Summary of “Can Video Games Replace the Outdoors?”

As long as there have been video games, critics have bemoaned their social and psychological consequences.
Over the years, researchers have churned out studies showing that violent games can lead younger players to be more hostile and less empathetic.
As Rockstar Games cofounder Dan Houser told New York magazine last year, the result is an experience “In which the world unfolds around you, dependent on what you do.” Red Dead Redemption 2 was released on October 26, 2018, and brought in $725 million during its first weekend, beating the strongest film opening of 2018, Avengers: Infinity War, by almost $100 million.
Gaming had completely replaced the outdoors.
“Video games can act as a form of environmental enrichment in humans,” they said in a paper that appeared in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience.
Gregory D. Clemenson, one of the authors, cautions that this does not mean video games are as nourishing to the mind as a walk in the park, but they may do more good than people think.
Michael “Qwerkus” Gerchufsky, a 50-year-old medical editor from Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, describes the appeal as we hike around the towering National Memorial Arch: “I was like, wait, there’s a video game that gets me outdoors?”.
“Augmented reality is bleeding out from games into physical fitness,” he says.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Global Mass Transit Revolution”

The world is building mass transit networks faster than ever before, and ridership is increasing to match.
The United States continues to lag behind both Asia and Europe in mass transit.
New York is the only North American city to rank among the global top-ten busiest transit systems.
That’s according to a report published by UITP, the International Association of Public Transport, which takes a close look at mass transit systems in 182 cities across the world.
Urban mass transit systems have exploded in recent decades as the world’s population has rapidly urbanized.
New York City is the only U.S. city with a transit system that numbers among the world’s ten busiest; many other U.S. cities saw their transit ridership decline in the past six years.
While there is much talk of driverless cars, the reality is that driverless or fully-automated mass transit is coming on stream much more quickly.
Even though fully automated systems make up just 7 percent of transit systems today, the study predicts the rapid “Mainstreaming” of fully automated metro transit, which does not require any human staff on board, in the coming years.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Bad ancestors: does the climate crisis violate the rights of those yet to be born?”

What if climate breakdown is a violation of the rights of those yet to be born? Finally, this urgent question seems to be getting the attention it deserves.
That very same day Thunberg and 15 other young people hailing from places such as Tunisia, the Marshall Islands and Brazil, brought a legal complaint about the climate crisis to the UN. “Our rights are being violated by world leaders’ inaction,” said 14-year-old petitioner Alexandria VillaseƱor of New York.
Noting that the case was not about whether or not climate breakdown is real, Aiken added: “Federal courts too often have been cautious and overly deferential in the arena of environmental law and the world has suffered for it.” Should the children’s lawsuit be allowed to move forward, it will be the first time the federal government has faced allegations in court that its climate policies violate citizens’ constitutional rights.
“The fundamental human rights and futures of children and youth are disproportionately threatened by climate destabilisation, even though we have had little to do with the production of the problem,” she told me when I asked what had inspired her to join the suit.
As things stand people in wealthy countries appear unprepared to make anything resembling the sort of sacrifice required for climate justice – especially not if citizens of other relatively affluent countries or communities are going to keep the coal fires burning.
Since 1990, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has warned that developed countries must make a radical break with fossil fuels, which means lowering consumption and switching to renewable energy sources while also shifting our diets away from meat and dairy, as animal agriculture is a massive source of emissions.
Still, an overwhelming majority of people in those affluent countries believe the climate crisis is an urgent threat that must be addressed.
A century later, two pioneering climate scientists issued the following statement in a 1957 coauthored paper, bolstering Marsh’s case for urgent action with carefully marshalled evidence: “Human beings are now carrying out a large-scale geophysical experiment of a kind that could not have happened in the past nor be reproduced in the future. Within a few centuries we are returning to the atmosphere and oceans the concentrated organic carbon stored in sedimentary rocks over hundreds of millions of years.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “As Companies Become Purpose-Led, Where Does That Leave Charities?”

Where does this leave charities? Does it make them redundant? No. In the words of John Low, chief executive of Charities Aid Foundation, “Almost everyone … benefits from the work of a charity, and the demand for their services and support shows no sign of abating.”
Where civil society, governments, companies, and charities all come together, we make the most progress.
Charities are often the delivery partner for much of the good work that companies want to do because they have the right skills, access, and understanding of what works.
The charity sector can teach companies to do noncommercial, nonjudgmental listening.
Charities have long understood the need to collaborate and share a vision of a better world, how to work together, and bring the necessary skills sets to the table.
So the opportunity for charities is to look for long-term goals for society and work out what is best positioned to help achieve them.
Charities should ensure they have a seat at the table for those conversations, and where they don’t, they should demand the seat or start a new table.
We need “More worthy” profit-making entities and we need more long-term, commercially thinking charities.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Crave more stillness in your life? You can find it in beauty |”

“Beauty remains, even in misfortune,” Anne Frank wrote.
“Beauty remains, even in misfortune,” she wrote.
What a source of peace and strength beauty can be.
The philosopher must cultivate the poet’s eye – the ability to see beauty, even in the banal or terrible.
Which is why the philosopher must cultivate the poet’s eye – the ability to see beauty everywhere, even in the banal or the terrible.
It is not the sign of a healthy soul to find beauty in superficial things – the adulation of the crowd, fancy cars, enormous estates, glittering awards.
It is better to find beauty in all places and things.
Even when we are killing each other in pointless wars, even when we are killing ourselves with pointless work, we can stop and bathe in the beauty that surrounds us, always.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Deficient Animal”

