Summary of “Boudica the Warrior Queen”

In the 1st century CE, Boudica, warrior queen of the Iceni people, led an army of 100,000 to victory against the mighty Roman Empire.
Boudica survives in the accounts of two Roman historians: Tacitus, writing in the late 1st and early 2nd century CE, and Cassius Dio, writing a century later.
The authors differ in their details, but agree that Boudica unified the Britons as never before and led a revolt against the Romans in 60/61 CE. Her story creates a parallel between different views of gender equality held by the Romans and the Britons, and the dichotomies of empire and colony, power and subjugation.
In the Roman accounts, Boudica fought for freedom from the Romans, a colonial oppressor she viewed as greedy and immoral.
An honorific epitaph for Boudica in Roman terms would have been composed following a formula based on a Roman understanding of normative gender roles: she would have been identified in relation to a man, noted for her success as a mother, and praised for her domestic virtues.
After suffering at the hands of the Romans, Boudica united the Britons and took her revenge.
While the Roman general Suetonius Paulinus was away in Wales, attacking the Druidic centre at Mona, Boudica formed her army.
In her speeches, Boudica juxtaposes Roman avarice with British freedom.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The women of the Scottish Highland games”

Highland games are a centuries-old Scottish tradition, but even in the U.S. they date back more than 180 years.
In 2009, 201 women participated in Highland events, according to a database of athletes and results on the North American Scottish Games Athletics website.
The blonde lady was Rachel Smith, a Highland games athlete and co-organizer of the Phoenix games with her boyfriend Tim Timm, the athletic director.
MacDonald’s goal is to be invited back as a pro to the Scottish Highland Gathering and Games in Pleasanton, California, which are the largest in the country, drawing crowds of more than 30,000 people.
Women participating in Highland games can dream big in a variety of ways.
There’s the International Highland Games Federation Chile tournament, where qualifying men and women amateurs get a paid trip to compete.
Even the Arnold Sports Competition, Arnold Schwarzenegger’s famed multi-sport event, has an indoor Scottish Highland games, though only one of the four amateur classes is for women.
The Phoenix games took place the first weekend in March, at the precipice of the coronavirus pandemic in the U.S. The Las Vegas Highland Games in April were soon canceled, as was the World Masters Championship.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Doing Dishes Is the Worst”

The most unpopular household tasks, Carlson told me, also tend to be the ones most often associated with women.
Traditionally, women have shouldered full responsibility for chores that involve cleaning up after someone else: doing the laundry, cleaning the toilet, washing dishes.
Today, women who have to shoulder those traditionally female chores alone “See themselves as relegated to the tasks that people don’t find desirable,” Carlson said.
Dishwashing is actually one of the tasks partners are most likely to take turns doing: Between 1999 and 2006, the share of couples who divvy up dishwashing responsibilities rose from 16 to 29 percent, according to the CCF report.
If a woman goes over to a friend’s house and sees a male partner handling or helping with the dishes, Carlson told me, she’s likely to feel worse about her own arrangement.
“The more often a task is shared, the worse it is for you not to share it,” Carlson said.
According to Carlson, that’s because a couple can do dishes as a team.
You rinse, I’ll load. “My wife and I could take out the trash together, we could clean the toilet together, but that wouldn’t make much sense,” said Carlson.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Decades After Its Release ‘9 to 5’ Is Still Radical Today”

The project was conceived of by Jane Fonda, who was inspired by the work of Karen Nussbaum, an old friend from the anti-war movement and founder of 9to5, an organization still in the business of advocating for working women.
In order to hide the fact that they’re holding their boss hostage, the women have to run the business as best they can, which, it turns out, is much better than Mr. Hart.
The annual cost of putting a baby in daycare typically costs more than a year’s tuition in state college, one of many factors driving women out of the workforce.
Recently there’s been a focus not just on sexism in U.S. workplaces, but also in Hollywood, as actresses speak out about equal pay and advocates point to the opportunity gap for women working behind the lens.
You did background research for 9 to 5 by spending time with office workers at Fox Studios’ insurance company.
We did a musical of 9 to 5 on Broadway in 2009, and it was really frustrating because a lot of the interviews that I did with male journalists, the first thing they said was, “Well, none of those issues are a problem in contemporary life, so how are women of today going to be able to relate to it?” I thought, yeah, you can’t sexually harass someone as obviously.
In terms of television, which is somewhat better for women, is still quite small.
I’m going in projects where there seems to be more than one woman in the room, and seeing female producers bringing in female writers and partnering with other women.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How One ‘Rosie the Riveter’ Poster Surpassed All Others and Became a Symbol of Female Empowerment”

