Summary of “We thought the Incas couldn’t write. These knots change everything”

“Break the khipu code and we might finally read an indigenous Inca history”.
The majority of surviving khipus consist of a pencil-thick primary cord, from which hang multiple “Pendant” cords and, in turn, “Subsidiaries”.
There are reasons to think khipus may record other things, including stories and myths – the sort of narrative information that many cultures write down.
There are all sorts of varying factors in khipus: the colour of the strings, the structure of the knots and the direction in which they were hitched.
Each khipu had hundreds of pendant cords, and they were more colourful and complex than anything she had ever seen.
Because the Collata khipus were thought to be letters, they probably encoded senders and recipients.
Hyland is the first to admit that we don’t understand the link between these khipus and those dating from before the Spanish arrived.
Urton too is turning his attention to narrative khipus, even if he has a different idea on how they encoded information.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Why We Sleep, and Why We Often Can’t”

Alice Robb’s book “Why We Dream” is a spirited rebuke to the idea of sleep as a mere parting with consciousness.
In exploring the pleasures and uses of dreams, she seeks to persuade us that sleep is not just the “Off” to waking’s “On” but another realm of being, a second consciousness, rich in adventure and wisdom.
At the annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Dreams, held in a medieval abbey in the Netherlands, she encounters people who believe in dream telepathy, and in using “Energy fields” for dream interpretation.
Science has long understood that REM sleep-the stages of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement, in which most dreaming takes place-plays a vital role in our mental health.
In recent decades, thanks in large part to the advent of brain-imaging machines, scientists have been able to establish that dreams themselves are essential to the benefits of REM sleep.
The two chief factors determining your interest in someone else’s dreams would seem to be your level of emotional investment in the person telling the dream and the extent to which you believe that dreams can be intelligently interpreted.
Nabokov, who had quite a rich dream life and often used dreams in his fiction, was briefly taken by a hokey theory that dreams were precognitive, but otherwise he maintained that they were without significance, a stance probably influenced by his extreme antipathy to Freudian theory.
In celebrating dreams as poetic artifacts, Robb offers a welcome antidote to the medicine administered by most sleep gurus.

The orginal article.

Summary of “A Brand New Interview with David Foster Wallace”

There’s some fiction that’s very good that I think is trying to be difficult by putting the reader through certain sorts of exercises.
I’m not one of those, so within the camp people usually talk about me being one of the more accessible ones, but that camp itself is not regarded as very accessible and I think it tends to be read by people who have had quite a bit of education or a native love of books and for whom reading is important as an activity and not just something to do to pass the time or entertain themselves.
See, when people would ask me that question before it was because I was very young and I was in the youngest generation, and I think there’s probably a whole new generation now.
As far as I can think it’s really only Richard Powers in Galatea 2.2 and he’s got a new book out called Plowing the Dark, which is partially about virtual reality.
You know, some of that is the constraint of the page, and I think to an extent the footnotes are to suggest at least a kind of doubling that I think is a little more realistic.
DFW: The very first story in there, which is about a game show that I don’t know if people in Spain will have heard of called Jeopardy, is a very very good story, and there’s a story about Lyndon Johnson that I think works very well.
The very last piece in there which is partly about John Barth, I really liked when I did it and then for a few years I didn’t like it at all and was tired of talking about it and I re-read it about a year ago and actually now think it’s very good again.
Now, that’s talking about my own work; as a reader I think I get the same sort of sense.

The orginal article.

Summary of “George Saunders on the Best Writing Advice He’s Received”

George Saunders’ new book Fox 8 is available now.
How do you tackle writer’s block?I like David Foster Wallace’s notion that writer’s block is always a function of the writer having set a too-high bar for herself.
So: writing is of you, but it’s not YOU. There’s this eternal struggle between two viewpoints: 1) good writing is divine and comes in one felt swoop, vs: 2) good writing evolves, through revision, and is not a process of sudden, inspired, irrevocable statement but of incremental/iterative exploration.
What’s the best writing advice you’ve ever received?Once, when I was a student, I cornered my mentor and hero Tobias Wolff at a party and assured him that I had sworn off comedic sci-fi and was now writing “Real literature.” I think he sensed, correctly, that 1) this was not an attitude that was going to produce my best work but 2) there was going to be no arguing me off of that position.
The new writing was fun and ostensibly entertaining-it came out of a place of joy and orneriness, instead of a place of stiffness or control or pedanticism.
Catnip! The book is the first one I read that really had style-I could feel that Forbes had been paying attention to every line and also could feel the benefit of that-the book had a physicality I’d never experienced before.
Gogol somehow manages to make us feel sympathy for the main character without that character needing to be a saint.
He’s a stinker, kind of-someone we wouldn’t want to be around and yet, by the end, we feel so protective of him.

