely regarded as one of Wall Street’s hardest-charging party animals, Novogratz cited his separation agreement with Goldman to explain why he could not talk at length about what took place, but summarized the nature of his downfall as the consequence of “Partying like a rock star.”
Sukey Novogratz described the years the family spent in Asia as “Very challenging for marriage.” Back then, her husband, she said, was “Someone who was constantly hedging his bets, literally, in work and in life, like, eh, I can never fully commit, even though we were married.”
In 2015, after losing a bet of more than a hundred and fifty million dollars on the Swiss franc, Novogratz and his colleagues made the second of two huge bets that Brazilian interest rates would fall.
In December, after the price of a single bitcoin rocketed to more than nineteen thousand dollars, Novogratz told me that “It would be a different proposition raising a crypto hedge fund today than it was three months ago.” He said he was not comfortable running other people’s money when the currency was at its peak, and predicted that bitcoin would consolidate at between eight and sixteen thousand dollars.
Novogratz announced the bank’s launch in early January, the same week that Dimon, of JPMorgan Chase, who is one of the most vocal critics of cryptocurrency, publicly regretted calling bitcoin a fraud.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Don’t be so sure you know what a lowercase G looks like”

Can you pick out a lowercase G from a lineup? Researchers from Johns Hopkins University found that a surprising number of adults can’t.
Many of the adults they tested weren’t aware that there are two versions of a lowercase G at all and don’t know how to draw the less common one.
To be clear, there are two lowercase Gs. There’s the one that almost everyone writes by hand, which is a circle with a tail that points left.
First, the researchers asked 38 adults to list letters that have two lowercase versions.
Of the 38 participants, only two people listed the letter G. Next, 16 new volunteers silently read a paragraph that had 14 of those tricky looptail Gs. They had to say each word with a “G” aloud, then write the G they just saw on a piece of paper.
In the last part, 25 participants took the multiple-choice test above, where they were asked to pick the right lowercase G from the lineup.
The study shows we don’t really know what the letter G looks like, and it may be because we’re writing by hand less as we use electronic devices more, the authors write.
As a result, people can still recognize the character, but they don’t know the exact strokes anymore, especially if the character is more complicated.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Physicists Find a Way to See the ‘Grin’ of Quantum Gravity”

The search for the full theory of quantum gravity has been stymied by the fact that gravity’s quantum properties never seem to manifest in actual experience.
Miles Blencowe, a quantum physicist at Dartmouth College who was not involved in the work, said the experiment would detect a sure sign of otherwise invisible quantum gravity – the “Grin of the Cheshire cat.”
The authors argue that the two objects in their proposed experiment can become entangled with each other in this way only if the force that acts between them – in this case, gravity – is a quantum interaction, mediated by gravitons that can maintain quantum superpositions.
Experimental quantum physics labs around the world are putting ever-larger microscopic objects into quantum superpositions and streamlining protocols for testing whether two quantum systems are entangled.
Quantum gravity researchers do not doubt that gravity is a quantum interaction, capable of inducing entanglement.
“It doesn’t really make much sense to try to have a theory in which the rest of physics is quantum and gravity is classical,” said Daniel Harlow, a quantum gravity researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Leonard Susskind, a prominent quantum gravity and string theorist at Stanford University, saw value in carrying out the proposed experiment because “It provides an observation of gravity in a new range of masses and distances.” But he and other researchers emphasized that microdiamonds cannot reveal anything about the full theory of quantum gravity or space-time.
Perhaps one clue as to why it is so much harder to quantize gravity than everything else is that other force fields in nature exhibit a feature called “Locality”: The quantum particles in one region of the field are “Independent of the physical entities in some other region of space,” said Mark Van Raamsdonk, a quantum gravity theorist at the University of British Columbia.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Being a Two-Career Couple Requires a Long-Term Plan”