Norman Rockwell’s painting of Rosie the Riveter appeared on the cover of a May 1943 issue of The Saturday Evening Post.
Out of the many iterations of Rosie the Riveter, some may be surprised to learn that Miller’s “We Can Do It!” poster was, for a time, one of the least popular.
Why were other versions of Rosie the Riveter more popular during the war? And how did this version end up becoming the Rosie we picture today?
Today, the now-famous image of Rosie the Riveter might evoke the heroic way women during World War II assumed jobs traditionally held by men – factory workers, taxi drivers and even soldiers – to help with the war effort.
The cover of the sheet music for the 1942 Rosie the Riveter tune.
The most well-known wartime image of Rosie the Riveter became Norman Rockwell’s painting for the cover of The Saturday Evening Post, which depicted a muscular riveter casually desecrating “Mein Kampf.”
Of course, once the war concluded, women were forced out of these roles, and Rosie was largely forgotten during the baby boom years from 1946 to 1964.
Miller’s poster, like most of the Rosie propaganda, was supposed to be a call for men and women to work together for the duration of the war out of patriotic duty.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Internet ‘is not working for women and girls’, says Berners-Lee”

Women and girls face a “Growing crisis” of online harms, with sexual harassment, threatening messages and discrimination making the web an unsafe place to be, Sir Tim Berners-Lee has warned.
The inventor of the world wide web said the “Dangerous trend” in online abuse was forcing women out of jobs, causing girls to skip school, damaging relationships and silencing female opinions, prompting him to conclude that “The web is not working for women and girls”.
“But I am seriously concerned that online harms facing women and girls – especially those of colour, from LGBTQ+ communities and other marginalised groups – threaten that progress.”
First is the digital divide that keeps more than half of the world’s women offline, largely because it is too expensive, or they do not have access to the equipment or skills to use it.
Second is online safety: according to a survey by Berners-Lee’s Web Foundation, more than half of young women have experienced violence online, including sexual harassment, threatening messages and having private images shared without consent.
FundaciĆ³n Karisma runs an online campaign, “Alerta Machitroll”, which calls out misogynistic attitudes and abuse online.
“What victims are told all the time is ‘Oh, that’s nothing, ignore it, or close your account. But this has a big impact on people’s lives. They want to control women, they want women to be silent,” Toledo said.
More data needs to be collected and published on women’s experiences online, while products, polices and services should all be designed based on data and feedback from women of all backgrounds, he said.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Excerpt: ‘This Is Big’ by Marisa Meltzer”

I have tried my best to change my body – dieting, working out, spas, personal trainers, radical body acceptance, Botox, fillers, fat-melting shots of Kybella in an attempt to get rid of a double chin.
My body feels tragic to me, but by the standards of non-SoulCycle America, it is in fact quite ordinary: For women over the age of 20, a size 16 is dead average.
I’m always wondering what these women think of my body – if they are jealous because they think I’ve given myself license to eat with abandon, or if they’d rather be dead than be my size.
The beautiful people I so often encounter in my job go to extreme lengths to maintain their bodies.
Even the fat women have enviable bone structure and proportionate bodies and boyfriends with cute haircuts who worship them.
Everywhere, women are talking about how important it is to love yourself and the body you’re in.
There is a well-known plus-size body activist I follow on social media.
How do you live online as a person unhappy with your weight? In our cultural moment, fatness can be a surface that denies interiority, and fat acceptance a further denial of this interiority – a way of brushing off the painful truth of living in a bigger body, and also a way of compelling a happy performance of virtuousness.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Women Once Ruled the Computer World. When Did Silicon Valley Become Brotopia?”