The orginal article.

Summary of “13 Edtech Tools Every Teacher and Student Should Know About”

From interactive whiteboards to educational applications, here are 13 edtech tools that every teacher and student to aid and enhance teaching and learning.
Teaching and Learning AppsThere are many educational apps that were created to enhance teaching and learning, tools for knowledge sharing, instruction, collaboration, practice, productivity, and assessment.
6 EdmodoEdmodo has “The largest global teacher network.” It’s a place akin to a digital classroom, where teachers, students, and even parents get to be involved in education.
In Edmodo, users can find thousands of teacher resources - from articles to videos vetted by other teachers - and share their own with rest of the world.
FlipGrid connects teachers and learners and changes how they teach, learn, and interact.
8 FormativeFormative is a great tool for individualized and real-time feedbacking between teacher and student.
Teachers can jump in and provide real-time help when a student is having a hard time answering a question or doing an activity.
Teachers, especially those teaching history and social studies, will find many valuable lesson plans, activities, topics, tips, and hacks to enrich their teaching practice and student learning.

The orginal article.

Summary of “George RR Martin: ‘When I began A Game of Thrones I thought it might be a short story'”

Strict instructions are issued before interviewing George RR Martin: do not ask about The Winds of Winter, the sixth book in his A Song of Ice and Fire series, the one fans keep haranguing him about and Martin has been writing since 2011.
Written in the voice of a maester of the citadel, Archmaester Gyldayn, a “Crotchety old guy with strong opinions” who is telling his story hundreds of years after the events he’s chronicling, the structure allows Martin to play about with the unreliability of his narrators, as Gyldayn sorts through his primary sources.
Martin has always loved popular history; Game of Thrones was loosely inspired by accounts of the wars of the Roses.
“If I were 30 years younger I could easily write a series about the Dance of the Dragons” – the Targaryen civil war – “Or I could write the story of Aegon’s conquest. Every one of the 13 children of Jaehaerys and Alysanne has a story that could be told about him or her, their rise, their fall, their triumphs, their deaths It was a lot of fun to create, a lot of fun to live in that world again.”
Martin studied journalism at university – he went to Northwestern in Illinois – continuing to write and sell short stories through his time as a conscientious objector to the Vietnam war, a chess tournament director and a teacher.
“When I began, I didn’t know what the hell I had. I thought it might be a short story; it was just this chapter, where they find these direwolf pups. Then I started exploring these families and the world started coming alive,” Martin says.
“He wrote a huge dark space opera and a vampire riverboat story and a murder mystery rock’n’roll fantasy novel. Each book and each story was different and each was deep. I was delighted that the public discovered his genius with Game of Thrones, but I wish they’d read the other books too,” says Gaiman, who describes himself as “Famous in the world of George RR Martin for a blog post”, in which – way back in 2009 – he took Martin’s fans to task over their demands for the next Song of Ice and Fire novel, telling them: “George RR Martin is not your bitch.”
As well as writing the books, he is working with the writers of the five different prequels to Game of Thrones that HBO is developing, , including Jane Goldman, whose The Long Night takes place 5,000 years in the past.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Writers Map Their Imaginary Worlds”