The “Science of man,” as David Hume put it-understanding human beings as human beings, both individually and collectively-has been something of an embarrassment.
What Darwin and neo-Darwinians achieved was rooted in a concern with continuities among species, in showing how human beings evolved from animal predecessors.
This increasingly exclusive focus on biological similarities tended, on the one hand, to fold the human being entirely within the continuum of the animal order and, on the other hand, to minimize, downplay, or ignore altogether the distinguishing characteristics of the human species.
The philosophical anthropologists argued, in Arnold Gehlen’s words, that “For a human’s situation to correspond with that of true mammals, pregnancy would have tolast approximately 21 months.”2 The persistence of such infantile features was related to other human peculiarities, including the long period of helplessness at the infant stage, the similarly protracted stage of development preceding sexual maturity, and, most important, the curious but undeniable absence of a well-developed structure of instincts.
In the late eighteenth century, Johann Gottfried Herder had called the human being “The deficient being”; others, following Herder, described humans as animals “Not yet determined,” “Unfinished,” “Incomplete,” “Physiologically premature,” and “Organically deficient”-and ever malleable.
In sum, human beings must of necessity make up for their instinctual impoverishment by actively transforming the world to suit their own ends, mastering and re-creating nature rather than merely adapting to it.
By nature, the human animal is a language animal, and upon this symbolic frame is built the entire interconnected edifice of culture.
The conclusion is unavoidable: The human animal is, like no other, a cultural animal.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Yuval Noah Harari Is Worried About Our Souls”

One of the most important forces in history is human stupidity.
Experiments are already under way to augment the human immune system with an inorganic, bionic system.
Almost all traffic accidents are because of humans making bad decisions.
That’s not impossible because human beings very often make terrible mistakes, even in the most important decisions of their lives.
Then the question is, “What is human life all about?” For thousands of years we have constructed this idea of human life as a drama of decision-making.
The liberal story is based on the ideal and the notion of free will, that the free will of individual humans is the ultimate source of authority in the world.
Yes, the way that Cambridge Analytica and all these companies and bots behaved is they hacked humans.
One of the most important forces in human history is human stupidity.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Finding the Unexpected Wonder in More Than 22,000 International Standards”

ISO has standards for everything from screws, drills, and beers to cigarettes.
Germany and the United States followed suit, in 1918: The American Engineering Standards Committee, founded by five engineering societies and three government agencies, became the American National Standards Institute in 1969.
ISO has standards for everything from screws, drills, and beers CDs are also ISO standardized-leading to the.
Kuert, for his part, remembered no such thing: “There was no mention of that in London!” In the 70 years since, the ISO has expanded to some 161 member states and more than 22,000 standards.
The most famous of these is likely ISO 6346: the standards for the humble shipping container.
In the late 1960s, the ISO published an initial shipping container standard that made things even more straightforward.
In the past, this has been a problem-a 2004 study points out that Western Europe represented almost half the voting base in ISO’s standards development work, despite comprising approximately six percent of the world’s population.
It’s good for the developing world but it’s good for ISO, too: Without participation from developing countries, ISO standards wind up applying to only a minority of the globe-to the detriment of world markets, technical progress, and sustainable development.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Small Things”

He saw a new world: too small for the eye to register yet teeming with invisible life.
What excited Hooke and his contemporaries most of all was the thought that microscopes might uncover, not just the invisible structures of nature, but its hidden mechanisms as well.
In the 19th century, refinements to the design of the microscope allowed scientists to peer into the invisible world with unprecedented resolution.
One might be tempted to imagine that, by the late 19th century, such beliefs persisted only in rural backwaters, but that would be to underestimate the grip of the invisible world on the imagination.
There must be, they wrote, ‘an invisible order of things which will remain and possess energy when the present system has passed away’.
‘We share the world with an incredible vast host of invisible things,’ he announced, but that wasn’t an expression of wonder so much as a warning.
Instead, in conjunction with invisible rays such as Marconi’s ‘wireless’ emanations, it has created an age of technological invisibility, a world in which things happen with no mechanism in sight, even without our volition, via an omnipresent field of information.
With invisibly small technology harnessed to the invisible ether, we have animated the world.

The orginal article.

Summary of “The 50 best video games of the 21st century”

Few games have been played as widely as Wii Sports, from grannies bowling to toddlers enthusiastically playing tennis.
One of the few modern games that is still best enjoyed shoulder-to-shoulder with friends, family or friendly strangers.
Launched as a forgettable co-op zombie shooter in 2017, developer Epic Games saw the success of Player Unknown’s Battlegrounds and decided to create its own battle royale mode, inviting 100 players to land on an island, then fight it out until only one survived.
One of the most successful and influential games ever made, The Sims is an outlet for megalomania, mad materialism or compassion – depending on the player.
Video games aren’t short of alien invasion stories but Half-Life 2 is so good it makes the whole concept seem fresh and frightening.
One of the greatest narrative video games ever made.
Despite two more Dark Souls games and a raft of imitators, there is still nothing like it.
Game makers truly believe that video games have the power – just like literature, cinema and art – to change lives.

The orginal article.