In engineering circles, some refer to Lena as “The first lady of the internet.” Others see her as the industry’s original sin, the first step in Silicon Valley’s exclusion of women.
At a time when a degree in computer science guarantees a six-figure job offer to any young person with a modest intellect and a willingness to live in the Bay Area, women earn just 17.5 percent of bachelor’s degrees in computer science.
Off-camera, guests would sometimes complain about a Silicon Ceiling-a sense that women’s opportunities in the tech world are severely limited-but they rarely wanted to discuss the subject on the record.
In 1946, six women were selected to become the first programmers of the U.S. military’s first computer.
Just as Cosmo was encouraging a broader selection of women to seek fat paychecks in this new field, men, also in search of highly paid jobs, started pushing women out.
As the number of overall computer science degrees picked back up during the dot-com boom, far more men than women filled those coveted seats.
The lawsuit echoes a complaint I’ve heard for years from female Googlers: that the company’s efforts to bring women on board haven’t been matched with an equally concerted effort to mentor and promote women into leadership positions.
“I’ve worked at Google for about six years, and I just haven’t been surrounded by women who are managers. I’ve just worked with so many men, and I’ve had crappy male bosses. Crappy and rude.” It wasn’t until she arrived at Google, Evans tells me, that she realized how isolated she was as a woman in a male-dominated field.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Margery Kempe Had 14 Children and She Still Invented the Memoir”

The Book of Margery Kempe is mostly the kind of text you read if you’re a medievalist, or maybe an English major at a women’s college, although I was an English major at a women’s college and I didn’t read it until I was in graduate school.
In one of my favorite passages of The Book, Christ tells Margery that she should “Make every Christian man and women your child in your souland have as much grace for them as you have for your own children.” In a spiritual economy in which women could either be spiritual mothers or physical mothers, this vision of Christ suggesting that it is precisely Margery’s physical maternity that makes her a great spiritual intercessor is nothing short of radical.
It is important to note that The Book of Margery Kempe is a book written by a mother but it is not a book about being a mother.
It mostly ignores the years Margery spent birthing and raising her children.
The Book of Margery Kempe is a book written by a mother but it is not a book about being a mother.
The woman’s husband tells Margery that his wife “Roars and cries so that she makes folk terribly afraid.” They have put manacles on her wrists, he says, because she “Will both smite and bite.” But when Margery enters the house, the woman speaks to her calmly.
Writing about this episode, scholar Lynn Staley notes that in helping the postpartum woman, Margery “Seems to offer consolation to her former self.” It is not hard to imagine why Margery might have been popular among married and childbearing women.
By Ellmann’s standards, Margery Kempe certainly had too many children.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Surviving perimenopause: ‘I was overwhelmed and full of rage. Why was I so badly prepared?'”

Menopause, defined as a full year with no period, hits women on average around the age of 51.
Jacqueline Thielen, who works at the Women’s Health Clinic at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, said she sees many women in their 40s and 50s who tell her they’re scared of hormone therapy, but made miserable by symptoms and being swamped with responsibilities.
In a survey by the American Association of Retired Persons, 84% of participating women said that menopausal symptoms interfered with their lives.
“Women need to recognise that it’s a time of vulnerability, and there are some things that they can do to help.”
For decades, women have had to argue that they could still work and function through those messy period, pregnancy and menopause-related symptoms, and as a result we’ve minimised them, both to others and to ourselves.
So as not to call attention to ourselves as women, we pretend it’s not happening.
Boomer women arguably started this, entering the work world in shoulder-pad armour.
In 1993, as the menopause was becoming a hot topic, the Women’s Health Initiative, a national, long-term study on the possible benefits of hormone treatment for postmenopausal women, was launched in the US. But, in July 2002, the premature termination of the oestrogen-progesterone part of the study was announced.

The orginal article.