Summary of “Women Do Ask for More Money at Work. They Just Don’t Get It.”

Having grown up on go-get-’em-girls magazine articles and legal dramas fronted by high-powered career women, I just assumed that the next step for me was to stride into my boss’ office and ask for more money.
In a 2017 study titled Do Women Ask?, researchers were surprised to find that women actually do ask for raises as often as men – we’re just more likely to be turned down.
In 2003, Babcock co-authored an era-defining book called Women Don’t Ask.
Her book and the studies underpinning it have been cited ever since as evidence of women’s reticence to ask for more in the workplace.
Unlike other studies that have been carried out in this area, the Do Women Ask? researchers had more detailed data that revealed a crucial fact: Women are far more likely than men to work in jobs where salary negotiation isn’t necessarily possible, such as low-skilled hourly wage jobs or part-time roles.
Previous studies that reached the “Women don’t ask” conclusion often failed to account for certain types of jobs being dominated by one gender, focusing instead on the overall number of men or women who’d reported salary negotiations, which – given the number of women who work jobs with “Non-negotiable” salaries – skewed their findings.
The Do Women Ask? study, on the other hand, found that when comparing men and women who do similar jobs, women actually ask for raises at the same rates as men.
Now for the bad news: Both McKinsey’s research and the Do Women Ask? study found that while men and women ask for pay raises at broadly similar rates, women are more likely to be refused or suffer blowback for daring to broach the topic.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Research: Men and Women Need Different Kinds of Networks to Succeed”

Women benefited in terms of post-MBA job placement from being central in the network too; but to achieve the executive positions with the highest levels of authority and pay they also had to have an inner circle of close female contacts, despite having similar qualifications to men including education and work experience.
While men had inner circles in their networks too – contacts that they communicated with most – we found that the gender composition of males’ inner circles was not related to job placement.
We estimated the average size of students’ networks to be approximately 12-18 students, which is consistent with paper and pencil self-report network surveys.
Also for each student, we computed the number of same-sex contacts in their network that was greater than expected given the size of their network and the proportion of women and men students in the class.
We found that the social networks of men and women MBA students affected their post-graduation job placement.
While women who had networks that most resembled those of successful men placed into leadership positions that were among the lowest in authority and pay.
If Jane is a second-year MBA student whose inner circle includes classmates Mary, Cindy, and Reshma, but these three women each have networks with few overlapping contacts, then Jane will benefit not only from her three inner-circle-mates but also their non-overlapping contacts.
Our study suggests that women face a greater challenge in networking to find professional opportunities – they, more than men, need to maintain both wide networks and informative inner circles in order to land the best positions.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Julia Louis-Dreyfus Fought For Her Spot in Comedy”

Ask Julia Louis-Dreyfus how much of her is in Selina Meyer, the politician she plays on HBO’s Veep, and she grins.
In the noxious politician, Louis-Dreyfus finds a pressure valve for the anger and frustration many women bottle up in public.
The show has made Louis-Dreyfus, 58, arguably the most decorated television comedy actress in history.
Like Selina, Louis-Dreyfus has managed to navigate the catch-22 of a business in which likability is power-but power has a way of making women “Unlikable.” Selina is at once a ruthless satire of this kind of double standard and a testament to Louis-Dreyfus’ singular ability to defy it.
Louis-Dreyfus eventually found success with The New Adventures of Old Christine, a CBS comedy in which she played a divorced mom trying to navigate family and romance.
Louis-Dreyfus, Holofcener says, had a way of making men listen to her and a habit of sticking up for other women.
Louis-Dreyfus sees progress in the advances women have made in the entertainment industry.
Of Louis CK, who’s been trying to come back from his sexual-misconduct scandal by, of all things, mocking mass-shooting survivors, Louis-Dreyfus says she was “Offended by his most recent comments,” but also that he’s a talented comedian.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Emma Thompson’s letter to Skydance: Why I can’t work for John Lasseter”