A writer’s map hints at a fully imagined world, and at the beginning of a book, it’s a promise.
A new book, The Writer’s Map, contains dozens of the magical maps writers have drawn or that have been made by others to illustrate the places they’ve created.
“For some writers making a map is absolutely central to the craft of shaping and telling their tale.”
The book includes the map from Thomas More’s Utopia, which when published in 1516 contained the first fantasy map in a work of fiction, as far as anyone can tell.
There are more private treasures here, too: J.R.R. Tolkien’s own sketch of Mordor, on graph paper; C.S. Lewis’s sketches; unpublished maps from the notebooks of David Mitchell, who uses them to help imagine the worlds of his books, such as The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet; Jack Kerouac’s own route in On the Road. Among these maps, the one for Treasure Island is a landmark, “One of the most iconic literary maps of all,” Lewis-Jones writes.
In one essay, Cressida Cowell, the author of How to Train Your Dragon, writes of being inspired by maps drawn by the Brontës as children, “In tiny, beautiful books that were in themselves a fascination, for the writing was as small as if created by mice.”
Philip Pullman: “Writing is a matter of sullen toil. Drawing is pure joy. Drawing a map to go with a story is messing around, with the added fun of coloring in.”
A map helps shape a reader’s or a writer’s idea of a fictional place, but ultimately its boundaries are limited only by their joint imaginations.

The orginal article.

Summary of “How Netflix and the streaming wars create income inequality”

A writer on a Netflix show is paid differently from someone on a Hulu or YouTube Premium show, because fees are based on the number of subscribers that a service has.
In August, Becker, a seasoned performer who was a recurring guest star on Parks & Recreation, decided to go public with the way Netflix treats the rank-and-file workers on its shows.
Excited for the work, and the opportunity to work at a place known for its creative risk taking, she excitedly told her friends, “‘I booked a Netflix show!’ And they’re like, ‘Oh my God! Congratulations!'” she says.
A Netflix spokesperson responds, “Decisions about series regulars are always made in consultation with the show creators and depend on a variety of factors including creative vision and production’s scheduling needs for the actor. We work hard to support artists and are always grateful when they share their talent on our shows.”
Even with these attempts to level the playing field, there is still the fact that a season for a streaming show is typically less than half the length of a traditional network show.
If someone like Allison theoretically went from a network late-night show to its streaming equivalent, say, Norm Macdonald Has a Show on Netflix, or Sarah Silverman’s I Love You, America on Hulu, it’s a completely different financial outlook.
The company is not expected to launch its video offering until sometime next year, but its most significant contribution to the streaming wars thus far is paving the way for better deals for the staffs who work on their shows.
“My husband is a writer and director. The fact that I have that protection, meaning if one of us were to drop dead, we would definitely still have a source of income to take care of our kids. If I’m only on one show and it’s only 20 weeks, what am I going to do the rest of the year? And if the show is 10 episodes?”.

The orginal article.

Summary of “Stephen King’s 20 Rules for Writers”

We’ve talked so much about the reader, but you can’t forget that the opening line is important to the writer, too.
Now King admits that he doesn’t think much about the opening line as he writes, in a first draft, at least.
Revision in the second draft, “One of them, anyway,” may “Necessitate some big changes” says King in his 2000 memoir slash writing guide On Writing.
It is an essential process, and one that “Hardly ever fails.” Below, we bring you King’s top twenty rules from On Writing.
“Timid writers like passive verbs for the same reason that timid lovers like passive partners. The passive voice is safe.”
Read, read, read. “If you don’t have time to read, you don’t have the time to write.”
“One cannot imitate a writer’s approach to a particular genre, no matter how simple what that writer is doing may seem.”
“Writing isn’t about making money, getting famous, getting dates, getting laid or making friends. Writing is magic, as much as the water of life as any other creative art. The water is free. So drink.”

The orginal article.

Summary of “The Art of the Sidle: The Slickest Move in NBA Media”

Sidling has become the great skill on the NBA beat, as fundamental to reporting as the corner 3 is to the sport itself.
Talking about “Casual conversations” and “One-on-ones” can make NBA reporters sound like Bachelorette contestants.
Sidling became a rite of NBA reporting around the time of the Lakers’ back-to-back titles in 2009 and 2010.
To sidle, NBA reporters become geographers, learning the route a player takes to his car.
A national NBA writer told me: “It’s really annoying when you have a sidle-and it’s absolutely your sidle-and some local reporter comes in like that.” The writer pretended to thrust a microphone in my face.
Got a minute to hear why NBA reporters sidle? One reason is that reporters don’t like revealing their hole cards.
Occasionally, reporters will flaunt a sidle in their copy.
The postseason is also when you can see one of NBA reporting’s sneakiest moves.

The orginal article.