Kate and her husband, Matthew, were a classic dual career couple.
One of their innovations was to plan a lifetime family career – together.
Dual income couples are now the norm: over two thirds of couples in Canada and the UK, and 60% of couples in the U.S. They are beginning to realize they may each be the other’s most significant career asset.
As careers morph into 50-year marathons rather than 30-year sprints, we may also want to think of couple careers over much longer timeframes.
One career is clearly dominant, and will define where the couple lives, and where they move to.
Parallelograms – two parallel, high-powered careers, sometimes called “Power couples.” Increasing in number, these careers are often mutually reinforcing, with professional networks and knowledge that feed each other, think House of Cards.
Complements – diversity in couple careers can be as beneficial as diversity in any team.
You may move from one model to another over the course of ever-longer careers, and that may even be part of the plan.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Migraine Relief May Be On The Way With New Therapies In Development”

All of that could change in a few months when the FDA is expected to announce its decision about new therapies that have the potential to turn migraine treatment on its head. The new therapies are based on research begun in the 1980s showing that people in the throes of a migraine attack have high levels of a protein called calcitonin gene-related peptide in their blood.
Clinical trials of the first pills were effective against migraine but halted in 2011 over concerns about potential liver damage.
The only available preventive treatments are accidental discoveries: A number of people prescribed medications for depression, high blood pressure and epilepsy discovered migraine relief, too.
So for those of us who get numerous migraines each month, the prospect of a new approach feels almost life-changing.
According to one recent survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 10 percent of men and 20 percent of women in the U.S. reported having had a migraine in the last three months.
Up to two percent of all Americans has at least 15 migraine days every single month.
While Botox seemed to decrease my migraines by one or two per month, it wasn’t enough to bother fighting about it with a new insurance company.
He has good reason to be: Each of the therapies decreases migraine frequency by at least one to two days per month.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Cancer ‘vaccine’ eliminates tumors in mice”

“Our approach uses a one-time application of very small amounts of two agents to stimulate the immune cells only within the tumor itself. In the mice, we saw amazing, bodywide effects, including the elimination of tumors all over the animal.”
Some of these tumor-specific, activated T cells then leave the original tumor to find and destroy other identical tumors throughout the body.
The approach worked startlingly well in laboratory mice with transplanted mouse lymphoma tumors in two sites on their bodies.
Although the cancer recurred in three of the mice, the tumors again regressed after a second treatment.
The researchers saw similar results in mice bearing breast, colon and melanoma tumors.
Finally, Sagiv-Barfi explored the specificity of the T cells by transplanting two types of tumors into the mice.
Treatment of one of the lymphoma sites caused the regression of both lymphoma tumors but did not affect the growth of the colon cancer cells.
He envisions a future in which clinicians inject the two agents into solid tumors in humans prior to surgical removal of the cancer as a way to prevent recurrence due to unidentified metastases or lingering cancer cells, or even to head off the development of future tumors that arise due to genetic mutations like BRCA1 and 2.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Cancer ‘vaccine’ eliminates tumors in mice”

“Our approach uses a one-time application of very small amounts of two agents to stimulate the immune cells only within the tumor itself. In the mice, we saw amazing, bodywide effects, including the elimination of tumors all over the animal.”
Some of these tumor-specific, activated T cells then leave the original tumor to find and destroy other identical tumors throughout the body.
The approach worked startlingly well in laboratory mice with transplanted mouse lymphoma tumors in two sites on their bodies.
Although the cancer recurred in three of the mice, the tumors again regressed after a second treatment.
The researchers saw similar results in mice bearing breast, colon and melanoma tumors.
Finally, Sagiv-Barfi explored the specificity of the T cells by transplanting two types of tumors into the mice.
Treatment of one of the lymphoma sites caused the regression of both lymphoma tumors but did not affect the growth of the colon cancer cells.
He envisions a future in which clinicians inject the two agents into solid tumors in humans prior to surgical removal of the cancer as a way to prevent recurrence due to unidentified metastases or lingering cancer cells, or even to head off the development of future tumors that arise due to genetic mutations like BRCA1 and 2.

The orginal article.