When Skydance Media Chief Executive David Ellison announced this year that he was hiring John Lasseter to head Skydance Animation, many in and outside the company were shocked and deeply unhappy.
Only months earlier, Lasseter had ended his relationship with Pixar – where he had worked since the early ’80s – and parent company Disney after multiple allegations of inappropriate behavior and the creation of a frat house-like work environment.
After announcing the hire, Ellison sent a long email to staff, noting that Lasseter was contractually obligated to behave professionally, and convened a series of town halls in which Lasseter apologized for past behavior and asked to be given the chance to prove himself to his new staff.
Mireille Soria, president of Paramount Animation, with which Skydance has a distribution deal, took the highly unusual step of meeting with female employees to tell them that they could decline to work with Lasseter.
Much has been said about giving John Lasseter a “Second chance.” But he is presumably being paid millions of dollars to receive that second chance.
If John Lasseter started his own company, then every employee would have been given the opportunity to choose whether or not to give him a second chance.
Skydance has revealed that no women received settlements from Pixar or Disney as a result of being harassed by John Lasseter.
Given all the abuse that’s been heaped on women who have come forward to make accusations against powerful men, do we really think that no settlements means that there was no harassment or no hostile work environment? Are we supposed to feel comforted that women who feel that their careers were derailed by working for Lasseter DIDN’T receive money?

The orginal article.

Summary of “Military draft: Judge rules male-only registration is unconstitutional”

On Friday, a federal judge in Texas ruled that now that combat roles are available to women, a male-only draft is unconstitutional.
A federal judge in Texas has declared that the all-male military draft is unconstitutional, ruling that “The time has passed” for a debate on whether women belong in the military.
The decision deals the biggest legal blow to the Selective Service System since the Supreme Court upheld the draft in 1981.
In Rostker v. Goldberg, the court ruled that the male-only draft was “Fully justified” because women were ineligible for combat roles.
U.S. District Judge Gray Miller ruled late Friday that while historical restrictions on women serving in combat “May have justified past discrimination,” men and women are now equally able to fight.
The ruling comes as an 11-member commission is studying the future of the draft, including whether women should be included or whether there should continue to be draft registration at all.
Should women be required to register for the military draft?
Judge Miller said Congress has never fully examined the issue of whether men are physically better able to serve than women.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The curse of the Twitter reply guy”

These men are colloquially known as “Reply guys.” While no reply guy is the same – each reply guy is annoying in his own way – there are a few common qualities to watch out for.
In a 2018 piece for McSweeney’s Emlyn Crenshaw wrote an extremely funny Reply Guy Constitution, which focuses above all else on men’s commitment to “Weigh in on women’s thoughts at every possible opportunity.”
The account divides reply guys into nine subcategories, each based on a reply guy behavior the two observed in the wild.
Petrana Radulovic, a reporter at Polygon, had a reply guy experience that was truly, deeply weird.
Unlike Radulovic’s reply guy, her reply guys respond to each tweet individually.
Still, reply guy behavior can escalate quickly – which is why a lot of women choose not to block the offenders.
What makes a reply guy reply in the first place? It’s been suggested – including in a piece from Raw Story – that the reply guy phenomenon is an instance of benevolent sexism.
Of course, how you choose to deal with a reply guy depends on your specific circumstances.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The deadly truth about a world built for men”

For these women, the consequences of living in a world built around male data can be deadly.
Women tend to be smaller than men and have thinner skin, both of which can lower the level of toxins they can be safely exposed to.
Little data exists on injuries to women in construction, but the New York Committee for Occupational Safety & Health points to a US study of union carpenters that found women had higher rates of sprains, strains and nerve conditions of the wrist and forearm than men.
Even if male and female toilets had an equal number of stalls, the issue wouldn’t be resolved, because women take up to 2.3 times as long as men to use the toilet.
Men are more likely than women to be involved in a car crash, which means they dominate the numbers of those seriously injured in them.
Swedish research has shown that modern seats are too firm to protect women against whiplash injuries: the seats throw women forward faster than men because the back of the seat doesn’t give way for women’s on average lighter bodies.
Article 8 of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union reads, “In all its activities, the Union shall aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality, between men and women.” Clearly, women being 47% more likely to be seriously injured in a car crash is one hell of an inequality to overlook.
This is an edited extract from Invisible Women: Exposing Data Bias in a World Designed for Men by Caroline Criado Perez.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How sexist will the media’s treatment of female candidates be? Rule out ‘not at all.'”

