Summary of “How Your Insecurity Is Bought and Sold”

Like graduating from college or getting elected to Congress, people believed women should leave the smoking to men.
As George Washington Hill, president of the American Tobacco Company, said at the time, “It’s a gold mine right in our front yard.” The industry tried multiple times to market cigarettes to women but nothing ever seemed to work.
Whereas the tobacco industry had been focused on convincing individual women to buy and smoke cigarettes, Bernays saw it as an emotional and cultural issue.
If Bernays wanted women to smoke, then he had to shift that balance and turn smoking into a positive emotional experience for women by reshaping the cultural perceptions of smoking.
Bernays hired photographers to take flattering photos of the women which he then passed out to all of the major national newspapers.
If Bernays could just hitch his “Smoking = freedom” message onto the women’s liberation movement, well, tobacco sales would double and he’d be a rich man.
Makeup is marketed to women as a way to be more loved and garner more attention.
How else does a women’s magazine that shows 150 pages of airbrushed pictures of women in the 0.01th percentile of the population in terms of beauty make money other than turning around and selling beauty products next to those exact same airbrushed women? Or beer commercials that show raucous parties with friends, girls, titties, sports cars, Vegas, friends, more girls, more titties, more beer, girls, girls, girls, parties, dancing, cars, friends, girls! – Drink Budweiser.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Do Women-Only Networking Groups Help or Hurt Female Entrepreneurs?”

As recently as 2016, a study published in the Academy of Management Journal found that senior-level women who try to help other women at work are likely to face more negative performance reviews than those who don’t.
“Whenever I use the word ‘networking,’ women sort of run a mile,” says Dee Poku Spalding, a former marketing VP at Paramount Pictures who now runs a community for female entrepreneurs called Women Inspiration & Enterprise.
“But there seems to be a newer recognition, particularly among young women and women in the startup world, that the table can grow. More than one female business can be funded, and if you’re an entrepreneur, it’s good for you.”
St, a 500-woman email listserv and “Visibility platform” for women in media and tech, founded by two journalist-entrepreneurs; Create & Cultivate, a conference series for women “Looking to create and cultivate the career of their dreams”; Sally, a gathering of “Women leaders, influencers, and tastemakers” that calls itself “a girl gang for the 21st century”; SheWorx, a “Global collective” of entrepreneurs; and Girlboss Media, from author and Nasty Gal founder Sophia Amoruso, a lifestyle website and event series “For women redefining success on their own terms” that just raised $1.2 million.
According to the National Women’s Business Council, 89 percent of women who own comĀ­panies are solo entrepreneurs.
Dee Poku Spalding, a former Paramount Pictures executive who started Women Inspiration & Enterprise, a 50,000-member community for female entrepreneurs.
“These groups can and should be taken seriously, for what they bring to women both in terms of confidence and support, and in what they offer to profitable, scalable businesses with women leading them.”
Presumably, the more such businesses created by female founders, the more women there will be willing to help other women get their businesses off the ground.

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Summary of “It’s Time These Ancient Women Scientists Get Their Due”

Women are woven deeply into the history of science, stretching back to ancient Egypt, over 4,000 years ago.
As a Wikipedia editor, I have tried to make women’s contributions more apparent by writing entries on figures whose lives haven’t been completely lost, such as Agnodike and Aglaonike, two ancient Greek women, one a brave physician, the other a beguiling astronomer.
Women made strides in the major fields of ancient science.
The first recorded woman physician, who was possibly the first woman scientist, was Merit Ptah, an Egyptian living in the 28th century BCE. She was the Chief Physician of the pharaoh’s court during the Second Dynasty, a time when Egyptian women regularly became physicians and midwives, studying at both co-ed and all-women medical schools.
Centuries later, during the Fourth Dynasty, Peseshet, the administrator of Sais, one such medical school for women, oversaw all women physicians in the empire.
The women astronomers who associated themselves with Aglaonike during her life and after her death were called the “Witches of Thessaly” because, as Plutarch wrote, Aglaonike “Imposed upon the women, and made them all believe that she was drawing down the moon.”
By the 5th century BCE, ancient Greek civilization was flourishing and, contrary to modern impressions, women were prominent participants in philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.
If I had a time machine, I’d volunteer in an instant to secure women’s vanished intellectual achievements-and I’d bet that the world would be a vastly different place if these ancient women got their due.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why Women’s Soccer Players Are Worried About Their Brains”