If you think the media treatment of Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign was not seriously marred by sexism, please proceed directly to social media, Fox News, my email or wherever trolls gather.
“There is a narrow universe of acceptable behavior for women,” explained Heidi Moore, a media consultant who is a former Wall Street Journal reporter and former business editor of the Guardian U.S. In politics – as in so many other spheres – women get bashed far more than their male counterparts for personality quirks, vulnerabilities and actions of all sorts.
Think of how far a female candidate would get if she came off like the rumpled and ranting Bernie Sanders.
New York Times politics editor Patrick Healy wrote this month that he regrets once describing Clinton’s laugh as a “Cackle,” and the Times published an enlightening story by Maggie Astor about how female candidates start off at a disadvantage.
Yes, we’re a sexist society, and the media reflect and amplify this.
In some cases, female voters aren’t immune – 39 percent of them preferred Trump to 54 percent for Clinton, according to Pew Research.
Still, some see hope: The sheer number of women running for president will make it easier for female candidates to succeed.
For voters of any age, it’s harder – theoretically, at least – to say, “Sure, I’d love to vote for a woman, just not THAT woman,” when there are a half dozen female candidates to choose from.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Heineken claims its business helps Africa. Is that too good to be true?”

In the company archives, I discovered that in the early 1960s Heineken was an ardent supporter of a “White bloc” of southern African countries, including Rhodesia, South Africa and the two Portuguese colonies Angola and Mozambique.
In 2013, Heineken CEO Jean-Fran├žois van Boxmeer described Africa as “The international business world’s best kept secret”.
So what is working for Heineken in Africa really like? Not bad, at first sight.
Most of Heineken’s staff members in Africa are on relatively low salaries by local standards, but Heineken compensates for this by being an attentive and encouraging employer.
Wesseling, who worked at Heineken from 1991 until 2005, says: “We had promotion girls in Africa. We knew this, in spite of internal denials. It was extra problematic because we had been running a very successful Aids policy in Africa.” From 2001, HIV-positive Heineken workers in Africa and their immediate families had been offered free therapy for life, which would continue after retirement or redundancy.
Stefaan van der Borght, Heineken’s former director for global health affairs, says that at one point Heineken tried promotion boys: “We wanted to take away the association with sex, but it didn’t work. Another problem was that we used subcontractors, for reasons of flexibility. Sometimes you needed a lot of girls, for parties, and at other times it was quiet. So you were burdening these subcontractors with the workload and the social obligations, while Heineken was held accountable.”
The Global Fund, supported by Bill Gates, suspended cooperation with Heineken because of the scandal, and the Dutch ASN Bank, following a third inquiry, removed Heineken from its sustainable investment fund and has halted all other financial involvement with the company until further notice.
Heineken revised an earlier declaration in which it had claimed that the company employed just 200 promotion women in two countries in Africa.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Instagram Food Is a Sad, Sparkly Lie”

For the young women who constitute Instagram’s target demographic – the desired audience of both for the corporations that sell products and the influencers who pretend not to be advertising them – even eating something as innocuous as a sad desk salad at work can come along with casual policing from whoever happens to be within view, and I can’t think of a single category of food that, in my 31 years on earth, I haven’t been warned about by some busybody whose opinion I haven’t asked for.
That’s not only because Instagram is a widely used and intensely visual medium, but also because its emergent aesthetic tropes are as essential to the zeitgeist as baby tees and brown lipstick were to the 90s. Food thrives on social networks because of its easy, graphic appeal and pan-demographic interest – we all have to eat, right? But while Facebook has become a repository of time-lapse recipe videos for quick weeknight dinners that often prominently feature, for some reason, canned biscuit in dough, and Pinterest traffics largely in mason jars, do-it-yourself projects and the protein-packed simplicity of an egg baked inside half an avocado, Instagram has thrown its lot in with spectacle.
In the most successful of Instagram food operations, the posting of a particular item signals both affluence and leisure.
Instagram food has almost nothing to do with consumption as a gastronomic endeavor; instead, consuming Instagram food means acquiring it, and sharing proof of your acquisition.
As far as I can tell, it’s nearly impossible be popular in the world of Instagram food maximalism if you actually look like a person who eats the things you post; otherwise, your probably fat hand might appear in a photo of an ice cream cone held out in front of a brick wall.
The easiest way to create context for an over-the-top food purchase is to show it next to a body that has not succumbed to fatness, the prospect of which is regarded with as much horror on influencer Instagram as it is in the rest of celebrity culture.
Iturregui told me she’s seen plenty of food thrown away at influencer-focused food events, a claim backed up by my friend Eric Mersmann, who has made the rounds as an ice cream Instagrammer in New York.
For the others, watching their timelines fill up with food feels more transparently performative, like a present-day version of Paris Hilton in the early 2000s, remaining impossibly thin and toned while regularly being photographed acquiring fast food.

The orginal article.