Over the past decade, women have played a major role in the narrative of men’s football brain trauma.
Biologically, women have thinner, weaker necks, and according to Chris Nowinski, Ph.D., co-founder and CEO of the Concussion Legacy Foundation, that’s been found to make them more susceptible to concussions, though there has been almost no research focusing on the effects of heading exclusively in girls and women’s soccer.
Only one study has been published on the topic, according to the CLF. “We’re further with women veterans than we are with women athletes,” McKee says.
Akers, a member of the ’91 and ’99 Women’s World Cup championship teams and one of only two women to score five goals in a single World Cup match, aims to spread awareness.
A nonprofit called Pink Concussions has devoted itself to improving “The pre-injury education and post-injury medical care for women and girls challenged by brain injury including concussion incurred from sport, violence, accidents or military service.” And as a result of advocacy from players like Akers, and with funding by the Concussion Legacy Foundation and the National Institute on Aging, there will be a landmark study beginning in October led by Stern and Dr. Jesse Mez called SHINE. They’ll examine 20 former women’s soccer players over age 40 who have played at the game’s highest levels and will compare their findings to those of other studies of neurodegenerative diseases involving both women and men.
There are simply more cases of men’s soccer players to study, because of their game’s longer history and the greater number of men who have played than women.
One question multiplies into so many more: Why do some people get it and others don’t? How does a person’s genetic history factor into the equation? What is the effect of other variables that might increase or decrease the resilience to showing manifestations of CTE? If bias in healthcare causes some doctors to take women’s pain, and especially the pain of women of color, less seriously, how does that affect the data? Are researchers considering how transgender women and women who don’t have XX chromosomes might be affected? Does CTE affect different parts of the brain in men and women?
“It’s not all about CTE either. There are other long-term problems stemming from repetitive head trauma. We just don’t know how exactly that manifests in women yet, and more inclusive research could help.”If repetitive headers and the collisions that are caused by attempting headers are causing CTE or other neurogenerative diseases,” Nowinski says, “if we can establish that today, we can save a bunch of women and girls a lot of trouble in the future by changing how we play the sport.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Sacred Journey of Four Million Indian Women to Cook for Their Goddess”

The train pulls out into the twilight, carrying the women closer to their goddess.
One day each summer, millions of women from all over Kerala pile into trains, cars, and buses and make their way to Thiruvananthapuram near the southern tip of India.
In 2009, 2.5 million came, and a Guinness record was awarded for the world’s largest gathering of women.
The sun is setting over a neighborhood temple lake, and a dozen or so women gather beneath Hema’s portico, quietly setting up individual hearths, which consist of three red bricks, ends pointed toward one another like campfire logs, ready to cradle a pot.
To make their pilgrimage to Trivandrum, women from all over Kerala pile into trains whose fares have been suspended for the occasion.
Some women arrive days before the ceremony to claim highly coveted spaces near or at the Attukal Bhagavathy Temple, but most arrive 24 hours or so before, colonizing whatever public space is available-in streets, over rail-station platforms, in parking lots.
All at once, millions of women will light their hearths and cook pongala for Amma.
The women hover over their individual pots, watching for the water to boil.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Perfect Terror of the White Nightgown”

She walked at night, in a long white nightgown, around the cemetery.
The nightgown once was, and thanks to contemporary designers, there are now more thin women in white walking about during the day.
The sinister Bertha wears a “White and straight” garment, either a “Gown, sheet, or shroud.” Whether she’s breathing or wailing, the White Woman is tragic and, even when she’s given a wee bit of agency, there’s a sense that she is somewhat powerless.
This reading is probably what drew Taylor Swift to the nightgown.
Often she points toward sexuality without being sexual, and sometimes in film, the nightgown is a sign that sexual violence is about to occur-that sexuality is being imposed on the woman from an outside source.
In April 2018, Man Repeller’s Haley Nahman suggested wearing a nightgown as a day dress.
For her, nightgowns don’t call to mind Audrey Hepburn or Julie Andrews, but rather a “Kind old woman who’s a little sleepy, perhaps holding a candle, asking if I’d like some warm milk.” But Nahman ends her piece with an important question: “Is a nightgown just a white caftan?”.
They really do have to be worn at night in order to realize their full potential-spooky, innocent, sexy, or, if you gather enough nightgown wearing babes, culty.

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Summary of “Powerful Women Told Me Getting a Dog Is the Key to Success. They Were Right.”

Getting a dog seemed like it might help-but on the other hand, becoming a pet owner might actually intensify my stress.
Owning a pet-especially a dog who is completely dependent on you for food, exercise, love, and health-is not easy.
Yet countless successful women say their best piece of advice is to go ahead and get a dog anyway, as I discovered while reporting last year for the Quartz series How We’ll Win: The Visionaries, which focuses on some of the world’s most influential women who are leading the fight for gender equality at work.
They’re women who, it seems, have approximately zero time to walk, feed, or clean up after a dog.
Studies show there are real psychological benefits to owning a dog.
Dog owners are less likely to suffer from depression than those without pets, and having a dog may lower your risk of heart disease and heart attacks.
Dog owners over age 65 make significantly fewer doctor visits than those without pets.
What’s more, witnessing so many powerful women’s adoration for their dogs reminded me of an important lesson: Being a feminist doesn’t require women to dismiss all notions of traditional femininity.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Springboard to Opportunities program in Jackson, Miss., gives moms $1,000 a month as part of a “universal basic income” experiment”

Here, in the cradle of the South, the women would be a part of one of the first pilot programs in the country to assess a seemingly simple solution to systemic poverty: giving people money – no strings attached.
Entrepreneur Andrew Yang has staked his entire campaign on a “Universal basic income” – giving $1,000 a month to every American adult younger than 64.
“My mothers need cash,” said Aisha Nyandoro, also the founder of the Jackson-based program.
Trying the experiment in conservative Mississippi made the program inherently different.
In an area where jobs were scarce and transportation options were lacking, the social safety net was the most secure source of income clients had. Some worried about how much their benefits would be cut if they took the monthly checks from Nyandoro’s program, and about the bureaucracy that might be involved if they needed to reclaim those benefits.
Of the 110 women eligible to be a part of the program, only 38 applied.
The 20 women selected for the experiment in November 2018 earned an average of $12,000 a year at the time.
The women knew how to make minimum-wage paychecks stretch, Johnson said, but they had little experience with discretionary income.

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Summary of “Optimism may hold secret to longer life, study suggests”

Seeing the glass as half full may mean a longer life, according to research suggesting that optimists not only live longer in general, but have a better chance of reaching 85 or older.
“A lot of evidence suggests that exceptional longevity is usually accompanied by a longer span of good health and living without disability, so our findings raise an exciting possibility that we may be able to promote healthy and resilient ageing by cultivating psychosocial assets such as optimism,” said Lewina Lee, the lead author of the study at Boston University School of Medicine.
For men, optimism was assessed in 1986, with participants having an average age of 62, and deaths tracked until 2016.
The team split about 70,000 women into four equally sized groups, based on their scores for optimism.
Similar results were seen in men, even though optimism was measured slightly differently.
When the team compared the fifth of men boasting the highest optimism scores with the least optimistic, they found the most positive men had lifespans almost 11% longer.
These figures remained almost unchanged for women when social life was considered, although for men a clear link to optimism was no longer present – possibly because of the smaller size of the male group.
“In our study, healthier behaviours, fewer depressive symptoms, and more social ties only partially accounted for the association from optimism to exceptional longevity,” she said, adding there are likely to be other mechanisms at play, such as optimistic people coping better with stress.

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Summary of “The Rise of the ‘One-and-Done’ Family”

Gone is the quaint nuclear family ideal number of 2.5 children, which has been replaced by the concerning historic low of 1.9 children per family.
Why are less babies being born? For starters, women have more choices thanks to access to affordable birth control and expanded career options than ever before, which has led teen pregnancy and unintended pregnancy rates to drop.
In terms of why women are choosing to have smaller families now more than ever? Well, that’s a little more complicated.
It wasn’t just her mental health that shaped her choice to join the one and done club, it was also economics and familial support since Pacovsky and her husband live far away from family.
“The bickering between siblings can be very challenging, particularly for more sensitive parents. Many family members or friends will volunteer to watch your only child for an evening or weekend, but watching multiple kids is much more labor-intensive and therefore it’s harder to find help when you need it.”
More women are having babies through fertility treatments like IVF than ever before, which is a curious trend considering the decline in birth rates in America.
The term “BirthStrike” has been bubbling up in the national dialog around fertility rates with an eye toward intentionally capping the number of children a family in an effort to slow down the terrifying effects of climate change.
He points out that the bigger question isn’t whether or not a family should have fewer kids but rather it’s a question of how a family raises the kids they do choose to have.

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